Taplin 1972: Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla proclaims the "Grito de Dolores" at Dolores de Guanajuato to begin the war of independence on September 16, 1810 (page 53).
Taplin 1972: Miguel Hidalgo is executed on July 31, 1811. On August 19, 1811 a "Supreme National Junta" is established at Zitacuaro, Michoacán (page 53).
Taplin 1972: On September 14, 1813 a congress is assembled at Chilpancingo and elects José María Morelos chief executive. On November 6, 1813 the congress issues a declaration of independence from Spain (page 53).
Emmerich 1985: "[Los] que se habían insurreccionado con el ‘grito de Dolores’ habían preparado su propio texto constitucional, el ‘Decreto constitucional para la libertad de la América mexicana’, sancionado en Apatzingán el 22 de octubre de 1814 por el supremo congreso insurgente (compuesto por ocho personas)" (page 42). Describes three stage indirect election process (page 43).
Kantor 1969: "The kind of government the leaders of independence wanted for Mexico is described in the constitution of October 22, 1814, which provided for a president, a congress of two houses, and a judiciary system headed by a supreme court...This constitution never went into effect" (page 18).
Merrill 1997: "From 1815 to 1821, most of the fighting by those seeking independence from Spain was done by isolated guerrilla bands. Out of these bands rose two men, Guadalupe Victoria...in Puebla and Vicente Guerrero in Oaxaca" (page 17).
Taplin 1972: Morelos is captured and executed on December 22, 1815 (page 53).
Merrill 1997: "(I)n December 1820, Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca sent a force led by a royalist criollo officer, Agustín de Iturbide, to defeat Guerrero’s army in Oaxaca...After an initial clash with Guerrero’s forces, Iturbide switched allegiances and invited the rebel leader to meet and discuss principles of a renewed independence struggle" (page 18).
Taplin 1972: The Plan of Iguala is announced by Agustín de Iturbide on February 24, 1821, and calls for an independent, constitutional monarchy headed by an emperor. He enters Mexico City on September 27, 1821 and installs a "Junta Provisional Gubernativa" which elects him its president (page 54).
Vázquez-Gómez 1997: The "‘Tratado de Córdoba’ was signed by Agustín de Iturbide and the last viceroy, Juan O’Donojú, on August 24, 1821. The treaty recognized Mexico’s independence under a monarchy that had Ferdinand VII in ultimate control of the empire" (page 148).
Merrill 1997: On May 19, 1822 "congress named Iturbide as the constitutional emperor of Mexico...In congress, discontented factions sharply criticized the government, and Iturbide’s recourse was to dissolve the legislative branch and to have all opposition delegates arrested in August 1822. In Veracruz, the commander of the garrison, Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón, rose against Iturbide and proclaimed a republic on December 1, 1822" (page 20).
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Formación del imperio mexicano: 1822" (page 272). Gives number of deputies who voted for consultation with the provinces and those who voted against it.
Taplin 1972: A constituent congress is assembled on February 24, 1822, with delegates forced to swear to observe the Plan of Iguala. Iturbide dissolves the congress on July 21, 1822. A revolt against Iturbide and in support of a republican government begins in Veracruz on December 8, 1822, led by Antonio López de Santa Anna (page 55).
Merrill 1997: "After the fall of the empire, a provisional government was installed consisting of [Nicolás] Bravo, [Guadalupe] Victoria, and Pedro Celestino Negrete. Delegates were elected to the Constitutional Congress that entered into session on November 27, 1823. The congress had two major factions: the federalists...and the more conservative centralists" (page 20).
Taplin 1972: Plan of Casa Mata on February 1, 1823 calls for a representative assembly. On March 4, 1823 Iturbide orders the members of the dissolved congress to reassemble and on March 19, 1823 he abdicates and is ordered into exile. The reassembled congress appoints a triumvirate and calls for elections for delegates to a constituent assembly, which is installed on November 7, 1823 (page 55).
Emmerich 1985: "La Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, sancionada por el Congreso General Constituyente el 4 de octubre de 1824, reproducía en lo esencial...las disposiciones electorales de la de Apatzingán" (page 44). "(E)l sistema electoral de 1824 establecía el voto indirecto para la elección de diputados federales (y, por analogía, de los diputados estatales). Allí, en ese paso,...terminaba el papel electoral de la ciudadanía: presidente, vicepresidente, senadores y altos magistrados eran elegidos por las legislaturas estatales, con intervención del Congreso federal. La constitución...hacía vicepresidente a quien no era otro que el jefe de la oposición" (page 45).
Federal election (Guadalupe Victoria)
Taplin 1972: On October 4, 1824 the constitution of the "Estados Unidos Mexicanos" is published, calling for a republic to be led by a president and vice president elected for a four-year term. Guadalupe Victoria is inaugurated October 10, 1824 (pages 55-56).
