Elections and Events 1970-1984

1970

April 19: general election (Pastrana / PC)

Angell 2001: "The first clear sign of frustration on the part of a significant number of Colombians came with the final presidential election under the non-competitive National Front system in 1970. The former military dictator over the years 1953-7, who at that time had been entrusted with the task of ending ‘La Violencia,’ General Rojas Pinilla, came within a hair’s breadth of defeating the (Conservative) National Front candidate Misael Pastrana" (page 21).

Buscando las causas del 19 de abril de 1970: el fenómeno electoral en Bogotá 1972: Gives detailed electoral statistics for all elections on April 19, 1970 (pages 267-398), with statistics by "mesa y puesto" for all races in Bogotá.

Bushnell 1993: "Rojas Pinilla received 39.0 percent of the vote against Pastrana’s 40.6 percent. Since the election rules contained no provision for a runoff, Pastrana’s edge was enough to make him Colombia’s next president" (page 230). Describes election and concerns about fraud. Gives votes for four candidates (page 291).

Campos 1972: "Election results by department" (page 53). Gives the percent of the vote for four candidates in each department and the total number of votes cast and percent of registered voters who voted in each department. Additional tables give information on pre-election and post-election surveys.

Campos 1972a: Provides in-depth analysis of the 1970 election in Cali, Bogotá, and Medellín.

Chronicle of parliamentary elections 4 1970: "The Colombian Congress consists of 2 Houses: The Senate, composed of 118 members elected for 4 years on the basis of 1 member for each 200,000 inhabitants or fraction of 100,000, with the reservation that no department be represented by less than 2 Senators. The House of Representatives, with 210 members henceforth elected for 4 years on the basis of 1 for each 100,000 inhabitants or fraction of 50,000, with the reservation that no department shall have less than 2 Representatives" (page 45). Describes the electoral system and "general political considerations and conduct of the elections" (pages 45-47). Statistics include for both the Senate and the House the number of registered voters, voters, blank ballot papers, void ballot papers, valid votes, votes and seats won by each faction, and the distribution of parliamentarians according to sex (page 47-48).

Corr 1972: "Presidential vote: election of April 19, 1970" (page 101). Gives number of votes for four candidates by department. "Capital cities of the departments and territories—political affiliations of councilmen" (page 106).

Dix 1980: "Election results by departments (1970)" (page 145).

Eastman 1982: "Votación para asambleas departamentales 19 de abril de 1970" (pages 627-630). Gives number of votes for divisions within Liberal and Conservative parties, other parties, total votes, and blank and null votes in each department. "Votación para cámara 19 de abril de 1970" (pages 660-662). Gives number of votes for each party in each department and total votes. "Votación para senado 19 de abril de 1970" (pages 677-678). Gives number of votes for each party in each department and total votes. "Elecciones presidenciales 19 de abril de 1970" (page 693). Gives votes for major candidates in all departments.

Estadísticas electorales (1970) 1971: "En esta publicación…se indican…los resultados obtenidos en las elecciones para Presidente de la República, Senadores, Representantes, Diputados y Consejeros Intendenciales, llevados a término el 19 de abril de 1970" ("advertencia"). "Resultado de los escrutinios: elecciones presidenciales, abril 19 de 1970" (pages 1-47). Gives for each department and municipality the votes for each presidential candidate, blank votes, null votes, total votes cast, registered voters, percent who voted, and the number of men and the number of women who voted. "Resultado de la votación en las embajadas y consulados de Colombia en el exterior. Elecciones presidenciales, abril 19 de 1970" (pages 48-57). For each country where votes were cast gives the votes for each presidential candidate, blank votes, null votes, total votes cast, number of voting locations, and the number of men and the number of women who voted. "Resultado de los escrutinios realizados por la h. corte electoral. Elecciones presidenciales, abril 19 de 1970" (page 58). Gives by department the votes for each presidential candidate, blank votes, null votes, and total votes cast. "Potencial de sufragantes y porcentaje de votación. Elecciones presidenciales, abril 19 de 1970" (page 60). Gives by department the number and percent of men and of women who were registered to vote and who voted. "Inscripción en el país por sexo" (page 62). Gives by department the number of men and of women registered to vote in municipalities other than their current residence. "Mesas de votación que funcionaron" (page 63). By department. "Votación por sexo. Elecciones para presidente, abril 19 de 1970" (page 64). By department. "Votación por sectores. Elecciones presidenciales, abril 19 de 1970" (page 66). By department. "Resultado de los escrutinios. Elecciones para corporaciones públicas, abril 19 de 1970. Senado de la República" (pages 69-120). Gives by department and municipality the votes for each list in each party, null votes, blank votes, total votes, registered voters, and the percent who voted. "Votación para Senado de la República por grupos políticos. Elecciones de abril 19 de 1970" (page 121). Gives by department the votes by faction for Liberals and Conservatives, blank votes, null votes, and total votes cast. "Senadores elegidos 1970-1974" (pages 123-134). Gives the "principales" and "suplentes" elected by the factions of Liberals and Conservatives in each department. "Composición política, Senado de la República" (page 135). By party. "Resultado de los escrutinios. Elecciones para corporaciones públicas, abril 19 de 1970. Cámara de Representantes" (pages 137-204). Gives by department and municipality the votes for each list in each party, null votes, blank votes, total votes, registered voters, and the percent who voted. "Votación para Cámara de Diputados por grupos políticos. Elecciones de abril 19 de 1970" (page 205). Gives by department the votes by faction for Liberals and Conservatives, blank votes, null votes, and total votes cast. "Representantes elegidos 1970-1974" (pages 207-222). Gives the "principales" and "suplentes" elected by the factions of Liberals and Conservatives in each department. "Composición política, Cámara de Representantes" (page 223). By party. "Resultado de los escrutinios. Elecciones para corporaciones públicas, abril 19 de 1970. Asamblea Departamental" (pages 225-300). Gives by department and municipality the votes by faction for Liberals, Conservatives, and other parties; blank votes; null votes; total votes; registered voters; and the percent that voted. "Votación para Asambleas Departamentales por grupos políticos. Elecciones de abril 19 de 1970" (pages 301-302). "Diputados elegidos 1970-1972" (pages 304-325). Gives the "principales" and "suplentes" elected by the factions of Liberals and Conservatives in each department. "Composición política, Asambleas Departamentales" (pages 326-327). "Resultado de los escrutinios. Elecciones para corporaciones públicas, abril 19 de 1970. Consejo Intendencial" (pages 329-330). Gives by intendency the votes by faction for Liberals, Conservatives, and other parties; blank votes; null votes; total votes; registered voters; and the percent that voted. "Votación para Consejos Intendenciales por grupos políticos. Elecciones de abril 19 de 1970" (page 333). "Consejeros Intendenciales elegidos 1970-1972" (pages 335-337). Gives the "principales" and "suplentes" elected by the factions of Liberals and Conservatives in each intendency. "Composición política, Consejos Intendenciales" (page 338). "Potencial de sufragantes y porcentaje de votación. Elecciones para corporaciones públicas, abril 19 de 1970" (page 341). Gives by department the number and percent of men and of women who were registered to vote and who voted. "Votación por sexo. Elecciones para corporaciones públicas, abril 19 de 1970" (page 343). "Número de miembros principales que integran las distintas corporaciones públicas con discriminación del sexo. Elecciones de abril 19 de 1970" (page 345). Gives by department the number of men and the number of women in each elected body and the percent from each department that are women. "Número de listas inscritas en cada corporación. Elecciones de abril de 1970" (page 347). "Lista alfabetica de ciudadanos elegidos" (pages 350-382). Gives name, party, faction, whether "principal" or "suplente," body, and department. "Grupos políticos correspondientes a las casillas ‘otros’ de los cuadros de votación. Elecciones de abril 19 de 1970" (pages 383-385). "Resultado de la votación para Cámara por grupos políticos, elecciones de abril 9 de 1970" (page 391).

