November: election (Heureaux)
Campillo Pérez 1986: "El desarrollo de las Asambleas Primarias ocurridas los días 1 y 2 de Noviembre de 1892, dio a conocer rápidamente al país la falta de libertad que le aguardaba" (page 123). Describes election (pages 123-124). Gives the results of the election (pages 454-455).
Welles 1928: "General Marchena [announced] himself as a candidate in opposition to Heureaux for the Presidential term commencing in 1893...Marchena [was] easily defeated in the elections, as might have been foreseen granted the powers of coercion vested in the President" (page 499).
Langley 1989: "In 1893 a New York corporation, the San Domingo Improvement Company, became the republic's banker and collector of customs" (page 27).
Schoenrich 1918: "During Heureaux's new term, beginning in 1893, the country by improvident bond issues and debt contraction, made rapid strides in the direction of bankruptcy. In 1893, the San Domingo Improvement Company, an American corporation, under contract with the government took charge of the customs collections for the purpose of providing for the services of [foreign] loans" (page 70).
Campillo Pérez 1986: "El Congreso Nacional celebró sesión el 4 de Enero de 1893 para verificar las actas de los distintos Colegios Electorales" (page 124).
Rutinel Domínguez 2000: "Centro Patriótico Electoral: Organización patriótica integrada por distinguidos ciudadanos de Santiago, formada con el objeto exclusivo de participar en las elecciones de 1893…Con mucho disimulo lo que se perseguía en el fondo era despojar del poder al dictador Ulises Heureaux, a través de elecciones, cuestión imposible para la época. Este último, como siempre, salió vencedor en la farsa electoral programada para el año indicado" (page 121).
Welles 1928: Heureaux goes "through the formality of obtaining, as required by the Constitution, the approval of the Dominican electorate in a plebiscite held in June, 1895" for an agreement resolving a boundary dispute with Haiti (page 509).
Campillo Pérez 1986: "Heureaux dejó ver claramente sus intenciones a mediados de 1896 cuando faltaban menos de cinco meses para que se efectuara el proceso. En efecto, el 12 de Junio de 1896, el Congreso Nacional realizó una revisión del texto de la Constitución, en cuyo artículo 44 se consignaba la reelección indefinida del Presidente de la Republica" (page 126).
Schoenrich 1918: "As the 1889 constitution forbade a president from holding office for more than two terms in succession, Heureaux, wishing to continue in the presidency, obviated the difficulty by the simple expedient of promulgating a new constitution in 1896, in which the limitation was removed" (page 70).
Campillo Pérez 1986: Describes the election and gives the results (pages 455-456).
Schoenrich 1918: Heureaux "was declared unanimously elected in 1896" (page 70).
Campillo Pérez 1986: "El Presidente se juramentó por quinta vez el 27 de Febrero de 1897" (page 126).
Haggerty 1991: A "revolutionary organization eventually emerged. Established in Puerto Rico by Horacio Vásquez Lajara, a young adherent of Luperón, the group called itself the Young Revolutionary Junta (Junta Revolucionaria de Jóvenes). Other prominent members included Federico Velásquez and Ramón Cáceres Vásquez" (page 21).
Haggerty 1991: Cáceres "opted for a revolution at a single stroke when the dictator passed through the town of Moca on July 26, 1899. He shot Heureaux several times and left the longtime ruler fatally wounded amid a startled crowd. Cáceres escaped unharmed" (page 21).
Hartlyn 1998: "Following Heureaux's assassination in 1899...the country again largely experienced political chaos, ending in U.S. military occupation in 1916. There were four revolts and five presidents over the subsequent six years. Weak protoparties and clientelistic politics built around caudillo figures and regional uprisings furthered economic chaos and political instability. National politics revolved primarily around the conflict between the followers of Juan Isidro Jiménez (Jimenistas) and Horacio Vásquez (Horacistas)" (page 31).
Langley 1989: "The financial situation worsened in 1899 with the assassination of the Dominican dictator Ulises Heureaux. His successor turned against the [San Domingo Improvement Company] and dismissed its representatives from the customs-houses" (page 27).
Welles 1928: "It was only under protest that the aged Vice President, General Wenceslao Figuereo, whose initiative his chief had long since crushed, was finally persuaded to take up the reins of government" (page 541).
Wiarda 1992: "The Heureaux era came to an end when one of the opposition leaders, Ramón Cáceres, walked up to the president at a crowded public gathering and shot him… Heureaux's assassination left another vacuum in Dominican politics that could not be filled by those who had plotted against him. Between 1899 and 1906, the country saw a return of the political factionalism, personal rivalries, and constant infighting that had gone before. The two most prominent leaders were Juan Isidro Jiménez and Horacio Vásquez" (page 31).
Schoenrich 1918: "The death of Heureaux precipitated a revolution headed by General Horacio Vasquez. President Figuereo made no resistance, but at the end of August resigned, together with his cabinet, first designating a committee of citizens to administer affairs until the arrival of Vasquez" (page 75).
