Espinal 1999: "The nineteenth-century struggle for independence was an incredibly difficult process for the Dominican Republic. In 1791, inspired by the French Revolution, a rebellion emerged in the French colony (known as Saint-Domingue), which was far more prosperous than the Spanish one of Santo Domingo" (page 472).
Tansill 1967: "By the terms of the decree of May 15, 1791 and the law of April 4, 1792, the National Assembly of France had endowed the mulattoes and the free negroes in Haiti with the voting franchise and with the right to sit in the colonial assemblies" (page 9).
Schoenrich 1918: "In 1793, France went to war with England and Spain" (page 30).
Espinal 1999: "The Spanish colony was ceded first to France in 1795" (page 472).
Moya Pons 1995: The war between France and Spain ends with a peace treaty signed on July 22, 1795 in Basel, Switzerland (page 99). "The Treaty of Basel stated that the King of Spain would cede and abandon to the French Republic all property in the Spanish part of the island of Santo Domingo. It further stipulated that the Spanish troops would promptly evacuate the towns, ports, and establishments and would surrender them to French troops when they arrived. It was conceded that the inhabitants of Santo Domingo would have one year, from the date of the treaty, to relocate. Confusion prevailed among the Spanish population: British corsairs posed a threat to those leaving the colony and, to make matters worse, there was little certainty of finding a new home in other Spanish territories" (page 101). The evacuation does not take place.
Sagás 2000: "Spain, after having been defeated by France in Europe, had to cede its Santo Domingo colony to the French in order to regain the territory that it had lost in the Iberian peninsula during the war. The cession was rendered official by the Treaty of Basel in 1795. However, the French had no way of occupying Santo Domingo. They could not even control their own colony of Saint-Domingue, then under the effective control of Toussaint" (page 27).
Espinal 1999: Santo Domingo "was invaded by the English in 1796" (page 473).
Schoenrich 1918: "The English, decimated by disease, were obliged to leave in 1798 and sign a treaty of peace with Toussaint by which the island was recognized as an independent and neutral state during their war with France" (page 31).
Schoenrich 1918: As "the French were at this time kept busy in the western portion [of Santo Domingo], the Spanish governor and authorities continued to administer the country for several years. Little by little troops and civil officials were withdrawn and in 1799 the royal audiencia or high court was transferred to Puerto Principe, in Cuba, most of the lawyers of the colony leaving at the same time with their families. Toussaint l'Ouverture was now in supreme command in the west, though nominally holding under the French republic" (page 32).
Betances 1995: "L'Ouverture, who had risen from slavery to become a French general, had fought for the abolition of slavery in Haiti, and slaveholders in the formerly Spanish part of the island were afraid that he would do likewise in the east. In anticipation of L'Ouverture's occupation, many landowners from the Santo Domingo area emigrated to Puerto Rico, Cuba, Venezuela, and New Spain and took their slaves with them" (pages 10-11).
Moya Pons 1995: Toussaint L'Ouverture "marched, without opposition, into Santo Domingo with his troops on January 26, 1801...Toussaint officially replaced [the Spanish governor] as the colony's governor...Toussaint abolished slavery, and took several measures to integrate the Spanish colony into the political and economic structure of Saint-Domingue" (page 106). "Incorporation of the Spaniards into the political life of Saint-Domingue was encouraged by requesting the Spanish and Dominican creole residents to elect deputies for the drafting of a political constitution that would ratify the recent political and economic changes...(A)bolition was ratified by the new colonial Political Constitution promulgated in Santo Domingo on August 27, 1801" (pages 107-108).
Sagás 2000: "It was Toussaint himself who finally enforced the Treaty of Basel, occupying with his troops the former Spanish colony in 1801. The Spanish and the French, in particular Napoleon Bonaparte, tried to delay Toussaint, but to no avail. Napoleon-who did not trust Toussaint-wanted a white French army to occupy Santo Domingo, not Toussaint's black army. To the elites of Santo Domingo, who were well aware of the chaotic situation in Saint-Domingue and the plight of the former white masters, the presence of Toussaint's black troops was horrifying...Many upper-class families decided to leave the island and moved to the Spanish possessions of Cuba, Venezuela, and Puerto Rico, both before and after the arrival of Toussaint's army" (page 27).
Schoenrich 1918: "On the 27th of January, 1801, Toussaint l'Ouverture entered the capital with his troops and formally took possession...Governor Garcia immediately embarked for Cuba with the remaining Spanish civil and military authorities" (page 32). "Toussaint divided the Spanish part of the island into two departments, making his brother Paul l'Ouverture governor of the south with headquarters at Santo Domingo and General Clervaux governor of the Cibao, with headquarters at Santiago...Upon his return to the French section he promulgated, in July, 1801, a constitution for the island, by which he was declared governor for life and commander-in-chief...Toussaint's constitution was a challenge to Napoleon Bonaparte, who having temporarily made peace with England, determined to reestablish French authority in the island" (page 34).