Taplin 1972: On January 1, 1825 the first legislative congress is convened (page 56).
Federal election (Gómez Pedraza)
Emmerich 1985: "(E)l primero de septiembre de 1828 se realizaron nuevas elecciones: diechiocho legislaturas (la de Durango no estaba reunida) emitieron 36 votos, de los cuales recayeron once en Gómez Pedraza, nueve en Guerrero, seis en Bustamante y el resto en otros candidatos" (page 46).
Merrill 1997: "The September 1828 elections pitted General Guerrero as the liberal candidate for the federalists against conservative Manuel Gómez Pedraza" (page 21).
Taplin 1972: "(I)n the election held September 1, 1828, in which the state legislatures voted for president, Manuel Gómez Pedraza received the most votes, but was challenged by partisans of Vicente Guerrero, supported by Antonio López de Santa Anna" (page 56).
Emmerich 1985: As a result of the "Plan de Perote" of Santa Anna, congress nullifies the votes for Gómez Pedraza and gives the presidency to Guerrero and vice presidency to Bustamante on January 12, 1829 (page 46).
Merrill 1997: A Spanish force lands at Tampico in July 1829 to retake Mexico. Santa Anna is sent to defeat them, and in doing so is "widely hailed as the savior of the republic" (page 22).
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales en 1829: presidente temporal" (page 274). "Elecciones presidenciales en 1829." Gives number of provincial votes for each candidate in three presidential elections held in 1829.
Merrill 1997: "In early 1830, the conservative vice president, Anastasio Bustamante, led a successful military-backed revolt against Guerrero and installed himself as Mexico’s third president" (page 22).
Taplin 1972: Vicente Guerrero is executed on February 14, 1831 (page 56).
Emmerich 1985: Santa Anna overthrows Bustamante and installs [December 26, 1832] Gómez Pedraza to serve the last three months of the term to which he was elected in 1828 (page 46). Elections in the state legislatures on September 1, 1832 give Nicolás Bravo the presidency, "pero los Convenios de Zavaleta, que llevaron a la Presidencia a Gómez Pedraza, anularon dichas elecciones y cambiaron fundamentalmente la composición de las legislaturas estatales; realizadas nuevas elecciones, resultaron elegidos Santa Anna y Gómez Farias."
Taplin 1972: Gómez Pedraza is inaugurated on December 26, 1832 to complete the term to which he had been elected in 1828 (page 57).
Federal election (Santa Anna)
Emmerich 1985: Santa Anna turns the presidency over to his vice president shortly after his inauguration on April 1, 1833 (page 46).
Merrill 1997: "The highly popular Santa Anna was elected president under the liberal banner in early 1833. Instead of assuming office, however, he withdrew into semiretirement and delegated the presidency to his vice president, Valentín Gómez Farías" (pages 22-23).
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales en 1833" (page 275).
Emmerich 1985: Santa Anna reassumes the presidency on April 24, 1834 and dissolves congress (page 46).
Taplin 1972: Santa Ana dissolves congress on May 31, 1834 and assumes dictatorial powers (page 57).
Emmerich 1985: Congress is reconvened on January 27, 1835 and recommends that there be no office of vice president (page 46).
Taplin 1972: Santa Ana is retired January 28, 1835 and succeeded by a number of interim presidents (page 57).
Merrill 1997: Santa Anna lays siege to the Alamo in March 1836, is captured by Texan forces in April, and signs two treaties with the Texas government (pages 24-25).
Federal election (Bustamante)
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales en 1837" (page 275).
Taplin 1972: Anastasio Bustamante is elected president, assumes power April 19, 1837 (page 58).
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales en 1838: presidente interino" (page 275).
Emmerich 1985: On October 9, 1841 a body composed of two representatives from each state names Santa Anna provisional president with a vote of 39 out of 44 votes; Santa Anna assumes power October 10 (page 48).
Taplin 1972: Bustamante resigns, Santa Anna becomes provisional president October 7, 1841 and assumes dictatorial powers (page 58).
Emmerich 1985: Delegates to a constituent assembly are elected on April 10, 1842. Describes qualifications and election process (page 48).
Emmerich 1985: A "Junta Nacional Legislativa" is installed on January 6, 1843 and decrees that members of the "Cámara de Diputados" be elected in a three-stage indirect process, that the members of the "Cámara de Senadores" be designated by the government, and that the state assemblies be selected from specific groups of the population (pages 48-49).
Taplin 1972: Santa Anna is overthrown December 5, 1844 and ordered into exile (page 58).
Emmerich 1985: "A fines de 1846 se verificaron elecciones...para integrar un Congreso General y Extraordinario...Reunido el Congreso...se encontró que los puros y los moderados tenían casi igual número de diputados; Santa Anna, apoyado por los puros, obtuvo la Presidencia de la República por un solo voto de ventaja" (page 49).