Welles 1928: "On the night of August 29th, the revolutionary generals gathered in the Governor's official residence in Santiago unanimously proclaimed General Vasquez Provisional President of the Republic...General Figuereo had already accepted the inevitable and resigned the Presidency" (page 547).
Schoenrich 1918: Vásquez "entered the capital on September 5, 1899, and became the head of the provisional government. Jiménez in the meantime hastened to the country and was everywhere received with rejoicing. The two leaders arranged that Jiménez should become president and Vasquez vice-president" (page 75).
Welles 1928: Vásquez's "next step was the issuance, on September 19th, of a decree convoking the people to national elections for the election of a Constitutional Government, and upon the same day General Vasquez announced his own support of Don Juan Isidro Jiménez as a candidate for the Presidency " (page 549).
October: election (Jiménes)
Campillo Pérez 1986: "El 20 de Octubre siguiente los electores votaron en forma abrumadora por Jiménez, quien logró la elevada cifra de 571 sufragios, en un total de 579" (page 130). The congress is elected at the same time. Gives the results of the election (pages 457-458).
Welles 1928: "In the elections held October 20th, Jiménez was elected President without opposition and General Vasquez Vice President...At the same time there were elected to the Congress many of the most representative men to be found within the Republic" (page 554).
Collado 1999: "(E)l Congreso [Constituyente] se instaló e inició sus trabajos el 10 de noviembre" (page 55).
Welles 1928: "Called into special session on November 7th, the Congress declared Jiménez and Vasquez to be legally elected, and the date of their inauguration was set for November 15th" (page 554).
Schoenrich 1918: "The Jiménez administration was the reaction of that of Heureaux. It deserved, more than any the Republic had had up to that time, the name of civil and constitutional government...Jealousies soon ripened between Jiménez and Vasquez, who was known to long for the presidency and had only temporarily laid aside his aspirations on account of the overwhelming popularity of Jiménez. Each of the chiefs collected a group of friends about him and in this way originated the still existing political parties, Jimenistas and Horacistas, the respective followers of Jiménez and Horacio Vasquez. Several minor uprising occurred but were suppressed by the government" (pages 75-76).
Schoenrich 1918: "In the beginning of 1902 the Dominican Congress, which was composed largely of Vasquez' friends, considered the advisability of impeaching President Jiménez on account of the financial transactions of the administration, and a vote of censure was finally passed. Jiménez believed Vasquez at the bottom of the agitation and endeavored to have the municipalities protest against the action of Congress. Rumors became current that Jiménez intended to imprison his vice-president and thus insure his own reelection" (page 76).
Wiarda 1992: "By 1902, Dominican politics had again become a tinderbox as 'Horacista' forces battled 'Jimenistas.' There were few ideological or programmatic differences between these two factions, but both leaders and their retinues wished to capture the National Palace-and the jobs and treasury that went with it" (page 31).
Haggerty 1991: "Vásquez's forces proclaimed a revolution on April 26, 1902; with no real base of support, Jiménez fled his office and his country a few days later" (page 22).
Schoenrich 1918: Vásquez "started a revolution in the Cibao, and after a fight in San Carlos and a four days' siege of the capital entered Santo Domingo City on May 2, 1902, and became president of a provisional government. Jiménez sought refuge in the French consulate and embarked for Porto Rico a few days later" (page 76).
Welles 1928: Describes the agreement by which Jiménez resigns the presidency (page 582). "As soon as General Vasquez had taken over command of the capital, a Provisional Government was installed. [He assumed] office himself once more as Provisional President, rather than as President, to which office he had constitutionally succeeded after the resignation of Jiménez" (page 583).
Collado 1999: "En el mes de enero de 1903 se reunió de nuevo el Congreso Constituyente" (page 56).
Welles 1928: "By the beginning of the new year, the outbreak of a general revolution was imminent...Dissatisfaction with the Government was rife throughout the Republic, due in part to the increasing economic crisis caused by the outbreak of the various insurrections, but in greater part to the Chief Executive's firm refusal to continue the system of regular subsidies granted by President Jiménez to local political leaders...Another contributing cause for dissatisfaction was the postponement of the general elections in which a constitutional Administration was to be chosen. Notwithstanding the dangerous condition of unrest which prevailed throughout the country, and which had been responsible for the delay in holding national elections, General Vasquez at length came to the belief that the immediate holding of elections might relieve the existing tension, and issued a decree upon January 30, 1903, fixing the election date as before the end of February" (page 589). Discusses the selection of the candidates of the Horacista party for president and vice-president (pages 590-592).
Welles 1928: "The President finally came to the bitter conclusion that the only hope of solving the country's difficulties lay in the sacrifice of his own ambition to be elected President of the Republic for the constitutional term" (page 592). On March 23, 1903, "a Provisional Government superceding that of General Vasquez was...proclaimed with General Woss y Gil as Provisional President" (page 595).