Abad 1993: "(E)l 1o de Mayo de 1801, Toussaint se declaró gefe supremo de Haití" (page 116).
Moya Pons 1995: "Opposition from Napoleon and powerful interest groups in France to Toussaint's leadership...led to a new French invasion to restore the colony to its prerevolution status...(T)he Spaniards and Dominican creoles soon allied themselves with the French and helped the invaders to expel Toussaint's troops...Slavery was again instituted by the French generals who occupied Santo Domingo on February 25, 1802" (page 108).
Wiarda 1992: "From 1804 to 1809, the Haitians, French, and Spanish fought to determine who would eventually control the entire island. The British, who had economic and imperial designs of their own, aided the Spanish in driving the Haitians back to the west" (page 27).
Moya Pons 1995: Haiti declares its independence from France on January 1, 1804 (page 98).
Sagás 2000: "When the independence of the Republic of Haiti was declared in 1804, there remained little of the original French army in Santo Domingo. French general Louis Ferrand, however, decided not to surrender. He took over Santo Domingo city and prepared it for a long siege" (pages 27-28).
Tansill 1967: Dessalines crowns himself emperor of Haiti in October 1804 (page 111).
Sagás 2000: "The expected Haitian invasion came in 1805, when Dessalines decided to reannex the eastern part of the island. For three weeks Dessalines laid siege to the city of Santo Domingo but had to abandon it when French ships appeared on the horizon. During their retreat, however, the Haitian armies left a trail of blood...Dessalines now considered the Santo Domingo colonists, who had preferred to side with the French, as his enemies. His bloody military campaign had traumatic effects on the Santo Domingo colonists, developing a strong anti-Haitian resentment among them that lasted for years" (page 28).
Tansill 1967: "In October, 1806 the brief rule of Dessalines was terminated by his assassination, and for a while Santo Domingo was divided into five independent governments. In the Spanish portion of the island the French Government continued to maintain itself" (page 111).
Moya Pons 1995: Spanish king Fernando VII's imprisonment by Napoleon leads Dominican landowners to rebel against French rule (pages 113-114). A decisive battle on November 7, 1808 under the leadership of Juan Sánchez Ramírez begins "what the Spanish-Dominican population called the War of Reconquest" (page 114).
Moya Pons 1995: The War of Reconquest ends in July 1809 (page 115). "The War of Reconquest took place at a time when Spain was without a king, without resources, and without the possibility of effectively governing its Hispanic American colonies. Just when these colonies began revolting against Spanish rule, the Spanish-Dominican population of Santo Domingo was waging a war against the French to reimpose Spanish rule in the island" (page 116). "News was received that the Junta Central of Seville had accepted the reincorporation of its former colony to Spain and recognized Sánchez Ramírez as governor. Sánchez Ramírez...invited the colonists who had emigrated to return, but very few went back" (page 117).
Sagás 2000: "The Spanish values of the Santo Domingo elites were so deeply ingrained in them that after expelling the French in 1809, the colony was voluntarily reverted to the Spanish Crown" (page 29).
Schoenrich 1918: "On July 9, 1809, the French flag was lowered and the country again became a dependency of Spain...Spain had been busy fighting the French within her own borders, and when normal conditions were restored had her hands full in keeping order and in trying to bring her revolting colonies of America back to obedience. She had little time for affairs in Santo Domingo, and did nothing to ameliorate conditions. The colony was left to vegetate in absolute poverty...The only redeeming feature was the return of a number of exiled families. Sanchez Ramirez, who had been proclaimed governor-general, was confirmed in the office and held the same until his death in 1811, being succeeded by Spanish military officers" (page 40).
Wiarda 1992: "From 1809 to 1821, the eastern colony was restored to Spanish administration" (page 27).
Tansill 1967: "On...October 20, 1820...the two conflicting jurisdictions in Haiti were now brought under the control of one rule, Jean Pierre Boyer" (page 119).
Moya Pons 1995: "At least twice during the spring of 1821 the bureaucratic creole party in Santo Domingo attempted a coup d'état but failed" (page 121).
Sagás 2000: "By 1821,...the ineptitude of the Spanish administration had forced the elites of Santo Domingo to search for other political alternatives, but without losing their Hispanic values and prejudiced attitudes. Paradoxically, while most of the lower classes favored annexation to Haiti (admired for its republican institutions and egalitarian society), the white Hispanic elites of Santo Domingo sought to become a part of Gran Colombia" (page 29).
Haggerty 1991: "Spanish lieutenant governor JosJ Núñez de Cáceres announced the colony's independence as the state of Spanish Haiti on November 30, 1821. C<ceres requested admission to the Republic of Gran Colombia...While the request was in transit, the president of Haiti, Jean-Pierre Boyer, decided to invade Santo Domingo and to reunite the island under the Haitian flag" (page 10).