Historia electoral colombiana, 1810-1988 1991: "Elecciones presidenciales del 19 de abril de 1970" (page 165). Gives by department the votes for four candidates, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Resultado de la votación para senado: elecciones del 19 de abril de 1970" (page 209). Gives by department the votes for conservatives and liberals, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Cámara de representantes: elecciones del 19 de abril de 1970" (page 244). Gives by department the vote for each party, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and potential voters.

Kline 1995: "The apogee of ANAPO was in the 1970 election, in which its Liberal lists governed 14 percent of the congressional votes and its Conservative lists 20 percent" (page 49).

Losada L. 1972: Analyzes data from the 1970 election in Bogotá.

Martz 1997: "As election day dawned on 19 April 1970, the race between Pastrana and Rojas appeared to be close. An interruption in the vote count late in the day lent credence to later allegations that the Front eventually counted out the retired strongman when he had actually been elected. Even before the voting had concluded, Rojas Pinilla charged the government with massive fraud and threatened both a general strike and urban guerrilla warfare. Lleras Restrepo, taking no chances, declared martial law and imposed a street curfew" (pages 138-139). Gives the percent of the total vote and the number of votes for each candidate. "Congressional results essentially confirmed the patterns of the presidential contest. A total of 3,980,201 votes were cast at this level, which was 51.9 percent of the total" (page 139). Gives number of votes and percent of vote won by each faction and the division of seats (pages 139-140).

Mauceri 1989: In May 1970 "Misael Pastrana (a Conservative) is elected president in a close four-way race. He is declared the winner over Rojas in a ruling by the Supreme Electoral Court. Following the elections a state of siege is declared, because rioting and protests occur in reaction to the election" (page 209).

Ruhl 1978: "The apparent loss of millions of their traditional supporters to abstention or to the new political movement shocked the Liberal and Conservative elites. Moreover, the strong class division in the 1970 voting patterns which placed the urban lower classes clearly with ANAPO suggested to many both the arrival of class politics and the rapid decomposition of the traditional multi-class political parties" (page 31).

Schoultz 1972: "The election of 1970 was the first in 24 years in which the Colombian voters were given the opportunity to choose a radical candidate and reject the traditional policies of the National Front" (page 35).

Serpa Erazo 1999: "El 19 de abril" (pages 459-473). Gives details of the presidential election and the results. "Anexo 8" (pages 535-542). Reproduces the documents regarding the counting of the votes in this contested election.

Sturges-Vera 1990: "Anapo challenged the National Front by presenting Rojas Pinilla as a Conservative candidate for the presidency in 1970. The election took place in an atmosphere of escalating violence, and the public received with widespread skepticism the official announcement that the Conservative candidate of the National Front, Misael Pastrana Borrero, had won by a narrow margin of 65,000…Pastrana was the last president to be elected under the provisions of the National Front. In 1970 the government began to dismantle the structure of the National Front in accordance with the 1968 constitutional amendments. The parity provision for elective legislative bodies and the exclusion of nontraditional parties from participation in elections no longer applied on the local level. These changes also went into effect on the national level in 1974" (page 46).

Villarreal 1994: "Cerca de 1000 mujeres aspiraron a tener representación en los distintos órganos colegiados, de ellas casi 400 aspiraban al Congreso y solo salieron elegidas 17. La Unión de Mujeres Liberales Independientes…lanzó una lista de 70 mujeres de las Asociaciones de Amas de Casa, pero no tuvo respaldo…Con respecto al período anterior 1966-1970, la representación femenina perdió nueve curules, cuatro del Senado y el resto de la Cámara" (page 166).