Schoenrich 1918: "Woss y Gil...called a session of Congress and by appointments favorable to his interests so intrenched himself that his continuance as president became assured. Jiménez, who arrived shortly after, advanced the claim that he was still president de jure, since the constitutional term of four years for which he had been elected had not expired, and he denominated the Vasquez government a temporary and illegal usurpation of power" (pages 77-78).
Welles 1928: "Upon the withdrawal from the country of the chief figures in the former Administration, General Woss y Gil rapidly obtained the nominal recognition of his supremacy within the Republic. He determined to establish himself at once as a Constitutional President through recourse to general elections" (page 601). Discusses the selection of candidates (pages 601-602).
June: election (Woss y Gil)
Campillo Pérez 1986: Describes the elections of June 1903 (pages 140-141). Gives the results of the election (page 458).
Schoenrich 1918: "An election was held in which Woss y Gil and Deschamps [a friend of Jiménez's running as vice-president] were the only candidates and on June 20, 1903, they were inaugurated...Unfortunately the talents of Woss y Gil did not extend to the securing of an honest and efficient administration. The ministers appointed by him were exceedingly injudicious selections, and a carnival of fraud and dishonesty was soon in progress" (page 78).
Welles 1928: General Woss y Gil is inaugurated "as President of the Republic, on August 1, 1903" (page 602).
Schoenrich 1918: "Discontent grew general, and by the end of October, 1903, General Carlos F. Morales, governor of Puerto Plata, raised the standard of revolt and his troops marched on the capital. The revolution was supported by both parties, the Jimenistas and Horacistas, and was known as the 'war of the union'" (page 78).
Welles 1928: "But the struggle of the Woss y Gil Administration was short-lived. A revolution was launched on October 24, 1903, in Puerto Plata, by General Carlos Morales, who immediately constituted a Provisional Government in that city" (page 605).
Welles 1928: "After a brief resistance, the Woss y Gil Government capitulated, and on November 24th, the revolutionaries entered the city" (page 606).
Haggerty 1991: "Dominican politics had once again polarized into two largely nonideological camps. Where once the Blues and the Reds had contended for power, now the 'jimenistas' (supporters of Jiménez...) and the 'horacistas' (supporters of Vásquez and Cáceres...) vied for control. Woss y Gil, a 'jimenista,' made the mistake of seeking supporters among the 'horacista' camp and he was overthrown by the 'jimenista' general, Carlos F. Morales Languasco, in December 1903. Rather than restore the country's leadership to Jiménez,...Morales set up a provisional government and announced his own candidacy for the presidency-with Cáceres as his running mate" (page 22).
Schoenrich 1918: "For a short time a tripartite revolution was in progress, the supporters of Woss y Gil, Horacio Vasquez and Jiménez fighting in different parts of the country. Morales, on entering Santo Domingo, became president of the provisional government...When Jiménez arrived in Santiago he realized that his ambitions were again endangered" (page 79).
Welles 1928: "In a decree issued December 8th, the Provisional President then convoked elections for the following January 16th and 17th, and formally announced his own candidacy for the Presidency, together with that of General Ramón Cáceres for the Vice Presidency" (page 607).
Schoenrich 1918: "A counter revolution followed at once and swiftly attained large proportions. It became the most serious unsuccessful revolution the Republic had seen. At one time the whole country was in the hands of Jiménez except Santo Domingo City and the small port of Sosua...(T)he siege of the capital continued uninterruptedly from December to February" (page 79). "The enormous foreign and internal debt left by the Heureaux administration had been constantly increased by ruinous loans to which the succeeding governments were obliged to resort during the years of civil warfare, until the country was in a condition of hopeless bankruptcy. In the beginning of 1904 every item of the debt had been in default for months" (page 81).
Langley 1989: In "early 1904 [Morales], unable to quell the rebellion, requested American guarantee of Dominican independence and sovereignty, payment of its foreign obligations, and a supply of arms and munitions. In return the Dominican chief executive promised lower import duties and coaling and naval leases at Manzanillo and Samaná" (page 28).
Schoenrich 1918: "Finally Morales defeated the besiegers, and in March, Macoris was taken by the government forces and the backbone of the revolution was broken...Jiménez, financially ruined by his attempts to reestablish himself in power, again withdrew to Porto Rico. The government forces were unable to retake the Monte Cristi district, but an agreement was reached by which the Jimenista authorities remained in full control and the district became practically independent" (pages 79-80).
Welles 1928: "By a decree issued on April 23rd, elections were convoked for the latter part of May, since the outbreak of the revolution had forced the postponement of the elections originally decreed for the month of January" (page 610).
May: election (Morales)
Campillo Pérez 1986: Gives the results of the election (page 144 and pages 458-459).