Moya Pons 1995: "Núñez de Cáceres represented the dissatisfied military officers and bureaucrats who had already decided to proclaim the independence of Santo Domingo and seek confederation with the Gran Colombia under Simón Bolívar's leadership. At the same time, agents of Haitian President Jean Pierre Boyer were making preparations to support those Dominicans who wished to be independent from Spain and wanted to join the Republic of Haiti. On November 15, 1821, the pro-Haitian party proclaimed their independence from Spain" (page 121). "The news of this momentous event traveled quickly to Santo Domingo where Núñez de Cáceres and his group were caught by surprise. Realizing that they were losing control of the situation and had to act quickly, they provoked the impending coup. On November 30, 1821, troops loyal to Núñez de Cáceres took the fortress of Santo Domingo and imprisoned Governor Real...Núñez de Cáceres and his followers then proclaimed [on December 1] the creation of the 'Estado Independiente del Haití Español,' which would eventually become part of the Gran Colombia" (page 122).
Rutinel Domínguez 2000: "Acta Constitutiva 1821: Documento contentivo de la declaración separatista de la colonia de Santo Domingo de España y de su incorporación a la Gran Colombia Bolivariana, hecho ocurrido el 30 de noviembre del 1821…Desde esa fecha hasta el 9 de febrero del 1822 en que fuera ocupada la capital de Santo Domingo por tropas del General Jean Pierre Boyer, estuvo vigente el Acta Constitutiva" (page 6).
Abad 1993: "Núñez de Cáceres…se lanzó á la revolución, y casi sin resistencia proclamó la independencia de la parte española de la isla, bajo la bandera de Colombia, que se enarboló el 1o de Diciembre de 1821. Todo esto se efectuó sin efusión de sangre, sin que el gobierno de España hiciese la menor diligencia para reconquistar la colonia, que expontáneamente había ido a su seno y por voluntad propia se retiraba. Y este fué el momento propicio que los haitianos estaban esperando para ejecutar sus propósitos de dominación, pues conociendo muy bien la falta de recursos de los dominicanos y no ignorando que estos no podían venir de Colombia, al recibir el Presidente Boyer el mensaje de Núñez de Cáceres, le contestó descaradamente, invitándole á sustituir la bandera de Colombia por la de Haití, y amenazándole que si no lo hacía así él correría á hacerlo personalmente. Sin esperar la respuesta, preparó sus tropas y acto continuo invadió al país, que sin medios de resistencia, y recordando con horror la devastación producida por los soldados de Dessalines, no tuvo mas remedio que someterse al duro castigo" (pages 118-119).
Hartlyn 1998: "In December 1821, Dominicans rose up in rebellion against the Spaniards, declaring themselves the Independent State of Spanish Haiti" (page 27).
Haggerty 1991: "Increasing numbers of Dominican landowners chose to flee the island rather than to live under Haitian rule" (page 10). "The emigration of upper-class Dominicans served to forestall rebellion and to prolong the period of Haitian occupation" (page 11).
Sagás 2000: "The Haitian occupation (1822-44), though passively accepted by most of the population (and even celebrated by lower-class groups), was strongly rejected by the Hispanic elites, who lost some of their privileges and administrative jobs to the occupation forces and lower-class blacks and mulattos...The Catholic Church also opposed the Haitian occupation on cultural and racial grounds, particularly given the secular orientation of the Haitian administration. Church properties were expropriated, and Spanish clergy were expelled by the Haitian authorities or left the country in disgust, which led to the closing of the university for lack of a teaching staff and governmental indolence" (page 30).
Wiarda 1998: "(O)nly a few weeks after the declaration of independence in 1821, armies made up of former slaves from next-door Haiti invaded the country, destroying farms, burning and looting, and eliminating the few viable institutions still left over from colonial times. The Haitian occupation lasted from 1822 until 1844" (page 187).
Abad 1993: "El 9 de Febrero de 1822 hizo Boyer su entrada en la Capital de la parte española, la cual quedó sometida á los haitianos por espacio de 22 años. El Estado independiente proclamado por Núñez de Cáceres solo duró nueve semanas, y mucho ménos en las comarcas próximas á Haití, en las cuales la proclamación de la independencia no llegó á efectuarse" (page 119).
Schoenrich 1918: "On February 9, 1822, Nuñez de Caceres was obliged to deliver the keys of Santo Domingo City to the invader and the whole island came under the dominion of Haiti. The twenty-two years of Haitian rule marked a period of social and economic retrogression for the old Spanish portion of the island...Every effort was made to Haitianize the country by extending the Haitian laws, and imposing Haitian governors. Representation was also accorded in the Haitian congress" (pages 41-42).
Tansill 1967: "Boyer was not content to be merely the ruler of united Haiti...[The proclamation of independence by Santo Domingo] was an opportunity that Boyer was too keen to overlook. An invasion of Spanish Santo Domingo would formerly have meant a war against the Mother Country, Spain, but now that the Dominicans had proclaimed their independence there was no danger of European complications. Boyer hurriedly mobilized his troops and crossed the Dominican frontiers without opposition, and in February, 1822 he was formally acknowledged as the ruler over the entire island of Santo Domingo" (page 119).