June

Villarreal 1994: "El proceso de institucionalización de acciones para las mujeres, se acentuó con la creación en 1970, bajo el gobierno de Misael Pastrana, de una Secretaría de Asuntos Femeninos adscrita a la Presidencia…Es factible pensar que esta Secretaría fue un logro de la participación de las mujeres en la campaña electoral de 1970, pues su gestión fue encargada a quien lideraba el Comité Femenino de la campaña del candidato ganador" (page 164).

1971

Sturges-Vera 1990: "Although Anapo declared itself an official party in 1971, it declined in popularity and electoral strength" (page 46).

1972

April: state elections

Eastman 1982: "Votación para concejos municipales 16 de abril de 1972" (pages 478-506). Gives number of votes for each party, total votes cast, and number of councillors from each party elected in each municipality. "Votación para concejos municipales según secciones del país 16 de abril de 1972" (page 507). Gives votes cast for each party and total votes cast in each department.

Estadísticas electorales (1972) 1973: "En esta publicación…se indican los resultados obtenidos en las elecciones para Diputados, Consejeros Intendenciales y Concejales Municipales, verificadas el 16 de Abril de 1.972" ("advertencia"). See information under "Estadísticas electorales (1970) 1971" for elections of April 1970 for descriptions of tables included in this volume. Also includes "Ciudadanas elegidas diputadas y consejeras intendenciales, elecciones 1972" (pages 146-149).

Martz 1997: "Given the elimination of midterm ‘mitaca’ elections, the only electoral test came with the April 1972 municipal contests. Some 8400 municipal councillors and 406 deputies to departmental assemblies were to be selected" (page 152). "The result was a solid victory for the Liberals—especially for its more progressive elements—and a decisive defeat for ANAPO. Abstention was some 73 percent of the electorate, and ANAPO lost every department it had controlled and over 90 percent of its municipal councils, including Bogotá" (page 153).

Ruhl 1978: "In the 1972 departmental elections when ANAPO first ran as a completely independent party without the benefit of using Conservative and Liberal lists, its support fell to under 19% of the vote" (page 31).

September

Fogelquist 1981: "The PCC’s call for the formation of an opposition front was to bear fruit on September 22, 1972 at the National Assembly of Popular Union. The assembly was attended by the Partido Social Demócrata Cristiano, Movimiento Amplio Colombiano, MAC, recently created by former ANAPO members, and the PCC. The three groups agreed to form the Union Nacional de Oposición, UNO" (page 76).

1973

November

Historia electoral colombiana, 1810-1988 1991: "La Intendencia del Casanare fue creada por la Ley 19 del 28 de noviembre de 1973" (page 210).

1974

Chernick 1993: "The formal end of the sixteen-year joint rule of Colombia’s two traditional parties in 1974 was followed by more than a decade and a half of social protest, leftist electoral initiatives, and revolutionary armed insurgencies" (page 61).

Dugas 2000: "The effects of the National Front on the party system were varied and intertwined. Of particular importance were the depoliticization of the Conservative and Liberal parties, the fragmentation of these parties, the establishment of broker clientelism as the predominant partisan means of mediating between the state and civil society, and the corresponding failure of the PC and the PL to respond effectively to the demands of a modernizing and restive civil society" (page 88). "Thus, while nearly every Colombian identified with the PC or the PL in the 1950s, party identification had fallen to around 70 percent of the adult population in the 1970s" (page 89).

Sanders 1982: "Even when the National Front ended in 1974, Article 120 of the Constitution provided for continued power-sharing, requiring ‘equitable and appropriate’ participation by the opposition" (page 4).

January

Kline 1999: "The M-19, claiming to be the armed branch of Rojas’s party, the National Popular Alliance (ANAPO, ‘Alianza Nacional Popular’), made its appearance in January 1974 when it stole a sword that belonged to Simón Bolívar" (page 18).

Sturges-Vera 1990: "In 1972 [1974?] another guerrilla group—the 19th of April Movement (Movimiento 19 de Abril—M-19)—emerged. The M-19 took its name from the date on which Rojas Pinilla was narrowly and, in their minds, fraudulently, defeated by Pastrana. Although the M-19 claimed to be the armed branch of Anapo, the Rojas Pinilla organization disavowed any connection to the guerrilla group" (page 47).

April: general election (López Michelsen / PL)

Bushnell 1993: Rojas, "as the [ANAPO] candidate in 1974, received 9.4 percent of the votes cast, which was a creditable showing for the first woman to make a serious run for the presidency, but it represented a major falling off from her father’s record" (page 242). Gives votes for three candidates and "others" (page 292).

Cepeda 1986: "Cuantos votos vale un senador? (Elecciones del 21 de Abril de 1974)" (page 23). Gives by department the number of votes cast, the number of senators elected, and the number of votes required for each.

Chernick 1993: "There was hope that the presidency of Alfonso López Michelsen… would break decisively from the National Front; López had been the leader of the MRL, its principal Liberal dissidency. However, this hope proved illusory" (page 67). "The Communists and other leftist groups had forged a tenuous electoral alliance, the Unión Nacional de Oposición…in the 1974 election. However, the UNO was unable to overcome factional differences or effectively challenge the remnants of ANAPO for support among the urban poor" (page 69).