Schoenrich 1918: "An election was held, as a result of which Carlos F. Morales became president and Ramon Caceres vice-president" (page 80).
Welles 1928: "In the national elections held after the suppression of the insurrection, General Morales and General Cáceres had been elected President and Vice President" (pages 613-614).
Haggerty 1991: "Morales and Cáceres were inaugurated on June 19, 1904" (page 22).
Schoenrich 1918: "Under pressure from foreign governments, the principal debt items due foreign citizens had been recognized in international protocols and the income from each of the more important custom-houses was specifically pledged for their payment, but in no case was payment made...No payment being made, the American agent demanded compliance with the arbitral award and on October 20, 1904, was placed in possession of the custom-house at Puerto Plata. The other foreign creditors, principally French, Belgian, and Italian, naturally began to clamor for the payment of their credits and for the delivery of the custom-houses pledged to them" (pages 81-82).
Dominican crisis 1965 1971: "In 1905 the U.S. decided to take over the administration of Dominican customs collections to prevent interference by European powers, but Pres. Theodore Roosevelt refused to seize the Dominican Republic" (page 8).
Musicant 1990: "On January 21, 1905, a receivership agreement was signed by representatives of both governments. The United States undertook the collection of the Dominican customs revenues, disbursing forty-five percent to the republic for ongoing expenses. The remainder went toward adjusting the debt" (page 244).
Haggerty 1991: A "financial accord [was] signed between the two governments on February 7, 1905; under the provisions of this accord, the United States government assumed responsibility for all Dominican debt as well as for the collection of customs duties...Although parts of this agreement were rejected by the United States Senate, it formed the basis for the establishment in April 1905 of the General Customs Receivership, the office through which the United States government administered the finances of the Dominican Republic" (page 23).
Schoenrich 1918: "In face of the imminent likelihood of foreign intervention the Dominican government applied to the United States for assistance, and in February, 1905, the protocol of an agreement between the Dominican Republic and the United States was approved, providing for the collection of Dominican customs revenues under the direction of the United States, and the segregation of a specified portion toward the ultimate payment of the debt" (page 82).
Haggerty 1991: "Conflict within the Morales administration between supporters of the president and those of the vice president debilitated the government...Morales resolved to lead a coup against his own government; his plan was discovered by the 'horacistas' and he was captured and dispatched into exile. Cáceres assumed the presidency on December 29, 1905" (pages 22-23). "Freed from the burden of dealing with creditors, Cáceres attempted to reform the political system. Constitutional reforms placed local 'ayuntamientos' (town councils) under the power of the central government, extended the presidential term to six years, and eliminated the office of vice president" (page 23).
Schoenrich 1918: "The position of President Morales was a difficult one. He was an ex-Jimenista at the head of an Horacista government, and there was no sympathy between him and his council. The Horacistas distrusted him and forced him to dismiss his friends from the cabinet...Seeing that he was being reduced to a figurehead, Morales secretly tried to form a party for himself or make arrangements with the Jimenistas who for months had been conspiring and threatening to rise. The friction became more severe until Morales, fearing that both his office and his life were in danger, on the day before Christmas, 1905, fled from the capital, while the Jimenistas rose in Monte Cristi and marched down to attack Santiago and Puerto Plata" (page 83).
Schoenrich 1918: "Upon the resignation of Morales the vice-president, General Ramon Caceres, assumed the presidency" (page 84).
Welles 1928: President Morales signs his resignation on January 12th and goes into exile (page 636).
Welles 1928: "General Cáceres, on February 20, 1906, announced his intention to continue in office as President of the Republic, as the successor under the Constitution of President Morales" (page 639).
Rutinel Domínguez 2000: "Convención de 1907: Célebre y funesto acuerdo firmado ad-referéndum el 8 de febrero de 1907, mediante el cual el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos asumieron el control total de todas las recaudaciones aduaneras" (page 206).
Betances 1995: "By signing the 1907 convention [Cáceres] turned the Dominican state into a semiprotectorate of the United States" (page 72).
Hartlyn 1998a: The "1907 treaty…paid off all previous loans with a new one, making the United States the country's only foreign creditor" (page 89).
Schoenrich 1918: "Instead of the still pending convention of February, 1905, with the United States, a new fiscal treaty was agreed upon, and approved by the United States Senate and the Dominican Congress, taking effect on August 1, 1907" (page 84).
Schoenrich 1918: "For years the various governments had been planning to revise the constitution of 1896...Conditions becoming sufficiently stable, a new constitution was promulgated on September 9, 1907" (page 85).
Welles 1928: Constitutional reforms in 1907 divide the country "for purposes of administration into twelve Provinces, under Provincial Governors directly responsible to the National Executive...The Presidential term was increased to a period of six years...and the Constitutional Convention abolished the Vice Presidency and arranged for the replacement of the President in the event of his death, resignation or disability...The indirect system of elections was, however, retained, the electorate voting for a college of electors, to whom the election of the President was entrusted" (pages 661-662).