Schoenrich 1918: "In 1825 the French government recognized the independence of the French part of the island in consideration of the payment of an indemnity, toward which the Haitians forced the Spanish part to contribute" (page 42).
Moya Pons 1995: "As the situation deteriorated, the struggle among the congressmen and the government increased in strength and violence. In August 1833, Boyer expelled the two main leaders of the opposition from Congress" (page 135).
Moya Pons 1995: "Opposition to the government increased daily. The reelection to Congress of the deputies who had been expelled the previous year was a clear example of the intensification of oppositition" (page 137).
Moya Pons 1995: In May 1838 "a group of soldiers opposed to the government tried unsuccessfully to assassinate the president and his secretary-general" (page 138).
Bell 1981: "La Trinitaria" (pages 27-29).
Betances 1995: "The Haitian occupation had met with no serious objection from the dominant blocs in Dominican society for over twenty years, but from 1838 on the Trinitarios, a group of petit-bourgeois intellectuals, merchants, artisans, and others led by Juan Pablo Duarte, had been calling for independence" (page 16).
Campillo Pérez 1986: "La fundación de la sociedad patriótica 'La Trinitaria' el 16 de Julio de 1838, es sin lugar a dudas el germen del cual surgió el primer grupo político que cronológicamente puede incluirse en la historia de la República Dominicana" (page 37).
Haggerty 1991: "(I)it was not until 1838...that any significant organized movement against Haitian domination began. Crucial to these stirrings was a twenty-year old Dominican, of a prominent Santo Domingo family [Juan Pablo Duarte]...He dubbed his movement La Trinitaria (the Trinity) because its original nine members had organized themselves into cells of three...Despite its elaborate codes and clandestine procedures, La Trinitaria was eventually betrayed to the Haitians. It survived largely intact, however, emerging under the new designation, La Filantrópica, to continue its work of anti-Haitian agitation" (page 11).
Moya Pons 1995: "The conspiracies and congressional debates in the west, fed by the commercial crisis of the previous two years, activated a group of young men in Santo Domingo to form a secret society called 'La Trinitaria' in July 1838. La Trinitaria's goals were to organize Dominican resistance and to separate the eastern part of the island from Haiti" (page 138).
Sagás 2000: "Most of [the] elite-led movements sought the separation of Santo Domingo from Haiti and the protection of a foreign power, plus the maintenance of Hispanic values and the preservation of elite privileges. Even the liberal conspiracy led by Juan Pablo Duarte sought to defend Hispanic values, as it was initially organized by the white, upper-middle-class, urban youth of the city of Santo Domingo" (Page 31).
Moya Pons 1995: "In 1839, Boyer again expelled the most outspoken deputies from Congress and triggered a new political crisis among the mulatto elite" (page 140).
Moya Pons 1995: "When the 1840 congressional elections were held, the same deputies were reelected" (page 140).
Moya Pons 1995: The same deputies "were again reelected for the 1842 legislature as representatives of the Department of Les Cayes, the center of the mulatoo opposition" (page 140).
Schoenrich 1918: "In May, 1842, an earthquake destroyed Santiago and La Vega, as well as Cape Haitien and other towns in the western part of the island, and with lesser earthquakes which followed caused a panic throughout the country, which in turn made conditions more favorable for a change of government" (page 43).
Betances 1995: "By 1843 the Trinitarios were notorious as nationalist militants and were taking full advantage of the reform movement in Haiti that had overthrown dictator Jean-Pierre Boyer. Duarte became the representative of reformists in the eastern portion of the island; he used the role to propagate his independentist ideas" (pages 16-17).
Moya Pons 1995: President Boyer is overthrown by General Charles Hérard (page 140). "News of the overthrow of Boyer reached Santo Domingo on the afternoon of March 24, 1843" (page 143). "Upon seeing the popularity of the rebels, the Haitian commander capitulated and surrendered the city to the Junta Popular which had been formed on March 30 by the leaders of the revolt" (page 144).
Schoenrich 1918: "(O)pposition to Boyer had spread in Haiti also, and in 1843 gave rise to a revolution, as a result of which Boyer was driven from the country and Charles Hérard installed as dictator-president" (page 43).
Moya Pons 1995: "Throughout the following two months news and instructions were sent from Santo Domingo and Port-au-Prince to various towns in the east where the liberal leaders formed committees and juntas to defend the 'reforma' movement. The provisional government in Port-au-Prince called for these juntas to elect deputies to a constitutional assembly that was to meet in the Haitian capital on September 15 to prepare a new constitution. The provisional government ordered municipal elections to be held on June 14, 1843" (page 144).
Moya Pons 1995: Describes the June 1843 election (pages 144-145).
Haggerty 1991: "The increased pressure [on the Trinitarios] induced Duarte to leave the country temporarily in search of support in other Latin American states, mainly Colombia and Venezuela. In December 1843, a group of Duarte's followers urged him to return to Santo Domingo" (page 12).
