Experimental Turbidity Currents (circa 1940s): Philip Kuenen (Groningen Univ) demonstrates how such underwater currents can move suspended sediment loads downslope, scouring underwater canyons and fans, moving rocks and creating graded sediment layers. The studies shown in the film are presented in: Kuenen, PH and CI Migliorini. Turbidity Currents as a Cause of Graded Behavior. Journal of Geology 58(2):91-127, 1950. Scripps scientists did extensive research on underwater canyons, their formation and geologic setting, and turbidity currents.
Northern Holiday (1951): The Northern Holiday Expedition was the second major SIO exploration of the deep Pacific Ocean, covering the eastern North Pacific from Hawaii to the Gulf of Alaska and partly retracing the historic Challenger cruise of 1873-6. This region was still little explored--a "holiday" area in Navy parlance--where work had been left undone. This film portrays research and personnel aboard the R/V Horizon during the expedition. Scientists John Isaacs, Henry Menard, Alan Smith, Warren Wooster, and James Stewart perform a mid-water trawl, hydrographic cast, horizontal net-tow, rock dredging, and gravity coring.
Cruise of the Zaca (1952): clip of Errol Flynn arriving at Scripps and being greeted by Carl and Laura Hubbs, SIO Director Harald Sverdrup (in suit), and probably Clark Hubbs. The Zaca cruise occurred in mid-1946.
Operation Castle (1954): clip collage of Scripps divers working on wave measuring equipment for atomic testing at Bikini Island
Mid-Pacific Expedition (1958): Scripps expedition discovered the Mid-Pacific Mountain Range on the bottom of the Pacific Ocean and confirmed Darwin’s theory about the origin of atolls
Vermillion Sea Expedition (1959): Scripps expedition explored and delineated the bathymetry, tectonic elements and crustal structures of the entire length of the Gulf of California
Rivers of Sand (1959): clip of Scripps divers Conrad Limbaugh, Wheeler North and James Stewart swimming underwater in Baja California
Remote Underwater Manipulator, RUM (1960): This film shows a formal launching of the Remote Underwater Manipulator (RUM) into the surf on the beach next to Scripps pier, with Navy officials in attendance. RUM was an unmanned tracked underwater vehicle with a manipulator arm for collecting precisely located samples. Scripps’ Victor Anderson points at a feature on RUM, using his right hand and wearing a dark suit, white shirt, and tie. Out on the pier, RUM can be seen underwater, and scuba divers descend into the water to work with RUM. Finally RUM is driven out of the water back up onto the beach. Some Scripps campus buildings can be seen in this film, and the rocky beach structure along the north side of Scripps pier can be seen.
Meet the Professor (1963): clip collage of Scripps' Carl Hubbs discussing fish catch from mid-water trawl, baited hooks and traps. In the beginning minutes, Robert Wisner, who worked with Hubbs, is wearing a long-sleeved light-colored shirt and standing to Hubbs' left (to the viewer, Wisner is to the right of Hubbs).
Oceanography: Science for Survival (1964): U.S. participation in the National Oceanographic Program, and the work of its Inter-agency Committee on Oceanography. President John F. Kennedy speaks at the beginning and end of the film, endorsing oceanographic research. The film supports the role of oceanography for national defense and shows the importance of ocean studies for the understanding of our world. Coverage includes the Deep Sea Drilling Project, seafloor mapping, seawater chemistry research on the R/V Atlantis II, ocean circulation modeling with a topographical model table, biological studies, New Jersey pollutant studies using clams, a wave machine studying breaking waves, fisheries research using R/V Albatross IV, research using the Navy Electronics Laboratory Oceanographic Tower in San Diego, research use of the bathyscaphe Trieste, Gulf of Mexico ocean current research, navigational charting, the UNOLS oceanographic research ship program, FLIP (Scripps’ floating instrument platform), oceanographic instruments and buoys, National Oceanographic Data Center, EQUALANT project. Roger Revelle is shown briefly at approx 35 minutes.