Betances 1995: The "Constitutional Assembly of 1908 was made up of prominent lawyers and citizens with a degree of independence from the executive. They took the U.S. Constitution as a model and therefore envisioned a strong executive. The new constitution...extended the presidential term to six years and eliminated the vice presidency. In an effort to eliminate traditional caudillismo and caciquismo, it substituted the post of military governor for that of civil governor and placed both above all other authorities, military and judicial...Since 1879 Congress had had only one chamber. The reforms of 1908 provided for a Cámara de Diputados (Lower House) and a Cámara de Senadores (Senate)" (page 73).
Schoenrich 1918: The 1907 constitution "was found unsatisfactory and a constitutional convention met in Santiago and on February 22, 1908, promulgated the present constitution, by which the presidential term was lengthened to six years and the office of vice-president abolished" (page 85). "The present constitution was drafted by a constitutional assembly which sat in Santiago de los Caballeros in the early part of 1908...Provisions quite unsuitable to Dominican conditions are included, such as that granting the right to vote to all male citizens over eighteen years of age. Such an extension of the suffrage would be looked upon askance even in countries where education is general, and in Santo Domingo would constitute a serious danger if really put into effect" (page 305). "The president and members of the Senate and House of Deputies are elected by indirect vote. Electors whose number and apportionment among the several provinces and their subdivisions are prescribed by law, are chosen by general suffrage in what are called primary assemblies in the several municipalities and constitute electoral colleges which meet at the chief town of the respective province. The electors having cast their votes for president the minutes of the session are sent to the capital. The votes are counted in joint session of Congress and the successful candidate is proclaimed by that body" (page 307).
May: election (Cáceres)
Campillo Pérez 1986: "Todos los Colegios Electorales fueron 'copados' por Cáceres, quien aseguró su 'eleccion' por 578 sufragios en una concurrencia de 600 votantes" (page 148). Gives the results of the election (pages 459-460).
Welles 1928: "Under the new Constitution, the college of electors was elected in popular elections held on the first and second days of May, 1908. The Electoral College, in turn, on May 30th, re-elected President Cáceres, and at the same time elected the Senators and Deputies in the two Legislative Bodies now created" (page 662).
Welles 1928: "On July 1st, General Cáceres was inaugurated for the term ending in 1914" (page 662).
Haggerty 1991: "On November 19, 1911, a small group headed by Luis Tejera assassinated Cáceres as he took his evening drive through the streets of Santo Domingo" (pages 23-24).
Schoenrich 1918: "At a time when the future seemed brightest, the Republic was suddenly startled by the news of the assassination of President Caceres on Sunday afternoon, November 19, 1911" (page 85).
Wiarda 1992: "The Jimenista-Horacista conflict continued. Cáceres…was assassinated by a Jimenista…The death of Cáceres initiated another round of domestic political warfare, economic disruption, and, eventually, foreign occupation" (page 32).
Schoenrich 1918: "The commandant of arms of the capital, General Alfredo M. Victoria, who controlled the military forces, permitted his own ambitions to influence him more than the welfare of his country...(H)e dominated the situation by force of arms and brought about the selection of his uncle, Eladio Victoria, as provisional president" (page 86). "(H)is selection provoked general surprise and indignation. General Victoria's army was a potent argument; it withered the ambition of other aspirants to the presidency, and Senator Victoria was elected provisional president and entered upon office December 6, 1911" (page 87).
February: election (Victoria)
Atkins 1998: "Soon after Cáceres's death, the chief of the army, Alfredo Victoria, forced the Dominican Congress to elect as president his uncle, Senator Eladio Victoria. The latter took office on 27 February 1912" (page 45).
Campillo Pérez 1986: On February 4, "los Colegios Electorales acudieron a la cita y realizaron un verdadero simulacro comicial en favor del propio Victoria, que resultó 'elegido' por la importante cifra de 550 votos electorales, con un éxito completo en las doce asambleas sufragantes…El Congreso…el 24 de Febrero proclamó a Victoria Presidente Constitucional de la República por un período de seis años" (page 150). Gives the results of the election (page 460).
Schoenrich 1918: "In the following February the usual form of public election was gone through and on February 27, 1912, [Victoria] took the oath of office as constitutional president. His nephew occupied important cabinet positions under the new administration. The general opposition to President Victoria and to the method of electing him found expression in revolutionary uprisings throughout the country, especially in the Cibao and Azua. Ex-president Vasquez, ex-President Morales and several Jimenista generals took the field independently" (page 87).
Welles 1928: Eladio Victoria is "elected Provisional President for a term of two months by the Congress, [and] in the general elections held shortly thereafter, elected Constitutional President of the Republic" (page 681).
Schoenrich 1918: "It became apparent that there was a deadlock, the government being powerless to subdue the revolutionists, while the revolutionists were unable to carry on an active campaign against the government" (page 87).