Moya Pons 1995: "Control of the [constitutional] assembly gradually fell to Hérard in December 1843. After three months of discussions, Hérard employed his troops to force the deputies to finish the Constitution within a limited number of hours, and was elected president of the Republic by an overwhelming majority of votes...In an effort to please the Dominicans and avoid a confrontation that could imperil his liberal revolution, in the last days of December 1843 Hérard abolished all the laws, circulars, and decrees that had piled up...But it was too late. The Dominicans had decided to separate themselves from Haiti...(T)here were four independent groups struggling to separate from Haiti" (page 148). Describes the groups.
Haggerty 1991: "Two leaders dominated the period between 1844 and 1864: General Pedro Santana Familias and Buenaventura Báez Méndez...Dissimilar in appearance and temperament, the two alternated in power by means of force, factionalism, and repeated efforts to secure their country's protection or annexation by a foreign power. Their unprincipled, self-serving dominance did much to entrench the tradition of caudillo rule in the Dominican Republic" (page 12).
Hartlyn 1998: "The seven decades from 1844 to 1916 were characterized by bewilderingly complex interactions among Dominican governing groups, opposition movements, Haitian authorities, and representatives of France, Britain, Spain, and the United States" (page 28). "From 1844 to 1899, over a dozen leaders elected in some fashion to office were forced to resign due to the pressures of armed revolts" (page 36).
Wiarda 1992: "With financial backing from Venezuela, [Juan Pablo] Duarte and his fellow conspirators attacked the Haitian garrisons in a surprise move that led to a largely bloodless revolt. In 1844, he entered Santo Domingo triumphant, and the Dominican Republic was declared an independent nation. The father of Dominican independence, however, was reluctant to wield the levers of power. While Duarte procrastinated and was soon exiled, political power was consolidated in the hands of two self-appointed generals, Buenaventura Báez and Pedro Santana" (page 28). "For the next forty-five years, these two men…dominated Dominican politics, ruling directly or through compliant puppets" (page 29).
Haggerty 1991: "Duarte sailed as far north from Caracas as the island of CuraHao, where he fell victim to a violent illness. When he had not arrived home by February 1844, the rebels, under the leadership of Francisco del Rosario Sánchez and Ramón Mella, agreed to launch their uprising without him. On February 27, 1844-thereafter celebrated as Dominican Independence Day-the rebels seized the Ozama fortress in the capital" (page 12).
Abad 1993: "La respuesta del Presidente de Haití no se hizo esperar mucho. El 9 de Marzo, es decir, el día mismo en que la Junta hizo saber su resolución al Presidente Hérard, este invadía el territorio dominicano con las numerosas fuerzas que había reunido; pero la República estaba preparada para la defensa, y aquella invasión fué victoriosamente rechazada" (page 124).
Haggerty 1991: "Within two days, all Haitian officials had left Santo Domingo. Mella headed the provisional governing junta of the new Dominican Republic. Duarte, finally recovered, returned to his country on March 14" (page 12).
Sagás 2000: In March, "the rest of the country joined the rebel forces and declared its separation from Haiti. It was only through the integration of black figures into the movement-such as Francisco Sánchez del Rosario and José Joaquín Puello-and its strong position against slavery that the black masses supported the struggle for Dominican independence, for they feared the reestablishment of slavery if Santo Domingo became separated from Haiti" (page 31).
Schoenrich 1918: "Immediately upon the declaration of independence a central council of government was formed for the provisional administration of the country's affairs. The new republic assumed the name of Dominican Republic and the people were thenceforth known as Dominicans. The first business before the central council of government was to prepare for the defense of the territory against the Haitian president, Hérard, who was advancing with an army to reestablish his authority" (page 45).
Abad 1993: "El ejercito…el día 12 de Junio de 1844…hizo su entrada en la Capital de la República, para deponer á la Representación suprema del Estado, á la Junta Central Gubernativa, proclamando al general Santana en su lugar. Y como los planes de los que prepararon este acto de indisciplina militar eran conocidos de aquellos que sostenían las ideas liberales, personificadas en el ilustre patriota D. Juan Pablo Duarte, estos, en el Cibao, por instigaciones del general Mella, proclamaron á Duarte Presidente de la República" (page 125).
Abad 1993: "Santana, mas fuerte y mejor apoyado, se impuso. Reorganizó la Junta Central con elementos conservadores; mandó…a sofocar el movimiento iniciado en el Cibao, logrado lo cual, persiguió á los liberales" (page 125).
Collado 1999: "El 24 de julio de 1844 la Junta Central Gubernativa emitió un decreto, de 34 artículos, convocando lo que llamó Congreso Constituyente" (page 25).
Espinal 1999: "A potential turning point in 1844 was soon lost. A successful independence (or secession) effort producing what became known as the First Republic (1844-1861) was unable to construct an effective state or constitutional order in the Dominican Republic" (page 473).
Grullón 1999: "Mientras que todos los paises tienen un Padre de la Patria, en la República Dominicana hay tres: Juan Pablo Duarte, Francisco Del Rosario Sánchez y Matías Ramón Mella. La República nació con la dictadura de su primer presidente, el general Pedro Santana Familia, quien, al asumir el poder, inmediatamente expulsó del país al principal Padre de la Patria, Juan Pablo Duarte" (page 11).