Victor Vacquier: clip of hauling in a magnetometer & showing shark toothmarks on it, on R/V Argo
Sealab I (1965): Sealab I was a US Navy saturated diving undersea habitat located offshore Bermuda in 1964 at a depth of 192 feet. Robert Thompson, Lester Anderson, Robert A. Barth, and Sanders Manning were to stay submerged for three weeks, but an approaching storm halted the experiment after eleven days. The film shows the problems of lowering and raising the SEALAB I structure, and shows living conditions aboard and work performed.
Careers in Oceanography (1965): This film presents the importance and opportunities of the ocean including historical aspects of scientific study of the ocean. In the introductory section, the Denise diving saucer (Cousteau soucoupe), Deep Star, shipboard oceanographic instruments and methods, and computers of that era are briefly shown. Three men are portrayed pursuing oceanographic college and career interests in geology, biology, and physics. Several colleges are shown including UCSD and SIO. Several laboratories are shown including NMFS’ Southwest Fisheries Center adjacent to SIO. U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office and National Oceanographic Data Center activities are presented. Oceanographic facets shown are the Nomad buoy, the manned spar buoy laboratory/stable ocean platform SPAR, the bathyscaphe Trieste, submersibles (Alvin, Deep Jeep, Moray, Aluminaut), Naval Electronics Laboratory Oceanographic Tower, Scripps’ FLIP, the Yaquina research ship, and oceanographic ship research operations.
Oceanographer of the Navy Reports (1965): This film discusses Navy interests in oceanography and the Oceanographer of the Navy position, filled by Rear Admiral Denys W. Knoll, who introduces the film, and then discusses oceanographic research as a vital program in the development of modern weapons and defense systems. The film shows the development of the Anti-Submarine Warfare Environmental Prediction Services (ASWEPS), the Oceanographic Prediction Division in Washington, D.C., the NOMAD meteorological and oceanographic buoy, and use of submersibles and undersea habitats (TRIESTE I and II, SEALAB I, ARCHIMEDES, and ALVIN).
Oceanic Research with the Cousteau Diving Saucer (1965): This film discusses U.S. Naval Electronics Laboratory scientists using oceanographic research tools such as scuba diving, the NEL Oceanographic Tower off Mission Beach, the bathyscaphe TRIESTE, a thermistor chain towed behind a ship, and model wave tanks. The focus of the film is NEL work with Denise, the Cousteau Soucoupe Sous-Marine submersible, which NEL used for over twenty one dives for a year from 1964 - 1965. Eugene C. LaFond studied physical oceanography and the sea bottom west of the NEL Oceanographic Tower off Mission Beach, California. Edwin Buffington examined sea gullies and took core samples offshore San Clemente, California. David G. Moore observed a submarine canyon in the Coronado Bank off the coast of Baja California, Mexico and rock outcrops in Thirty-Mile Bank off California. Robert F. Dill studied the La Jolla submarine canyon of California and the San Lucas and Los Frailes canyons at the tip of Baja California, Mexico. Eric G. Barham observed the mid-water phenomena known as the Deep Scattering Layer.
Man in the Sea: Story of Sealab II (1966): Sealab II was a US Navy undersea habitat located offshore Scripps in 1965 at the edge of La Jolla Canyon at a depth of 200 feet. Each of three teams of divers spent fifteen days below, and aquanaut/astronaut Scott Carpenter stayed below thirty days. The U.S. Navy's Tuffy, a bottlenose dolphin, ferried supplies from the surface. In Sealab II, Scott Carpenter sings "Good Night Irene" on ukelele in a high helium voice. While Scott Carpenter is decompressing in a surface chamber, he has a high-helium-voiced telephone conversation with President Lyndon Baines Johnson, who called to congratulate on the mission.
Deep Tow onboard R/V Thomas Washington (July 1966): clip collage of deployment and use of the Marine Physical Laboratory's Deep Tow system, which originated in 1960 in response to Navy needs to understand the fine scale topography of the deep sea floor and questions in the science community about the implications of the newly emerging concept of seafloor spreading.