Welles 1928: "The attention of the United States Government during the summer of 1912 had repeatedly been called to the fact that owing to the revolutionary disturbances along the frontier, the officials of the Receivership were unable to collect the customs duties at the interior customs houses" (page 693).
Haggerty 1991: "The continued violence and instability prompted the administration of President William H. Taft to dispatch a commission to Santo Domingo on September 24, 1912, to mediate among the warring factions. The presence of a 750-member force of United States marines apparently convinced the Dominicans of the seriousness of Washington's threats to intervene directly in the conflict" (page 24).
Schoenrich 1918: "An agreement was concluded and in accordance therewith the Dominican Congress assembled on November 26, 1912, accepted the resignation of President Victoria, and elected the archbishop of Santo Domingo, Monsignor Adolfo A. Nouel, as provisional president for a period of two years" (pages 87-88).
Welles 1928: On "November 26th, President Victoria submitted his resignation to Congress, which at once accepted it" (page 699).
Schoenrich 1918: Nouel "was inducted into office on December 1, 1912" (page 88).
Welles 1928: "On December 2nd, the Senate and the House of Deputies unanimously elected MonseZor Adolfo A. Nouel, Archbishop of Santo Domingo, as Provisional President for a period of two years" (page 699).
Haggerty 1991: "Unable to mediate sucessfully between the ambitions of rival 'horacistas' and 'jimenistas,' [Nouel] stepped down on March 31, 1913" (page 24).
Schoenrich 1918: "Pressure was applied for favors which he could not grant, his appointments were bitterly criticised as savoring of nepotism or as unduly favoring one side or the other, and some of the fiercer military chiefs assumed a menacing attitude. Sick and disgusted, Monsignor Nouel resigned the presidential office on March 31, 1913, and embarked for Europe" (page 88).
Healy 1988: "Archbishop Nouel's successor, José Bordas Valdes, was elected by the Dominican congress as provisional president, to serve for a maximum of one year. His principal duty was to administer national elections, first to choose a constituent assembly to reform the electoral process, then to elect a fully constitutional president and thus end the state of crisis in the country. Once in office, however, Bordas showed himself ambitious to stay in power" (pages 192-193).
Schoenrich 1918: "The Dominican Congress immediately considered the choice of a temporary successor and after many ballots elected a compromise candidate, General José Bordas Valdez, an Horacista senator from Monte Cristi, as provisional president for a period of one year. He assumed office April 14, 1913. His designation did not please the Jimenistas, and the Horacistas also became hostile when it appeared that President Bordas contemplated forming a party of his own" (page 88).
Welles 1928: "Under the Constitution of 1908, it became the immediate obligation of the Dominican Congress, which was at the time in session, to select the successor of MonseZor Nouel as Provisional President. The ambitions of all the political leaders had been sharpened by their rivalry during the preceding four months" (page 708). Describes their efforts to emerge as the successful presidential candidate (pages 708-709). "Elected finally, unanimously, by the Senate, General Bordas was still rejected as a candidate by the majority of the House of Deputies. At length, a week later, he was likewise elected by the lower House although by only a bare majority. On April 14th, General JosJ Bordas Valdéz was consequently inaugurated as Provisional President, having been elected by the Congress with the express proviso that his Presidential term should not exceed one year, and that he should convoke within that period general elections to provide for the election of a Constitutional President of the Republic""(page 709).
Atkins 1998: "In September 1913, Vásquez went to war against Provisional President Bordas" (page 46).
Grullón 1999: "El presidente Bordas, presionado por el general Desiderio Arias,...[provocó] el disgusto del general Horacio Vásquez, quien se sintió traicionado por el presidente Bordas y emprendió el 1ro. de septiembre de 1913 la lucha guerrillera" (page 11). "El general Horacio Vásquez...ordenó al gobernador de la provincia de Puerto Plata, general Jesús María Céspedes, que se declarara presidente provisional;...Céspedes anunció que la provincia de Puerto Plata quedaba separada del gobierno central del Presidente Bordas. Con esta acción se inició lo que se llamó 'la revolución del ferrocarril'" (page 12).
Healy 1988: "Striking a bargain with General Desiderio Arias, an equally ambitious politician with a power base in the north, Bordas betrayed the faction which had pushed through his election and demonstrated little interest in holding elections to select a successor. As followers of Arias took over the government's finest patronage posts, opposition leaders united in a revolt against the usurper. Thus Bordas and Arias faced a formidable alliance headed by the nation's two preeminent party leaders, Horacio Vásquez and Juan Isidro Jiménez" (page 193).
Schoenrich 1918: "In the latter part of September, 1913, the revolutionists laid down their arms on the promise of the American minister that free elections for presidential electors and members of a constitutional convention would be guaranteed" (page 88).