Haggerty 1991: "In July 1844, Mella and a throng of other Duarte supporters in Santiago urged him to take the title of president of the republic. Duarte agreed to do so, but only if free elections could be arranged. Santana, who felt that only the protection of a great power could assure Dominican safety against the Haitian threat, did not share Duarte's enthusiasm for the electoral process. His forces took Santo Domingo on July 12, 1844, and they proclaimed Santana ruler of the Dominican Republic. Mella, who attempted to mediate a compromise government including both Duarte and Santana, found himself imprisoned by the new dictator. Duarte and Sánchez followed Mella into prison and subsequently into exile" (page 13).
Sagás 2000: "With the Haitians out of the picture, Dominican elites regained their privileged social position and their high-level administrative posts. Duarte and his followers, who led the only truly liberal-minded movement, were quickly driven from the political scene by conservative forces" (pages 31-32).
Schoenrich 1918: "Many prominent Dominicans were in doubt as to whether the republic would be able to maintain a stable government and resist the incursions of the Haitians, and believed that the best course for the safety and prosperity of the country would be to seek the protection of a foreign power. These men, who came to be known as conservatives and who counted Santana among their number, began to spread their doctrines and were bitterly opposed by a different element, calling themselves liberals, among whom were Duarte, returned from exile, and the members of the central council of government. A number of prominent conservatives were obliged to go into hiding in order to escape imprisonment, and the central council of government appointed Duarte its representative in the north and ordered that General Francisco del Rosario Sanchez supersede Santana in command of the troops in the south. Duarte was proclaimed president of the republic by the people of the north, but Santana's soldiers refusing to recognize any other leader, marched on the capital, which they entered on July 12, 1844, and deposed the central council of government, declaring Santana chief of state with dictatorial powers...Santana organized a new central council of government and sent emissaries to the Cibao, or northern part of the republic, where he won over the army and the principal leaders. Duarte, Sanchez and others who had risked their lives and spent their fortunes in behalf of Dominican independence were arrested, imprisoned in irons...and exiled as traitors to their country" (pages 45-46).
Welles 1928: "The Junta Central appointed by Santana had issued, on July 24th, a decree calling for elections to the Congress" (page 73).
August: constituent assembly election
Abad 1993: "Victorioso el golpe de estado y en el exodo los liberales que podían hacer oir su voz en los comicios, la Junta convocó las Asambleas para elejir el Congreso Constituyente" (page 125).
Campillo Pérez 1986: "Estas fueron las primeras elecciones celebradas en la nueva República, y se rigieron por el sistema del voto indirecto (Asambleas Primarias y Colegios Electorales). Todos los pueblos de República tuvieron derecho a un representante y algunos a varios. Los diputados electos aunque señalados como simpatizantes o avenidos al régimen imperante, dieron muestras de mantener el fuero parlamentario y de ser libres en sus decisiones" (page 41).
Collado 1999: "Del 20 al 30 de agosto de 1844 convocó el mencionado decreto a las Asambleas Electorales, para que en cada lugar, según la conveniencia, se escogiera uno o varios de esos días para llevar a cabo la votación. Este período de 10 días se explica por las dificultades de comunicación de la época" (page 26). "La Circunscripción o distrito electoral establecido para la elección de los constituyentes fue la demarcación municipal, que en el año del 1844 se llamaba Común" (page 27). "Requisitos para elegir" (page 27). "Distribución por común de los primeros constituyentes" (page 28). "Forma de votación" (pages 29-30).
Welles 1928: "The elections took place during the last ten days of August" (page 74).
Welles 1928: The "representatives elected assembled in San Cristóbal on September 21st...Five days later, a delegation of members of the Junta Central Gubernativa accorded the newly elected Congress the official recognition of General Santana" (page 74).
November 6: constitution
Betances 1995: "The constitution...established electoral processes for choosing the president and other government officers" (page 19).
Campillo Pérez 1986: Describes the constitution (pages 42-43).
Haggerty 1991: "Although in 1844 a constituent assembly drafted a constitution, based on the Haitian and the United States models, which established separation of powers and legislative checks on the executive, Santana proceeded to emasculate the document that same year by demanding the inclusion of Article 210, which granted him untrammeled power" (page 13).
Hartlyn 1998: "The country's first constitution in 1844 was a remarkably liberal document...(I)t called for presidentialism, a separation of powers, and extensive 'checks and balances.' But, its liberal nature was to be short-lived. General Pedro Santana, claiming that the legislative restrictions on the executive were excessive in a period of war, forced the constitutional assembly to add an article granting the president extraordinary powers. Also, although the constitution did not permit immediate presidential reelection, the assembly proceeded to elect Santana to two consecutive terms" (page 34).