Chronicle of parliamentary elections 8 1974: "The April 1974 elections were for 112 Senators and 199 Representatives, all to be elected for 4 years" (page 37). Gives the characteristics of parliament, the electoral system, and "general political considerations and conduct of the elections" (pages 37-38). "The Congressional elections were held simultaneously with the first open presidential elections in more than 25 years. In the latter, three opposition parties of socialist leaning challenged the two traditional Conservative and Liberal parties" (page 38). Gives the number of registered voters and voters, both approximate (page 38).

Eastman 1982: "Votación para concejos municipales 21 de abril de 1974" (pages 508-535). Gives number of votes for each party, total votes cast, and number of councillors from each party elected in each municipality. "Votación para concejos municipales según secciones del país 1974" (page 536). Gives votes cast for each party and total votes cast in each department. "Votación para cámara 21 de abril de 1974" (pages 663-664). Gives number of votes for each party in each department and total votes. "Votación para senado 21 de abril de 1974" (page 679). Gives number of votes for each party in each department and total votes. "Resultado del escrutinio efectuado por la honorable corte electoral para presidente de la república. Elecciones del 21 de abril de 1974" (page 694). Gives number of votes for major candidates in all departments.

Estadísticas electorales (1974) 1975: "La Registraduría Nacional se complace en presentar en esta publicación las estadísticas electorales correspondientes a las elecciones para Presidente de la República, Senadores, Representantes, Diputados, Consejeros Intendenciales y Concejales, verificadas el 21 de Abril de 1.974" (page 7). See information under "Estadísticas electorales (1970) 1971" for elections of April 1970 for descriptions of tables included in this volume. Also includes "Ciudadanas elegidas senadoras-representantes, diputadas y consejeras intendenciales" (pages 336-339).

Fogelquist 1981: "The elections of 1974 brought the highest voter turnout in recent Colombian history, with an abstention rate of 41%…UNO’s candidate received 137,054 votes, 2.63%, out of a total of 5,199,542" (page 77).

Harkess 1975: "Public discussion of the inferior status of women in Colombian society encouraged two of the three presidential candidates to orient themselves to women voters in the 1974 campaign. One candidate was a woman, while another promised reform of divorce and discriminatory laws" (page 439).

Historia electoral colombiana, 1810-1988 1991: "Elecciones presidenciales del 21 de abril de 1974" (page 166). Gives by department the votes for five candidates, others, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Se reduce el requisito de edad a los 18 años para adquirir la ciudadanía." "Resultado de la votación para senado: elecciones del 21 de abril de 1974" (page 210). Gives by department the votes for Conservatives, Liberals, ANAPO, and UNO, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Cámara de representantes: elecciones del 21 de abril de 1974" (page 245). Gives by department the vote for Conservatives, Liberals, ANAPO, and UNO, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and potential voters.

Kline 1995: "In an election in which all the major candidates were sons or daughters of former presidents, López received 56 percent of the vote, defeating both Conservative Alvaro Gómez and ANAPO candidate María Eugenia Rojas de Moreno Díaz" (page 55).

Martz 1997: "With 5,212,133 citizens casting a vote for president, the percentage of eligible voters who participated was 58.1 percent, higher than at any time during the National Front" (page 157). Gives the number of votes and percent of vote for leading candidates. "The Liberal triumph included a comfortable majority in congress, winning both chambers by 55.6 percent to 32 percent for the Conservatives" (page 157).

Murillo 1975: Detailed analysis of the results of the presidential election of April 21, 1974 in Bogotá.

Osterling 1989: Gives the number of votes for four candidates (page 103). "The Liberal Party also obtained a majority in both houses of Congress."

Premo 1988: "Under Liberal President Alfonso López Michelsen (from 1974 to 1978) the military once again became deeply involved in coutnerinsurgency offensives. Despite extensive operations, the government was unable to eliminate rural guerrilla groups" (page 231).

Sturges-Vera 1990: "María Eugenia Rojas---the Anapo candidate in the 1974 presidential election—received less than 10 percent of the vote" (page 46).

1975

Serpa Erazo 1999: Rojas Pinilla dies on January 17, 1975 (page 489).

Sturges-Vera 1990: "After General Rojas Pinilla’s death in 1975, [Anapo] continued to lose strength, eventually allying itself with other marginal movements" (pages 46-47).

Villanueva 1994: "Desde 1975 se redujo el requisito de edad de los 21 a 18 años para adquirir la ciudadanía" (page 65).

1976

April: local elections

Eastman 1982: "Votación para concejos municipales 18 de abril de 1976" (pages 537-564). Gives number of votes for each party, total votes cast, and number of councillors from each party elected in each municipality. "Votación para concejos municipales según secciones del país 1976" (page 565). Gives votes cast for each party and total votes cast in each department.

Martz 1997: "Based on estimates of the electorate for 1976, participation for both departmental assembly elections and for municipal councils was barely 30 percent" (page 174). Gives the number of votes and percent of total votes for Liberals and Conservatives in departmental and in municipal council elections.

1977

Cepeda Ulloa 1987: "In 1977 a separation of the electoral calendar was approved; elections to representative bodies were to take place first, presidential elections some eight weeks later" (page 75).

Chronicle of parliamentary elections 12 1978: "Congress passed on December 1, 1977, a bill which provided for the election, in June 1978 (parallel to the presidential election), of a Constituent Assembly whose task would be to modify certain chapters of the present Constitution, notably as far as local government and the Judiciary are concerned. Also included was the provision that congressional and presidential elections no longer take place simultaneously; it was moreover decided that the next congressional elections would be held on February 26, 1978, and presidential elections the following June" (page 15).

1978

Buenahora Febres-Cordero 1995: "Las elecciones de 1.978 tuvieron un aumento significativo del potencial electoral, dado que la edad para adquirir la capacidad civil y política se había disminuido a 18 años" (page 294).