Merrill 1997: Hostilities between the United States and Mexico begin on April 25, 1846 over the annexation of Texas to the United States. Santa Anna is recalled from exile in Cuba to lead the troops (page 26).
Taplin 1972: On May 13, 1846, the United States declares war on Mexico. After a series of interim presidents, Santa Anna returns and on December 23, 1846 is chosen president ad interim by congress (page 59).
Vázquez-Gómez 1997: The " Plan de Jalisco o Guadalajara" is pronounced on May 20, 1846 and proclaims Santa Anna as "caudillo" (page 149).
Merrill 1997: The Battle of Chapultepec takes place on September 13, 1847 and marks the end of the war with the United States (page 26).
Taplin 1972: Santa Anna takes power on March 21, 1847 and resigns September 16, 1847. Manuel de la Peña y Peña, president of the supreme court, takes office September 26, 1847 as interim president (page 59-60).
Vázquez-Gómez 1997: The "Guerra de Castas" begins in Yucatán in mid-1847 (page 149).
Grayson 1994: On February 2, 1848 Mexico "lost almost half of its territory to the United States as a result of the Mexican-American War, concluded by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo" (page xi).
Federal election (Herrera)
Taplin 1972: José Joaquin Herrera is elected president (page 60).
Federal election (Arista)
Taplin 1972: General Mariano Arista is elected president (page 60).
Federal election (Santa Anna)
Emmerich 1985: Santa Anna is elected president by the state legislatures with eighteen votes, against five votes divided between three candidates (page 52).
Taplin 1972: Santa Anna is elected president, dissolves congress, and declares himself perpetual dictator (page 60).
Vázquez-Gómez 1997: The "‘Tratado de la Mesilla (or de Gadsden)’ sold more Mexican land to the United States. Antonio López de Santa Anna needed money, and the United States offered to buy the lower portion of New Mexico and Arizona, approximately 62, 138.81 square miles, for $10 million for a railroad route to California" (page 150).
Vázquez-Gómez 1997: The "‘Plan de Ayutla’...proclaimed on March 1st, 1854...called for the unseating of General Antonio López de Santa Anna from the presidency. It created a more democratic approach to the selection of the president of Mexico by appointing representatives from each state to the election of an interim president, who would later act as counsel to the elected president" (page 150).
Emmerich 1985: Representatives from each state elect Martín Carrera interim president on July 14, 1855. He resigns September 11, 1855, is replaced by Juan Álvarez on October 4, 1855, and Álvarez is replaced by Comonfort in November (page 52).
Taplin 1972: Santa Anna is forced to resign August 9, 1855 and is followed by interim presidents (page 60).
Camp 1996: "Liberals and conservatives clashed most violently on the role of the Catholic Church....Because the liberals viewed the church as a staunch opponent and as the conservatives’ political and economic supporter, they wanted to reduce or eliminate altogether its influence. They introduced the Ley Lerdo on June 1, 1856, essentially forcing the church to sell off its large landholdings...The issue of church versus state, or the supremacy of state over church, was a crucial element of the conservative-liberal battles and a focus of nineteenth-century politics" (pages 33-34).
Emmerich 1985: A new electoral law is proclaimed on February 12, 1857, which sets up a two-step election process (page 50).
Federal election (Comonfort)
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales en 1857" (page 276).
Taplin 1972: Ignacio Comonfort is elected constitutional president (page 61).
Vázquez-Gómez 1997: The "‘Constitución de 1857' [is] issued by the Constituent Congress on February 5, 1857. It established a republican, representative, and federalist system of government for Mexico" (page 150).
Merrill 1997: The War of the Reform "that engulfed Mexico between 1858 and 1861 brought to light the underlying conflicts that had been present in Mexican society since independence. The conservative faction launched the Plan of Tacubaya and, with the support of the military and the clergy, dissolved congress and arrested Juárez" (page 29).
Taplin 1972: Comonfort resigns January 21, 1858 with the beginning of the war of reform. Benito Juárez, president of the supreme court, is legally entitled to the presidency but as leader of the liberals is forced to set up his government in Guanajuato. General Félix Zuloaga is installed as president in Mexico City but is removed on December 23, 1858 (page 61).
Taplin 1972: General Miguel Miramon is appointed interim president by Zuloaga, takes office January 31, 1859 (page 61).
Vázquez-Gómez 1997: In "July 1859 the liberals, headed by Benito Juárez, issued the Reform Laws that allowed the government to nationalize the property of the church. These laws also marked a clear and complete separation between church and state" (page 150).
Taplin 1972: Miramon goes into exile on December 24, 1860 and the liberal army enters the capital on December 27, 1860 (page 61).