Moya Pons 1995: Describes the negotiation with Santana and gives the text of Article 210 (page 163). "Placated by the inclusion of the article, Santana then accepted being elected president of the Republic for two consecutive terms of four years, which would keep him ruling the country until February 15, 1852" (page 164).
Welles 1928: The constitution "was finally approved November 6th. In large part, the first Constitution of the Republic was modeled on that of the United States, such amendments being grafted upon that creature of the Anglo-Saxon genius as were rendered necessary by the Spanish system of local government to which the country had been originally accustomed. Consequently, ayuntamientos were created in all the communes which existed prior to the Haitian Occupation, and the college of electors was entrusted with the duty in the future of electing the President, the members of the Tribunado and of the Consejo Conservador (or House of Deputies and Senate), and the members of the Provincial Deputations. As soon as the Constitution had been approved, the Congress elected General Pedro Santana President of the Republic for the first two terms, each term being of four years...The Congress, however, had omitted to grant Santana, in the Constitution, the dictatorial powers which he desired. The latter consequently replied that he was unwilling to accept the Presidency under those conditions. Thereupon, at the instance of Tom<s Bobadilla, Santana's leading henchman, the Congress reformed the Constitution, incorporating in it the famous Article 210...As soon as Bobadilla's amendment had been approved, Santana accepted the Presidency" (page 74).
Bell 1981: "Santana accepted the presidency on November 13, 1844" (page 38).
Campillo Pérez 1986: Describes the "Partido Santanista" (page 47). "Era simplemente un grupo gigantesco de 'amigos' del Caudillo" (page 47).
Betances 1995: "The first Dominican president, Pedro Santana [was] a 'hatero' from the province of El Seybo and an annexationist...Santana lost no time in contacting the United States, England, France, and Spain to offer them the country" (page 17).
Welles 1928: "(O)n November 13th, 1844, [Santana] appeared before the Congress in San Cristóbal to take the oath of office as the first President of the Republic" (page 74).
Schoenrich 1918: "Conspiracies against Santana's government were immediately set on foot by the liberals, but were discovered and three ringleaders wee executed on the first anniversary of the Republic's independence. In the spring of 1845 the first Congress met and proceeded to organize the government" (page 47).
Tansill 1967: In 1845, the "reins of government were held by the educated and prosperous minority which was largely white. The population was now some two hundred thousand persons; half of these were whites, and, of the other half, two-thirds were mulattoes. A considerable number of these mulattoes were landed proprietors" (page 125).
Abad 1993: "(L)a República Dominicana pudo, en 1846, entrar en negociaciones preliminares para alcanzar el reconocimiento de su independencia por la Unión Americana, España, Francia é Inglaterra, cuyas naciones entablaron desde luego amistosas relaciones con la nueva República" (page 127).
Welles 1928: "Unsatisfactory economic conditions, as well as the repressive policy of [Santana's] Government, had succeeded in causing, during the four years of his Administration, a smouldering and sullen discontent throughout the country, which, although it had not broken out in open flame, was yet constantly increasing. Congress, moreover, appeared to Santana to be deviating from the path of utter submission which he had traced for it when he first entered the Presidency...If Santana was disheartened by the opposition of the Congress, he was frankly dismayed by the success of his Minister for War, General JimJnez, in partially organizing a conspiracy, the object of which was to force his chief to resign the Presidency in his favour" (page 86).
Campillo Pérez 1986: "El mismo día 4 de Agosto, el Consejo de Secretarios de Estado, encargado provisionalmente del Poder Ejecutivo, expidió un decreto convocando a los Colegios Electorales para reunirse a más tarde el día 4 del mes siguiente y convocando para esta misma fecha a los miembros del Congreso Nacional, con el fin de que procedieran a sancionar los resultados del proceso electoral" (page 49).
Ventura 1985: The Consejo de Secretarios de Estado governs the country from August 4 to September 8, 1848 (page 1).
Welles 1928: "Basing his resignation, however, upon his dispute with Congress, General Santana announced his decision to retire from the Presidency, hoping that he would be recalled to power by his fellow-citizens in the not far distant future...(O)n August 4, 1848, General Santana presented his formal resignation to the Cabinet, which, under the Constitution, assumed control of the Executive power" (page 87).
August 14: election (Jiménes)
Campillo Pérez 1986: "Los resultados de las urnas fueron que Jimenes 'ganó' en todos los Colegios Electorales en forma abrumadora. De 71 electores concurrentes, 63 depositaron su voto en favor de él" (page 49). Describes the voting procedure (page 50). Gives the results of the election (page 425).
Moya Pons 1995: "The congressmen who voted for [Jiménes] thought he would give the country a liberal government different from that of his predecessor...On September 26, 1848, he decreed that all those exiled for political reasons...be allowed to return" (pages 170-171).
Schoenrich 1918: "General Manuel Jimenez, who had fought the Haitians and had been secretary of war under Santana, was declared president, entering upon office on September 8, 1848" (page 48).
Welles 1928: "On September 4, 1848, the Congress, convoked by the Cabinet for that purpose, elected Santana's Secretary of War, General Manuel JimJnez, as President of the Republic" (page 87).