February 26: congressional and departmental elections

Campos 1980: "Las elecciones de febrero de 1978 en Cali" (pages 33-69). Tables include "Voto para senado y concejo, Cali 1978, según listas" (page 40) and "Comparación de la abstención en las elecciones de febrero de 1978, en Cali" (page 44).

Chronicle of parliamentary elections 12 1978: "The February 1978 elections were for 112 Senators and 199 Representatives, all elected for 4 years" (page 53). Describes the electoral system and "general political considerations and conduct of the elections" (pages 53-54). "The 1978 parliamentary elections were combined with those for municipal, council and provincial legislative seats, as well as a presidential primary of the ruling Liberal Party" (page 54). Statistics include the number of registered electors, voters, and number of seats won by each party in the Senate and House of Representatives (page 54).

Eastman 1982: "Votación para concejos municipales 26 de febrero de 1978" (pages 566-588). Gives number of votes for each party, total votes cast, and number of councillors from each party elected in each municipality. "Votación para cámara 26 de febrero de 1978" (pages 665-666). Gives number of votes for each party in each department and total votes. "Votación para senado 26 de febrero de 1978" (pages 680). Gives number of votes for each party in each department and total votes.

Elecciones 1978: legislación, abanico político, resultados de febrero 1978: "Resultados electorales febrero 1978 (senatoriales): porcentajes con relación a la votación total y abstención" (pages 124-125). Gives results by department for major lists within parties.

Estadísticas electorales (1978) 1979: Includes statistics on elections for congress, departmental assemblies, and municipal offices on February 26, 1978. See information under "Estadísticas electorales (1970) 1971" for elections of April 1970 for descriptions of tables included in this volume.

Fogelquist 1981: "In the 1976 [1978?] parliamentary elections, the PCC ran its candidates under the banner of UNO, which was now largely a PCC affair without MOIR. MOIR, for its part, now ran candidates under its own coalition, the Frente por la Unidad del Pueblo (FUP). Also running in the 1976 [1978?] elections was the Trotskyist Bloque Socialista. The elections were marked by a rate of voter abstention of almost eighty percent, a showing so poor that López Michelsen called for an extraordinary session of his cabinet to analyze the reasons. In the elections, PCC-UNO polled 102,971, or 3.1% of the votes, while MOIR-FUP received 42,349, or 1.27% and the Bloque Socialista only 1,600 or 0.05%" (page 83).

Goueset 1988: "Elecciones Concejo 1978 (porcentajes)" (page 216). For Bogotá.

Hartlyn 1988: "The Liberals again showed that they were the majority party with 55.1% of the total vote to the Conservatives’ 39.4%. The abstention rate of 66.8% was the highest ever for a congressional election held the same year as a presidential election" (page 211).

Historia electoral colombiana, 1810-1988 1991: "Resultado de la votación para senado: elecciones del 26 de febrero de 1978" (page 211). Gives by department the votes for Conservatives, Liberals, UNO, FUP, and others, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Cámara de representantes: elecciones del 26 de febrero de 1978" (page 246). Gives by department the vote for Conservatives, Liberals, UNO, FUP, and others, null votes, blank votes, and total votes.

Hudson 1990: "Despite a low voter turnout of 34 percent in the February 1978 congressional elections, the Liberals and Conservatives maintained their total dominance, winning 305 of the 311 congressional seats" (page 220). "The PL supporters of Julio César Turbay…received more than 1.5 million votes, as compared with 800,000 for supporters of Carlos Lleras Restrepo" (page 221).

Martz 1997: "On 26 February 1978, the ‘mitaca’ round of elections took place" (page 179). Gives the number of votes and percent of total vote won by each party. Gives the number of seats controlled by each faction in each house of congress.

Ruhl 1978: "In February [1978] the Colombian electorate selected Senate and Camara members as well as departmental and local representatives. In accordance with an internal Liberal Party agreement, the February elections also served as a Presidential primary among prospective Liberal candidates" (pages 32-33). "Although the Conservative Party had already designated a single Presidential candidate, the two major Conservative factions still competed with each other and with the Liberals for legislative seats and patronage…A number of small radical Left parties or coalitions were also involved in the February elections" (page 34). Describes the results (pages 34-37). "Colombian election results by department, 1978" (page 45).

Sturges-Vera 1990: "Turbay became the nominee of the PL after his faction won the most seats in the February 1978 congressional elections" (page 51).

May

Chronicle of parliamentary elections 12 1978: "The bill [providing for the election of a Constituent Assembly and passed by Congress on December 1, 1977] was…declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in May 1978, and no Constituent Assembly was set up" (page 15).

June: presidential election (Turbay Ayala / PL)

Bushnell 1993: Gives votes for two candidates and "other" (page 292).

Campos 1980: "Las elecciones de junio de 1978 en Cali" (pages 71-109).

Eastman 1982: "Votación para presidente de la república. Escrutinio de la honorable corte electoral. Elecciones del 4 de junio de 1978" (pages 695-696). Gives votes for major candidates in all departments.

Fogelquist 1981: "Recent developments on the left: the 1978 elections and their aftermath" (pages 108-114).

Historia electoral colombiana, 1810-1988 1991: "Elecciones presidenciales del 4 de junio de 1978" (pages 167-168). Gives by department the votes for nine candidates, null votes, blank votes, and total votes.

Hudson 1990: Turbay "defeated the Conservative candidate Betancur in the June 1978 presidential elections, in which only 39 percent of the electorate voted. Turbay was elected president with 49.5 percent of the vote, as compared with Betancur’s 46.6 percent" (page 221).

Martz 1997: Gives the number of eligible voters, the number who voted, and the number and percent of votes cast for the the top two candidates (page 181).