Haggerty 1991: "The rebellious 'horacistas' agreed to a ceasefire based on a pledge of United States oversight of elections for members of local 'ayuntamientos' and a constituent assembly that would draft the procedures for presidential balloting" (page 24).
Hartlyn 1998: "The U.S. minister had arranged a truce in October between warring factions and had extracted their pledge to hold elections for local offices and a constituent assembly...The United States declared that if these elections were not carried out properly, it would assume direct control of the subsequent ones" (page 298).
December 15-16: election
Campillo Pérez 1986: "Las Asambleas Primarias pudieron reunirse y elegir las autoridades municipales así como Diputados a la Asamblea Constituyente que debía reformar la Constitución" (page 153).
Collado 1999: "Las elecciones [para la Asamblea Constituyente] se realizaron los días 15 y 16 de diciembre de 1913" (page 56).
Hartlyn 1998: "Perhaps the first of many subsequent U.S. or international election-observation missions designed to help insure free and fair elections in the country had taken place in the previous elections of December 1913" (page 298).
Healy 1988: "Bordas defiantly refused to accept an official United States election commission. He did accept an unofficial team of observers whose presence helped the opposition to win a majority of seats in the new constituent assembly" (page 193).
Welles 1928: "A decree had previously been promulgated by President Bordas calling for the election on December 15th of the members of a constitutional convention summoned to undertake a further revision of the Constitution, and for the election of the municipal authorities in the several communes of the Republic" (page 723).
Campillo Pérez 1986: "(L)a Asamblea Constituyente…se inauguró en la ciudad de Santo Domingo el 20 de Enero de 1914" (page 153).
Grullón 1999: "La situación política, económica y social del país era muy precaria y Bordas la complicaba más al anunciar su candidatura a la Presidencia de la República a finales del mes de marzo de 1914" (page 19).
Healy 1988: In "the spring of 1914 Arias broke with the president to seek power for himself…At the end of March, Bordas' legal year in office had run out, while new fighting began between his followers and those of Arias" (pages 193-194).
Schoenrich 1918: "President Bordas, alleging that conditions were too unsettled for a general presidential election, held on as president de facto beyond the term for which he had been provisionally elected. On the day his term ended, April 13, 1914, another revolution broke out and rapidly spread to all parts of the Republic" (page 89).
June: election (Bordas)
Betances 1995: "The United States offered to supervise the election of a new president, but despite this, the elections proved fraudulent and Bordas was reelected on 5 June 1914" (page 79).
Haggerty 1991: The election "process was flagrantly manipulated and resulted in Bordas's reelection on June 15, 1914. Both 'horacistas' and 'jimenistas' took offense at this blatant maneuver and rose up against Bordas" (page 24).
Healy 1988: "In June Bordas attempted to hold the long-promised presidential election with himself as candidate, though the politically fragmented constituent assembly had as yet done nothing about election reforms. In seven of the country's twelve provinces there was not even a pretense at elections, and where they were held they were shamelessly rigged for Bordas" (page 194).
Rutinel Domínguez 2000: "Para las elecciones de 1914 [el Partido Velasquista] celebró un pacto con el partido jimenista, integrando un frente común que se llamó La Conjunción" (page 702).
Welles 1928: "General elections which General Bordas had at length determined to hold took place early in June, but owing to the open disorder which prevailed throughout the country it had only been possible to make even the appearance of holding elections in five of the twelve provinces" (page 733). The "returns from the elections which General Bordas had purported to hold were so incomplete and so patently fraudulent that they could not be recognized as legitimate. Consequently, the electoral colleges elected in those elections, which would unquestionably have proclaimed General Bordas President, could not be resorted to as a means of procuring the desired solution" (pages 735-736).
Atkins 1998: In "July 1914, the internally divided 'horacistas' again rebelled...; they were joined by 'jimenistas' and 'vidalistas' (followers of 'caudillo' Luis Felipe Vidal) and intense fighting ensued. The United States sent another commission to the Dominican Republic that forced the contenders to agree to a truce under threat of military intervention. In sum, the commission refused to recognize Bordas and demanded fair elections" (page 46).
Healy 1988: "Affiars could hardly become worse, and elaborate American efforts at mediation, tutelage, and reform were without effect. At this juncture, late in July 1914, President Wilson took a direct hand in the Dominican imbroglio" (page 194). Gives details of Wilson's plan regarding elections.
Welles 1928: Reproduces Wilson's plan (pages 736-738).
Betances 1995: "Báez took office in August 1914 and formed a government with his friends and members of the Jiménes faction" (page 79).
Schoenrich 1918: "In August, 1914, a commission of three delegates of the United States arrived in Santo Domingo to present a plan for the resignation of Bordas, the selection of a provisional president by the chiefs of the several political parties, a revision of the election law, and the holding of general elections. The plan was agreed to, President Bordas resigned, and Dr. Ramon Baez, a son of former President Buenaventura Baez, was elected by the Dominican Congress as provisional president on August 27, 1914" (page 89).
