Salazar Mora, Orlando 1990: The Partido Unión Nacional is formed in 1901 (pages 164-168).
December: General election
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives percent of popular vote for PR (page 39). Gives electors' votes for each candidate (pages 39 and 276).
Salazar Mora, Orlando 1990: Candidate of PUN wins 80% of the presidential vote and PR wins only four seats in congress, giving the president a majority (page 56). "Eleccion presidencial de 1901: resultado de la primera vuelta" (page 207). Gives votes by province for three parties.
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, popular vote by department, and electors' votes by department for each candidate (page 569).
February: Presidential election, second round (Esquivel Ibarra / PUN)
Busey 1961: Ascensión Esquivel is elected "by general party agreement, under proposal by Yglesias, though a minor candidate got a few electoral votes" (page 68).
Lehoucq 1992: "Toward the end of his second mandate...President Iglesias Castro threatened to remain in office for a third term unless his opponents agreed to select a presidential candidate that he found desirable. With the most important sector of the opposition, he selected Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra as a compromise candidate, who subsequently won the 1902 election" (page 67).
Salazar Mora, Orlando 1990: "Elección presidencial de 1902: resultado de la segunda vuelta" (page 210). Gives votes by province for two parties.
August 20-22: Presidential election
Booth 1984: "In 1905 a heated election campaign (with over half of the populace now literate) brought Cleto González Víquez to the presidency on the crest of a large turnout increase over the 1901 election" (page 161).
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number and percent of electors elected for each party/candidate (page 45). On April 1, 1906 the electors meet, gives vote for winning candidate and "others" (pages 48 and 276).
Salazar Mora, Orlando 1990: "Elecciones presidenciales de 1905: resultado de la primera vuelta" (page 214). Gives total number of votes for each candidate.
Salazar Mora, Orlando 1992: Gives percent of vote for each participating party (page 26).
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, popular vote by department, and electors' votes by department for each candidate (page 570).
April: Presidential election, second round (González Víquez / PN)
Busey 1961: Cleto Gonzalez Víquez is elected "in second, run-off indirect election, after the first election failed to indicate a majority preference among five candidates" (page 68).
Lehoucq 1992: González Víquez ...saw his share of the vote expand in 1906 from forty-one percent of the popular vote to ninety-two percent of the votes cast by delegates at provincial electoral assemblies" (page 67).
Salazar Mora, Orlando 1990: "Elecciones presidenciales de 1906: resultado de la segunda vuelta" (page 220).
Yashar 1997: "When it became unclear whether Cleto González Víquez would win the 1906 elections, the government suspended individual guarantees, imprisoned and then exiled three of the presidential candidates on alleged charges of military conspiracy, and held a second round of elections, which González Víquez won. It was subsequently rumored that a secret pact had been signed in which former president Rafael Iglesias had agreed to hand the presidency over to Ascensión Esquivel in 1902 with the proviso that Esquivel would turn the presidency over to González Víquez in 1906" (page 54).
August 29-30: General election (Jiménez Oreamuno / PR)
Booth 1984: "González Vízquez broke with a tradition of decades by tolerating vigorous opposition and by ensuring a free campaign in 1909. This freedom permitted Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno to win the presidency by appealing for votes to local peasant leaders outside the aristocracy" (page 161).
Busey 1961: Ricardo Jiménez is elected indirectly, "in the first clear-cut, multiparty, non-violent election in Costa Rican history" (page 68).
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of popular votes for top two candidates and number of electors each received (pages 56 and 276). On April 3, 1910 the electors met and declared Jiménez Oreamuno the president.
Salazar Mora, Orlando 1990: PR wins 70 percent of the vote and 35 seats in congress (page 62). "Eleccion presidencial de 1909: resultado de la primera vuelta" (page 230). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for two parties by province.
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, popular vote for PR and PC by department, and electors' votes by department for each candidate (page 569).