Premo 1988: "During the presidency of Liberal Julio César Turbay Ayala (from 1978 to 82), the armed forces increased their assigned responsibility for maintaining internal security to assume a greater role in the administration of justice" (page 232).

Ruhl 1978: Describes the June 1978 election (pages 37-40). "Colombian election results by department, 1978" (page 45).

Sturges-Vera 1990: "Turbay won the presidential election by a narrow margin; approximately 60 percent of all voters abstained" (page 51).

September

Kline 1983a: "President Turbay’s ‘Security Statute’ [is] proclaimed in September 1978. The statute included courts-martial for all political crimes" (page 277).

1979

Chronicle of parliamentary elections 13 1979: "At an extraordinary session in spring 1979, the Congress adopted a certain number of modifications of the Electoral Code" (page 9). Gives details of the changes.

Chronicle of parliamentary elections 15 1981: "An extensive constitutional reform was approved by the Congress in 1979 and promulgated on 29 November 1979" (page 11). Gives more details (pages 11-12).

1980

Dugas 2000: "(B)y the 1980s, both the PC and the PL were in crisis. Although each had defended the interests of the upper strata of Colombian society, neither party had proven willing or able to address effectively the concerns of the lower and middle social strata. Moreover, the rigidity of the political regime, deep-seated broker clientelism, and widespread political violence hindered the emergence of new political parties that could serve as alternative interlocutors between civil society and the state. The result was a profound crisis of political legitimacy, reflected in declining party identification, widespread political apathy, high rates of electoral abstention, and the intensification of organized violence against the established political regime" (page 81).

February

Martz 1997: "Official claims to have improved security were mocked on 27 February 1980 when the Movimiento 19 de Abril captured the Dominican Republic’s embassy and held hostage the ambassadors of fourteen nations" (page 191).

Sanders 1982: In February-April 1980 "the M-19 guerrillas seized the Embassy of the Dominican Republic in Bogotá during a reception and held as hostages a number of prominent diplomats, including the United States ambassador" (page 2).

March: local election

Eastman 1982: "Votación para concejos municipales 9 de marzo de 1980" (pages 589-613). Gives number of votes for each party, total votes cast, and number of councillors from each party elected in each municipality.

Goueset 1988: "Elecciones concejo 1980 (porcentajes)" (page 223). For Bogotá.

Martz 1997: "On 9 March 1980, Colombians had some 37,000 candidates from whom to choose 8617 municipal councillors and 406 members of the 22 departmental legislatures…Once again, low turnout testified to public disinterest in the maneuvering of the party elites. Of 13,772,836 registered voters, 4,192,079 (30.4 percent) voted for municipal officials, and 4,130,802 (29.99 percent) for departmental assemblymen" (page 196). Gives the number of votes and percent of vote for Liberals and Conservatives in municipal and departmental elections.

1981

June

Kline 1983a: "(A) group of Liberals, headed by Luis Carlos Galán, and calling themselves ‘Nuevo Liberalismo,’ in June 1981 proclaimed the program of the group" (page 278). Gives the twelve points of the program (pages 278-279).

November

Kline 1983a: "In November 1981 the president suffered a rude shock when the Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional his 1979 Constitutional Reform (which he had called ‘the most important congressional reform of the century’). The Congress, on the other hand, remained weak and ineffectual" (page 277).

December

Kline 1999: "(T)he Colombian drug industry [held] a national convention secretly in December of 1981, which 223 drug-gang bosses attended. One notable ‘accomplishment’ of the meeting was the creation of a death squad called MAS (‘Muerte a Secuestradores,’ Death to Kidnappers)…(I)t’s goal was to kill all kidnappers and to end the guerrilla practice of kidnapping people, including the ‘honest, hard working drug gang bosses,’ for ransom to finance their subversive activities" (pages 23-24).

1982

Kline 1996: "The traditional method that parties have used to choose presidential candidates has been a national convention controlled by regional leaders. However, in the 1980s a group of young Liberals, led by Luis Carlos Galán and calling themselves the New Liberalism movement, split from the party after the 1982 convention and chose Alfonso López to be the presidential candidate" (page 24).

Sánchez David 1987: "La votación para Bogotá --1982" (page 146).

March: congressional and local election

Buenahora Febres-Cordero 1995: "A nivel de Senado de la República, el Liberalismo obtuvo 3.149.716 votos, es decir, el 56.5%, al paso que el Conservatismo logró 2.252.601, o sea el 40.3% de las curules" (page 204).

Chronicle of parliamentary elections 16 1982: Describes the electoral system and "general considerations and conduct of the elections" (pages 41-42). "In the March 1982 elections, the centrist Liberal party…retained majority control in both Houses of the national Congress as well as in most of the country’s regional assemblies and municipal councils" (page 42). Gives the number of seats won by each party in each house.

Dugas 2000: "(T)he number of PC legislators elected to the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives remained virtually unchanged in the 1982 elections, with the PC controlling just slightly over 40 percent of the seats in both houses of the congress" (page 97).

Eastman 1982: Votación para cámara 14 de marzo de 1982" (pages 667-669). Gives number of votes for each party in each department and total votes. "Votación para senado 14 de marzo de 1982" (pages 681). Gives number of votes for each party in each department and total votes.

Estadísticas electorales (1982) 1983?: Includes statistics on elections for congress, departmental assemblies, and municipal offices on March 14, 1982. See information under "Estadísticas electorales (1970) 1971" for elections of April 1970 for descriptions of tables included in this volume.

Goueset 1988: "Elecciones concejo 1982 (porcentajes)" (page 227). For Bogotá.