Haggerty 1991: "The violent sequence of events that culminated in JimJnez's departure began with a new invasion from Haiti, this time led by self-styled emperor Faustin Soulouque. Santana returned to prominence as the head of the army that checked the Haitian advance at Las Carreras in April 1849" (page 13).
Tansill 1967: On "April 19 the Dominican Congress met in secret session and adopted a resolution requesting the French Government to declare a protectorate over the Dominican Republic...The former president, General Pedro Santana, was known to favor Spanish protection...President Jiménez, however, turned to the United States, and...inquired whether the Dominicans could 'annex themselves' to the great American republic of the North" (page 131).
Haggerty 1991: "As the Haitians retired, Santana pressed his advantage against JimJnez. After some brief skirmishes between his forces and those loyal to the president, Santana took control of Santo Domingo and the government on May 30, 1849" (page 13).
Moya Pons 1995: "Congress now recognized its mistake in electing Jimenes as president and nullified the presidential decree while supporting Santana and his march to the capital to overthrow the government" (page 173).
Schoenrich 1918: "President Jimenez yielded to the arguments of the British, French and American consuls and agreed to resign the presidency and leave the country on a British warship. Santana entered the city at the head of his army on May 30, 1849, and assumed the reins of government, one of his first measures being a wholesale expulsion of Jimenez followers. He was crowned with honors by Congress" (page 49).
Welles 1928: "On May 12th, the Congress summoned the President before it to request from him an explanation of the lack of preparations made by the Government to repel the Haitian attack...Santana, emboldened by the assistance which Baez was rendering him in the Congress, now also, on May 19th broke openly with JimJnez...On May 29th...JimJnez resigned his office, and fled from the capital...On the following day, Santana, with his victorious army, entered the capital as Dictator" (page 93).
Abad 1993: "(E)l 4 de Junio [Santana] convocó á los comicios para hacer la elección del nuevo Presidente" (page 129).
Campillo Pérez 1986: Santana "expidió un decreto convocando a los Colegios Electorales para el 25 de Junio, a fin de que llenaran las vacantes en las Cámaras y procedieran a designar al nuevo Presidente de la República" (page 51).
Bell 1981: "On July 6 a newly constituted congress met to elect a president" (page 41).
Campillo Pérez 1986: "Cuando el Congreso Nacional celebró sesión el 6 de Julio de 1849, para verificar el escrutinio, pudo comprobar que de un total de 60 electores, 45 se habían manifestado en favor de Espaillat, teniendo la mayoría absoluta de 31, más 14 votos adicionales para asegura el 'triunfo'" (page 52). Describes election. "La renuncia [de Espaillat] fue aceptada por el Congreso, que lanzó una nueva convocatoria, con fecha 14 de Julio de 1849, para que el 5 de Agosto siguiente los Colegios Electorales eligieran al nuevo Presidente" (page 52). Gives the results of the election (pages 425- 426).
Haggerty 1991: "Although Santana once again held the reins of power, he declined to formalize the temporary mandate granted him by the legislature and called for an election-carried out under an electoral college system with limited suffrage-to select a new president. Santana favored Santiago Espaillat, who won a ballot in the Congress on July 5, 1849; Espaillat declined to accept the presidency, knowing that he would have to serve as a puppet so long as Santana controlled the army" (page 14).
Welles 1928: "On July 4th, the Dictator summoned the electoral colleges to assemble on the 25th of the same month. The colleges filled the vacancies which existed in the previous Congress, and the new Congress, under the Presidency of Buenaventura Baez, inaugurated its sessions on July 5th. The following day, General Santana appeared before the Congress to resign the extraordinary powers granted him by the Congressional decree of April 3rd...Immediately thereafter, the Congress elected Santiago Espaillat as President of the Republic, Santana receiving 31 votes and Baez 12, to the 45 cast in favor of Espaillat" (page 94). Gives details of Espaillat's reasons for refusing the presidency and Santana's concerns about Báez (pages 94-95).
August: election (Báez)
Campillo Pérez 1986: "De 59 electores participantes, 57 llenaron las boletas en favor de Báez" (page 54). Describes the election. Gives the results of the election (page 426).
Haggerty 1991: "Báez, president of the legislature, [wins] a second ballot, which was held on August 18, 1849...Báez's first term established the personal rivalry with Santana that dominated Dominican politics until the latter's death in 1864. President Báez purged Santana's followers ('santanistas') from the government and installed his own sycophants ('baecistas') in their places, pardoned a number of Santana's political opponents, [and] reorganized the military in an effort to dilute Santana's power base" (page 14).
Schoenrich 1918: "Colonel Buenaventura Baez was...chosen and on December [September?] 24, 1849, entered upon his first term as president of the Dominican Republic" (page 49).
Tansill 1967: "It was well recognized in Santo Domingo that Baez favored a French protectorate" (page 134).
Welles 1928: "On September 24, 1849, Colonel Baez was inaugurated President of the Republic before the Congress" (page 96).