Welles 1928: "On August 27th, after the resignation of General Bordas had been made public, Dr. Baez was inaugurated as Provisional President and was promptly officially recognized as such by the Government of the United States" (page 742). "Immediately after his inauguration, President Baez entered into an official agreement with the American Commissioners providing that national elections for a Constitutional President and Congress should be held six weeks later, and that at those elections observers appointed by the United States should be present at all the voting booths and should be afforded the fullest opportunity to observe the casting, and the counting of the votes" (page 743).
October: election (Jiménes / Alianza de los Jimenistas y Velasquistas)
Betances 1995: "Three important parties participated in the subsequent general elections: Horacistas, Jimenistas and Velazquistas. With the support of the Velazquistas, Jiménes won" (pages 79-80).
Campillo Pérez 1986: "El sufragio popular que correspondía a las Asambleas Primarias fue fijado para los días 25, 26 y 27 de Octubre de 1914" (page 157). Gives the results (pages 158-160 and 461-464). Also gives results of the congressional election (page 465).
Grullón 1999: "Ya instalado el presidente Ramón Báez, éste convino con los comisionados norteamericanos en celebrar las elecciones de presidente, senadores y diputados el 25 de octubre de 1914, con la presencia en todas las mesas electorales de observadores nombrados por los Estados Unidos, con derecho a verificar el proceso y a realizar el recuento de los votos" (pages 23-24). Lists candidates and describes the election. "Por un margen muy estrecho Juan Isidro Jiménez ganó los comicios, pero en Santiago, por irregularidades ocurridas, tuvieron que celebrar votaciones complementarias" (page 24).
Haggerty 1991: "Comparatively fair presidential elections held on October 25 returned Jiménez to the presidency. Despite his victory Jiménez felt impelled to appoint leaders and prominent members of the various political factions to positions in his government in an effort to broaden its support" (page 24).
Hartlyn 1998: "In 1914 extensive U.S. pressure on local Dominican leaders, with threats of direct intervention, ultimately led to the naming of a provisional president and the holding in October of the second more-or-less free (indirect) elections for president, elections won by Juan Isidro Jiménez, ostensibly for a six-year term" (page 31).
Healy 1988: The election "was a close contest between the two old rivals and ex-presidents, Horacio Vásquez and Juan Isidro Jiménez, and Jiménez won. Although the losers charged election fraud, Wilson's commissioners testified to the election's fairness, and Jiménez assumed office in December 1914" (page 194).
Musicant 1990: "A wealthy planter, [Jiménes] was a classic, faction-leading 'caudillo,' the boss of the 'Jimenistas,' a politico-military agglomeration which passed for a political party…In 1914 he took office as a result of freely held, American-supervised elections and thanks to the not so subtle presence of a regiment of marines lying off shore" (page 236).
Ramírez Morillo 1997: "En el 1914 se celebraron las segundas elecciones libres y democráticas en la historia dominicana, pero esa consulta electoral se llevó a cabo de forma organizada debido a las exigencias y presiones del gobierno de los Estados Unidos...Báez...convocó a la celebración de elecciones libres, donde por vez primera, los cuatro principales partídos políticos del país iniciaron una intensa campaña, los partidos Jimenista y Velasquista se aliaron y llevaron como candidato a Juan Isidro Jiménez. Esa alianza electoral era con el objetivo de evitar una segunda vuelta, ya que la Constitución de la República establecía que el candidato ganador, para ser proclamado, debía obtener mayoría absoluta de los sufragios" (page 32). "Las Asambleas primarias se celebraron los días 25, 26 y 27 de octubre de 1914" (page 33). Describes the procedures followed (pages 33-34) and gives results (page 35).
Schoenrich 1918: "Popular elections were held in October, at which there were four candidates...The Jiménez and Velazquez forces effected a combination, as a result of which Juan Isidro Jiménez was elected president a second time" (page 89).
Welles 1928: Describes emergence of candidates (pages 744-745). "The elections were finally held on October 25th, and continued for two additional days" (page 745).
Welles 1928: "By the first of November, as the returns slowly came in, it was apparent that Jiménez had been elected by a small majority, owing partly to the fact that in supplementary elections which were held in Santiago as the result of the annulment by the courts of the results of the elections earlier held there, only the Jimenistas went to the polls, since the members of the Horacista party protested that owing to the flagrant partiality of the electoral authorities they were without valid protection. The total vote cast was finally computed to be 40,076 for Jiménez, while the total number of votes cast for General Vasquez and for General Vidal amounted to 39,632. Jiménez had carried seven out of the twelve Provinces, and in the electoral college, composed of 632 electors, had obtained 337" (pages 745-746).
Welles 1928: "On December 5, 1914, Don Juan Isidro Jiménez was again inaugurated President of the Dominican Republic" (page 747).