Hartlyn 1988: "The congressional elections in March appeared to confirm that machine politics and the country’s normal voting patterns continued to hold. Liberals maintained a comfortable majority over the Conservatives, and Lopistas handily defeated Galanistas throughout the country" (page 215).

Historia electoral colombiana, 1810-1988 1991: "Resultado de la votación para senado: elecciones del 20 de marzo de 1982" (page 212). Gives by department the votes for Conservatives, Liberals, FD, FUP, and others, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Cámara de representantes: elecciones del 14 de marzo de 1982" (page 247). Gives by department the vote for Conservatives, Liberals, FD, FUP, and others, null votes, blank votes, and total votes.

Hoskin 1988: "Representativeness of the cámara: number of actual and potential votes needed to elect a representative: 1982 cámara elections" (page 59).

Hudson 1990: The "Liberals maintained majorities in both houses in the March 1982 congressional elections" (page 221).

Kline 1984: "Results of congressional elections, 14 March 1982" (page 327). Gives by region and department the percent of the vote for López, Betancur, and Galán lists and the number of total votes. "Composition of the Colombian Congress, after elections of March 1982" (page 330). Gives the number of seats for four parties in the senate and the house of representatives.

Martz 1997: Gives the number of votes and percent of vote for Liberals and Conservatives (page 201).

Sanders 1982: "In the congressional elections of March 1982, Bogotá voters revealed a moderately leftist independence and anti-machine sentiment by casting a larger vote for candidates linked to the Liberal dissident, Galán, than for either Betancur or López" (page 7).

May: presidential election (Betancur / PC)

Archer and Shugart 1997: "By 1982 the clamor from public opinion and the mass media for the restructuring of local, departmental, and national governments – perceived as unresponsive to voters – allowed the minority Conservative Party to win a contested presidential election for only the second time since 1926" (page 114).

Bushnell 1993: Gives votes for three candidates and "others" (page 292).

Eastman 1982: "Votación para presidente de la república. 30 de mayo de 1982" (pages 697-698). Gives votes for major candidates in all departments.

Historia electoral colombiana, 1810-1988 1991: "Elecciones presidenciales del 30 de mayo de 1982" (pages 169-170). Gives by department the votes for five candidates, others, null votes, blank votes, and total votes.

Hudson 1990: "Betancur wins the presidency in May 1982, owing to growing dissatisfaction with the eight years of Liberal rule, a split within the majority PL between two candidates, and Conservative backing of his candidacy…Defeating López Michelsen by almost 400,000 votes, Betancur garnered 46.5 percent of the vote, with 54 percent of the electorate abstaining" (page 222).

Kline 1983a: Describes the national conventions of the Liberal and Conservative parties and how their presidential candidates are selected (page 279).

Kline 1984: Betancur, a Conservative, wins the presidency "running with some support of other parties in what he called the ‘National Movement’ (Movimiento Nacional)" (page 326). "Results of presidential elections, 30 May 1982" (page 328). Gives by region and department the percent of the vote for each of four candidates and the total number of votes. "1982 presidential election results" (page 329). Gives the number of votes in each department for each of four candidates.

Kline 1995: "In 1982, Belisario Betancur won the presidency (with 47 percent of the vote) over two Liberal candidates, Alfonso López Michelsen and Luis Carlos Galán. This election showed a clear continuation of the historical pattern of a division of the majority party’s allowing the minority party to win the presidency" (pages 55-56).

Martz 1997: Gives percent of turnout, number of registered voters, number who voted, number of votes and percent of vote for major candidates (page 203).

McDonald 1989: "By 1982, 38 percent of the Bogotá electorate claimed to have no party identification, and a great number of the capital’s nominal Liberals did not vote for the party’s presidential nominee either in 1978 or 1982. The new urban, independent vote is concentrated among the young (under age twenty-five), the better-educated, and the middle class" (page 84).

Mujeres latinoamericanas en cifras: Colombia 1993: "(D)urante su gobierno, el Presidente Belisario Betancur (1982-1986), acogiendo las propuestas del Comité Femenino del Nuevo Liberalismo, estableció una ‘cuota’ femenina en prácticamente todos los viceministerios, nombró dos ministras, doce viceministras y un buen número de mujeres ocupáron cargos de primera línea en la dirección del Poder Ejecutivo" (page 96).

Nielson and Shugart 1999: "Liberal presidents Alfonso López Michelsen (1974-1978) and Julio César Turbay Ayala (1978-1982) both had reform packages defeated in congress, but it was the 1982 election that was a critical point for the Liberal Party. In that election, it lost the presidency due to the presence of two candidates who more successfully mobilized the urban electorate than did the Liberal nominee, López, running for a second term. The 1982 election featured a splinter from the Liberal Party, Luis Carlos Galán, running as a New Liberal. He won only 10.9% of the national vote, but this difference was enough to defeat López, who received 41.0% to the 46.8% received by the Conservative candidate" (pages 324-325). Describes the election results in Bogotá. "In this election, voter turnout jumped a full 10% from the previous presidential election of 1978 and also grew by 10% over the congressional election earlier in the year. Again, this increase in turnout was due almost exclusively to greater interest among urban voters—showing their massive potential to swing elections" (page 325).

Premo 1988: "Guerrilla groups greeted the 1982 campaign and election of Conservative Belisario Betancur (from 1982-1986) with an undeclared suspension of armed activity" (page 233).

Sanders 1982: "1982 presidential election results" (page 9). Gives number of votes for each candidate by electoral unit.

Shugart 1992a: "The first major effort to resolve the guerrilla problem followed the election of Belisario Betancur by less than a majority of votes in 1982. Betancur was the first Conservative to be elected in competition with Liberals since the end of the National Front" (page 133).