Federal election (Juárez)
Emmerich 1985: "(C)uando [Juárez] fue elegido por primera vez, en 1861, como presidente constitucional, ocupaba ya la Presidencia de la República, en su calidad de presidente de la Suprema Corte, desde 1858" (page 54).
Merrill 1997: Benito Juárez is elected president in March 1861, "but the war left the treasury depleted...In October 1861, Spain, Britain, and France decided to launch a joint occupation of the Mexican Gulf coast to force repayment" (page 29).
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales en 1861" (page 276).
Taplin 1972: Juárez restores constitutional regime on January 11, 1861 and is elected constitutional president (page 62).
Merrill 1997: Spain and Britain withdraw their troops but "spurred by dreams of reestablishing an empire in the New World, the French remained and, with the support of Mexican conservatives, embarked on an occupation of Mexico. In Puebla, the French troops...[were] defeated on May 5, 1862" (page 30).
Taplin 1972: On April 20, 1862, "General Juan Almonte, a monarchist conservative supported by French forces, declared himself chief executive of the country" (page 62).
Merrill 1997: "The French encountered no resistance to their occupation of Mexico City. In June 1863, a provisional government was chosen, and in October a delegation of Mexican conservatives invited Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph von Habsburg of Austria to accept the Mexican crown" (page 30).
Taplin 1972: French forces capture Puebla on May 17, 1863 and Juárez flees to San Luis Potosí on May 31, 1863. On July 8, 1863 "a convention of 215 notables...asked for an hereditary monarch" (page 62).
Kantor 1969: "When the conservatives called on the Spanish, English, and French governments to intervene in Mexico, Napoleon III utilized the opportunity to set up an empire headed by a romantic dreamer, Maximilian of Austria, who was kept in power by 30,000 French troops from 1864-1867" (page 19).
Taplin 1972: On April 9, 1864 the Archduke Maximilian, brother of the emperor of Austria, is sworn in as Emperor of Mexico, in Paris. He enters the capital on June 12, 1864 (page 62).
Vázquez-Gómez 1997: "Signed by Napoleon III, the [Tratado de Miramar, 1864] committed France to support the empire of Maximilian in Mexico with 25,000 soldiers" (page 151).
Merrill 1997: "The end of the Civil War in the United States in 1865...prompted a more assertive foreign policy toward Mexico and released manpower and arms that were directed to help Juárez in his fight against the French" (page 30).
Merrill 1997: "By November 1866, Napoleon III began recalling his troops stationed in Mexico. Conservative forces switched sides and began supporting the Mexican liberals" (pages 30-31).
Merrill 1997: "United republican forces resumed their campaign on February 19, 1867, and on May 15, Maximilian surrendered. He was tried and, on Juárez’s orders, was executed on June 19" (page 31).
Federal election (Juárez)
Emmerich 1985: Juárez is elected president in 1867 with 7,422 votes: 2,709 votes are cast for Porfirio Díaz and 249 for other candidates ("estos votos son los de los electores de parroquia, elegidos a su vez a razón de uno por cada quinientos habitantes") (page 53).
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales en 1867" (page 276).
Taplin 1972: Maximilian is executed at Querétaro on June 19, 1867. Juárez enters the capital on July 15, 1867 and is elected president (page 62).
Federal election (Juárez)
Emmerich 1985: "Los resultados de las elecciones de 1871 fueron: Juárez, 5,837; Díaz, 3,555; Lerdo, 2,864; como ninguno de los candidatos obtuvo mayoría absoluta, la elección fue perfeccionada por el Congreso en favor de Juárez: 108 congresistas votaron por Juárez, 3 por Díaz y 5 en blanco" (page 53).
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales en 1871" (page 277).
Vázquez-Gómez 1997: "On November 8, 1871...General Porfirio Díaz launched the [Plan de la Noria] against President Benito Juárez. Díaz accused Juárez of trying to remain in power indefinitely, and declared himself against reelection" (page 151).
Federal election (Lerdo de Tejada)
Emmerich 1985: "Muerto Juárez, en 1872 hubo nuevas elecciones que ganó el presidente interino, Lerdo, por 9,520 votos contra sólo 604 de Díaz, 136 de otros candidatos y 52 en blanco" (page 53).
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales en 1872" (page 277).
Taplin 1972: Juárez dies in office July 18, 1872 and is succeeded by Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, chief justice of the supreme court (page 62).
Federal election (Lerdo de Tejada)
Emmerich 1985: "En 1876 Lerdo fue reelegido, con el 90% de los 8,288 sufragios" (page 53).
Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales en 1876" (page 278).
Taplin 1972: Lerdo de Tejada is overthrown November 16, 1876 and is succeeded by general Porfirio Díaz as interim president (pages 62-63).