Salazar Mora, Orlando 1990: "Elecciones presidenciales de 1909 [1910?]: resultado de la primera [segunda?] vuelta" (page 231). Gives number of electors by province for each party.
Salazar Mora, Orlando 1990: Gives seats won by each faction of PR (page 62).
Booth 1984: "Jiménez Oreamuno secured a constitutional amendment (1913) to institute direct popular election of public officials" (page 161).
González-Suárez 1994: "(E)lectoral reform in 1913 eliminated the election of representatives designated to choose the president and vice-presidents and opted for the direct vote" (page 177).
Kantor 1969: "It was not until 1913 that a constitutional amendment provided for the direct election of the president and the legislature. Until that date popular conventions were held in the various localities to elect a limited number of electors, who then met in a body called the Electoral Assembly and elected the president, the legislature, and the local government officials" (page 191). Describes requirements to be a member of the Electoral Assembly.
December 7: Presidential election (González Flores)
Oconitrillo 1982: "El Congreso de 1913 reformó la Constitución de manera que en las próximas elecciones el voto sería directo y público, eliminándose los comicios de electores de segundo grado" (page 61). Gives the number of votes and percent of the vote for the top three candidates (pages 61 and 276).
Salazar Mora, Orlando 1990: "Elección presidencial de 1913" (page 234). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party by province.
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, and votes by department for each candidate (page 572).
Ameringer 1982: "When none of three candidates for president obtained a majority of the votes cast, the election had to be decided by the Congress, which chose Alfredo González Flores, a dark horse, who had not been on the original ballot" (page 21).
Busey 1961: Alfredo González Flores is elected "by Congress as compromise dark horse candidate, after Costa Rica's first direct election failed to indicate a majority preference" (page 68).
Oconitrillo 1982: No candidate wins an absolute majority, leaving congress to decide the election on May 1, 1914. Gives votes for González Flores (page 64).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Sistema electoral y votaciones de 1914" (pages 21-34). "Resultados de la elección presidencial de 1914" (page 31). Gives by province the number of votes and percent of vote for each party.
Salazar Mora, Orlando 1992: As no candidate receives an absolute majority and the top two candidates resign, congress decides to appoint one of the presidential designates of the current president. This is the first election of the twentieth century that was to be decided by popular vote (pages 6 and 11-12). Gives percent of vote for each participating party (pages 27 and 31).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: Gives the results of the midterm election for 22 seats in congress (page 63).
January 24: Government overthrown
Ameringer 1982: "Using the pretext that [the president] intended to seek reelection and, thus, violate the sacred principle that no president should succeed himself, the minister of defense, Colonel Federico Tinoco, and his brother, Joaquín, staged a coup in January 1917, removing González Flores from office and establishing Costa Rica's second military dictatorship" (page 22).
Booth 1984: "Economic crisis brought on by the impact of World War I led President Alfred González Flores to impose economic reforms, new taxes, and austerity measures. This so frustrated the coffee aristocracy that they promoted yet another coup and two more years of military rule under the Tinoco brothers" (page 161).
Weaver 1994: "The disruption of trade during World War I is another example of the Costa Rican oligarchy's willingness to contravene even the appearance of democracy. When the government initiated income and land taxes and the supervision of banking in response to the crisis, the oligarchy countered by encouraging a military coup led by General Federico Tinoco in 1917" (page 94).
April 1: Presidential and constituent assembly elections (Tinoco Granados / Peliquista)
Lehoucq 1992: "Closing Congress, General Tinoco Granados held elections on 1 April 1917 for a National Constituent Assembly. Under the terms of the just created 1917 constitution, members of the constitutional convention either were incorporated into the newly named Chamber of Deputies or of the Senate" (page 71).
Munro 1967: Tinoco "was formally elected president of the Republic on April 1, 1917" (page 148).
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives votes for Tinoco, who runs unopposed (pages 68 and 276).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Elecciones de 1917" (pages 66-74). "Resultado de la elección presidencial de 1917" (page 70). Gives by province the number of votes and percent of vote for the Movimiento Peliquista.