Waves Across the Pacific (1967): Scripps' Walter Munk's 1963 experiment to track waves generated by Antarctic storms across the Pacific to Alaska
Walter Munk clip talking about wave sensor design and recording equipment, with Frank Snodgrass working in the lab
Walter Munk clip talking about his work location in Samoa, showing how he recorded daily wave measurements
Mission: Oceanography (1967): This film presents the U.S. Navy's oceanographic interests from the 1830's. Film is introduced by Rear Admiral O.D. Waters, Jr., the Oceanographer of the Navy. The Navy established the Depot of Charleston Instruments in 1830, and later Navy Lt. Matthew Fontaine Maury worked with observational records there to produce various nautical products. Navy oceanographic observations aboard the USN ship Silas Bent (AGS-26) are shown. Visuals include Sealab I, the USN Nomad buoy, the Naval Electronics Laboratory Oceanographic Tower off Mission Beach, the deep diving Trieste bathyscaphe, Scripps Institution of Oceanography’s FLIP, the NOTS Deep Jeep, the Denise diving saucer (Cousteau Soucoupe), Antarctic activities including icebreakers and McMurdo Station, submarines, a tower pool in Washington DC used to test instruments, laboratory research on plankton and marine geology, a salt water desalination plant, a seawater magnesium extraction plant, fishery activities, and a towed instrument package.
DIVERCON 1: NAVFAC/NCEL Underwater Construction Experiment (1968): SeaLab III was a Navy undersea habitat experiment slated for San Clemente Island waters in 1969. This film documents one aspect of the SeaLab III project, called DIVERCON 1, which was a ten foot diameter and ten foot high modular dry repair and storage facility standing on adjustable legs and anchored. Designed by the U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory at Port Hueneme, underwater construction techniques and methods by divers were tested in water tanks at UCLA and in the ocean offshore Anacapa Island. An underwater lighting chandelier was developed to illuminate an underwater construction site. DIVERCON 1 remained on the bottom off Anacapa Island for a month until recovery by a ship.
Buoyancy Transport Vehicle, The Undersea Forklift (1968): Components of the Navy’s SeaLab III project included the development of underwater construction methods. This film presents the design and operations of the Buoyant Transport Vehicle, (BTV), a remotely operated underwater forklift vehicle developed by the Hawaii laboratory of the Naval Undersea Research and Development Center. BTV field testing including running an underwater course and payload handling was done off Anacapa Island by the U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. Next, the BTV was used in assembling the DIVERCON module in the DIVERCON BTV Exercise, saving one third of the underwater construction time over previous construction methods. Finally, the BTV was transferred to the Naval Undersea Center in San Diego for use as a range support vehicle.
Launching of R/V Melville (1968): This silent film shows the launching of Scripps' R/V Melville, designated AGOR 14 (Auxiliary General Oceanography Research) by the U.S. Navy, at the Defoe Shipbuilding Company in Bay City, Michigan on July 10, 1968.
Sixty Days Beneath the Sea: Tektite I (1970): On February 15, 1969, four US Department of Interior scientists (Ed Clifton, Conrad Mahnken, Richard Waller and John VanDerwalker) descended to the ocean floor in Great Lameshur Bay in the US Virgin Islands to begin an ambitious diving project dubbed "Tektite I.” These four aquanauts established a new world's record for saturated diving by a single team. On April 15, 1969, the aquanaut team returned to the surface with over 58 days of marine scientific studies. More than 19 hours of decompression therapy were needed to accommodate the scientist's return to the surface.
Life on the Abyssal Floor (1970): Scripps' John Isaacs' "Monster Camera" films deep-sea animals attracted to bait
John Isaacs clip discussing the North Pacific Experiment
Carl Hubbs clip discussing his interest in ichthyology
100 Fathoms Deep: Sealab III (1971): Sealab III was a US Navy undersea habitat off San Clemente Island in 1969 at a depth of 610 feet. Five teams of nine divers were scheduled to spend 12 days each in the habitat, testing techniques and doing research. The habitat suffered leaks, and repair attempts were unsuccessfull. During the second repair attempt, aquanaut Barry Cannon died.