July

Kline 1984: "On 20 July 1982 President Julio César Turbay Ayala ended the state of siege which had prevailed through his presidency (since 7 August 1978) and indeed during most of the time period since 1949. In ending the state of siege, Turbay also eliminated the Security Statute…which he had decreed in September 1978" (page 326).

1983

Premo 1988: "Betancur’s hopes for an early peace settlement in Colombia failed when the M-19 anounced in April 1983 that it was returning to armed struggle" (page 233). "In October a presidential spokesman confirmed that Betancur had met with M-19 leaders in Madrid and agreed to hold further talks in early 1984" (page 234).

Willis 1999: "Although Betancur enjoyed strong backing for his reform agenda in public-opinion polls, he encountered predictable opposition from the Liberal-dominated Congress. Weak party discipline meant that he could not count on the support of members of his own factionalized party. National legislators were resistant to reforms that ultimately threatened to increase party competition for national as well as local offices, and they initially rejected all proposals for political reform" (page 31).

1984

Chernick 1999: The "Movimiento Armado Quintín Lame…was founded in 1984 as an indigenous guerrilla movement that operated in the department of Cauca…[It] was initially organized as a movement to extend indigenous lands through land invasions and to defend indigenous communities from hostile attacks from landowners, the military, government officials, and other guerrilla movements" (page 199).

Kline 1996: "In 1984 an Indian guerrilla group was formed, the Quintín Lame Armed Movement, which for the next six years was to average between one hundred and three hundred members" (page 35).

March: state and local elections

Cepeda 1986: "Sexo de los elegidos en 1984" (page 34). Gives the number of men, the number of women, and the percent who were women for each office elected in 1984.

Cepeda Ulloa 1987: "The mid-term elections for Departmental Assemblies and Municipal Councils of 1984 demonstrated once again the persistence of traditional behaviour: the Liberal party showed its majority by a margin of 877,439, a percentage difference of 15.5 per cent" (page 75).

Delgado 1984: "Bogotá, D.E.: distribución por grupos políticos de la votación total y por grupos de zonas electorales según estratos sociales, para diputados, marzo de 1984 (en porcentajes del total en cada grupo)" (page 227). "Bogotá, D.E.: votación total, por el nuevo liberalismo, izquierda, reginismo y otros para asamblea, por zonas electorales, marzo de 1984 (en porcentajes del total de la votación)" (page 231). "Bogotá, D.E.: composición de la votación conservadora según listas por principales grupos para asamblea, por zonas electorales, marzo de 1984 (en número de votos)" (page 232). "Bogotá, D.E.: participación de los grupos conservadores en el total de la votación distrital para asamblea por zonas electorales, marzo de 1984 (en porcentajes del total de la votación en cada zona)" (page 233). "Bogotá, D.E.: composición de la votación liberal-oficialista según listas por principales grupos para asamblea, por zonas electorales, marzo de 1984 (en número de votos)" (page 234). "Bogotá, D.E.: participación de los grupos liberales oficialistas en el total de la votación distrital para asambleas, por zonas electorales, marzo de 1984 (en porcentajes de la votación total en cada zona)" (page 235).

Goueset 1988: "Elecciones concejo 1984 (porcentajes)" (page 232). For Bogotá.

Hudson 1990: "In the 1984 mid-term elections, the Conservatives received only 42 percent of the vote, which was about their usual proportion, and the Liberals received 58 percent" (page 223).

Kline 1985: "Midterm elections were held on 11 March 1984 for departmental assemblies and town councils. For the 9,326 posts to be filled, there were some 100,000 candidates" (page 351). "The results of the 11 March elections were inconclusive. The Official Liberals received 45.5 percent of the votes, down some 1.5 percent from the congressional elections of 1982. New Liberalism received 11.6 percent of the vote, up some 0.6 percent from two years previously" (page 354).

Kline 1986: "The departmental assemblies elected were comprised of 176 Conservatives, 132 Official Liberals, 41 New Liberals, and 11 from other political groups" (page 313). "Results of the 11 March 1984 departmental assembly elections" (page 314). Gives by departments and intendencies the percent of the vote for the two Liberal divisions and the Conservatives and the total number of votes cast in each.

Martz 1997: "In the ‘mitaca’ elections for departmental assemblies and city councils on 11 March 1984, roughly 100,000 candidates contested 9326 offices" (page 231). Gives the abstention rate, the percent of vote won by Liberals and Conservatives, total votes cast, and number of departmental representatives elected by party or faction.

Osterling 1989: "In 1984 Colombia elected 421 Deputies [to departmental assemblies], 93.5 percent of whom were men" (page 129).

April

Kline 1999: "The Betancur antidrug campaign intensified when, on April 30, 1984, thugs hired by the ‘narcotraficantes’ assassinated Minister [of Justice] Lara" (page 24).

August

Hudson 1990: "By August 1984, the Betancur government’s peace commission had reached short-term accords with most of the major guerrilla groups, with the main exception of the…ELN" (page 222).

November

Martz 1997: "During the 1984 sessions President Betancur placed particular emphasis on those political reforms he identified with an ‘apertura democrática.’ Of particular importance was the proposed constitutional reform establishing direct popular election of mayors. For Betancur, this would encourage a democratization of the overcentralized system, also helping to free the parties from caudillistic domination" (page 221). "Only after herculean efforts did the administration secure passage of this constitutional reform on 21 November 1984. Winning the mandatory two-thirds margin with one vote to spare, it provided that mayoral elections by direct vote of the citizenry would become effective in 1988" (page 222).

December

Kline 1986: "The split between the Official Liberals and New Liberalism…was most intense around the time of the official national convention in December 1984" (page 315). Describes the procedure by which the presidential candidate is selected (315-316).

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