Assault on the Unknown: Ocean Research Platforms (1972): The film shows Navy sponsored research, and starts the story showing submersibles including William Beebe’s bathysphere, Auguste Piccard's and the Navy’s bathyscaphe TRIESTE, and the Navy’s TURTLE. The film tells how the scientists study the deep ocean utilizing deep submersibles to study the deep scattering layer, transport of sediments, sampling of waters, and the collection of ocean specimens. Eric Baron of U.S. Navy Electronic Laboratory talks about Trieste 1. The film shows the U.S. Naval Electronic Laboratory’s Oceanographic Research Tower off Mission Beach, San Diego, and Eugene LaFond discusses its features and use. Scripps’ John Isaacs discusses his Bumblebee Buoys and use. The film shows General Dynamics Convair Division’s forty foot diameter Monster Buoy, and Scripps’ FLIP (Floating Instrument Platform), as well as two- and three-legged models of FLIP. Bob Beador (spelling?), an engineer at the Naval Undersea Research and Development Center, discusses oceanographic platform model designs. Fletcher’s Ice Island or T3 is shown. Jerry D. Stachiw, Navy materials specialist, discusses transparent acrylic spheres for submersibles and undersea observations including NEMO, the Navy Experimental Manned Observatory. William Evans of the Naval Undersea Research Center discusses the use of the Sea-See catamaran and its acrylic hemisphere for viewing marine mammals and sharks underwater. Will Forman of the Naval Undersea Research Center discusses the unmanned Deep View remotely operated vehicle with an acrylic observation sphere. Scripps’ Victor Anderson demonstrates RUM (Remote Underwater Manipulator) and ORB (Ocean Research Buoy).
Return to the Sea (1975): Describes the history of research submersibles starting with Beebe's bathyscaphe and including TRIESTE, ALVIN, SEA CLIFF, NEMO, and TURTLE. Interviewees are Andreas Rechnitzer, Don Walsh, Allyn Vine, Bill Rainnie, Richard H. Backus, Howard Sanders, Holger W. Jannasch, Bruce Heezen, Jerry Stachiw, Scott Johnson, Robert Ballard. Marie Tharp is shown.
The Day the Tide Turned Red (1975): The film describes the history of red tides, the dinoflagellates which cause them, the conditions that encourage these plankton blooms, and the effects of red tides and toxins on fish, shellfish, and man. Research use of the Gymnodinium red tide toxin is discussed. The marine ecology of coastal areas and red tides in the United States are discussed including Florida, New England, and Southern California. Scientist interviewed include Bernard C. Abbott (University of Southern California Allan Hancock Foundation), Karen Steidinger (Florida state Dept of Natural Resources’ Marine Research Laboratory, St. Petersburg), Perry W. Gilbert (Mote Marine Laboratory), Dorothy F. Soule and Mikihito Oguri (University of Southern California Allan Hancock Foundation), Charles S. Yentsch and Clarise M. Yentsch (University of Massachusetts Gloucester Marine Station), Osmund Holm-Hansen (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) showing the vertical deep tank at the Hydraulics Laboratory, Theodore L. Jahn (UCLA), H. David Baldridge (Mote Marine Laboratory), Dean F. Martin (University of South Florida), Tim O’Brien and Alvin Sieger [spelling?] (University of Southern California Allan Hancock Foundation), and Young S. Kim (University of South Florida).
Robotics in Undersea Systems (circa 1980): Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego (now SPAWAR) undersea robotics work in 1978 to 1980. A computer-controlled autonomous underwater vehicle was developed utilizing on-board cameras, magnetic pipeline sensors, underwater manipulator arm, voice control and computer voice response, telepresence, etc. Another underwater robotic system called Work Systems Package, provides underwater manipulative capability at great depth, and can be used with a Pontoon Implacement Vehicle to retrieve downed aircraft.