Lehoucq 1992: "Elections were held two years later  for half of the membership of both houses of the legislature" (page 71).
August 12: Federico Tinoco resigns and leaves the country
Bowdler 1982: "The downfall of Tinoco's dictatorship which was caused by its own performance and the strong popular resentment it caused, resulted in Tinoco's self-exile abroad and a considerable loss of prestige for the military that had supported him" (page 207).
LaFeber 1993: "When an associate of Tinoco claimed power, the State Department immediately refused to recognize him and set out detailed plans for non-Tinoco candidates to run in new elections" (page 59).
Lehoucq 1992: "Facing both a growing rebellion and the opposition of the United States, President Tinoco Granados resigned from the presidency in 1919 and was replaced by his first presidential designate, Quirós Segura. Within a month, the United States, against the wishes of many Costa Ricans, forced President Quirós Segura to turn presidential power over to Francisco Aguilar Barquero" (pages 69-70). "Upon overthrowing the dictatorship of Tinoco Granados in 1919, President Aguilar Barquero annulled the 1917 constitution and dismissed members of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate" (page 71).
Taracena Arriola 1994: Francisco Aguilar Barquero serves as provisional president from 1919 to 1920 (page 225).
Weaver 1994: "Once in power...and to the chagrin of the oligarchy, Tinoco decided not to relinquish the presidency, and he reimposed the taxes. Although a favorite of the United Fruit Company, Tinoco antagonized the Woodrow Wilson administration in the United States, which refused to recognize his presidency. He was ousted in 1919 through the combined effort of the Costa Rican oligarchy and the U.S. ambassador. The oligarchy again resumed direct control of the state, and having learned a lesson, it proceeded to reduce governmental expenditures and taxes by virtually dismantling the military establishment. The U.S. role in the overthrow of Tinoco, however, offended members of the urban middle and working classes and contributed to their politicization" (page 94).
December 7: General election (Acosta García / PC)
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1919" (page 2-04). Gives by province the number of votes for two parties, registered voters, and valid votes.
Lehoucq 1992: "Legislative and presidential elections were...held [in 1919] under the aegis of the restored 1871 constitution" (pages 71-72).
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of registered voters and number who voted, votes for top two candidates, and the abstention rate (pages 73 and 277).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Elecciones presidenciales de 1919" (pages 88-92). "Resultado de la elección presidencial de 1919" (page 90). Gives by province the number of votes and percent of vote for Partido Constitucional and Partido Demócrata.
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, and votes by department for each candidate (page 573).
González-Suárez 1994: "In June 1920 a group from the Colegio Superior de Señoritas presented the Legislative Assembly with a new proposal regarding women"s right to vote...Their efforts were unsuccessful" (page 178).
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1921: diputados" (page 2-05). Gives votes for 25 parties in San José, Alajuela, and Cartago.
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Es interesante señalar que para las elecciones legislativas de 1921 el Partido Agrícola obtuvo una victoria aplastante, y los otros partidos lograron elegir como diputados propietarios a sus caudillos Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno y Jorge Volio Jiménez" (page 110). Gives percent of vote for Partido Republicano in provinces of San José and Cartago (pages 113).
Elegir y no ser elegidas: el significado político del voto femenino 1994: The Liga Feminista Costarricense is created in 1923 (page 5).
González-Suárez 1994: "The fight for women's right to vote was taken up in 1923 by Liga Feminista (Feminist League), which supported women's rights to suffrage, education, and social welfare" (page 178).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: The Partido Reformista Nacional Costarricense is founded on January 25, 1923 under the leadership of Jorge Volio (page 117).
Yashar 1995: "In 1923, the elite parties were challenged by the Reformist party, the first Costa Rican party to articulate a general program for social change. However, like others before it, this personalistic party was extremely short-lived" (page 73).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: Describes the parties participating in this election (pages 112-114).
December 4: Presidential election (Jiménez Oreamuno / PR)
Aguilar Bulgarelli 1983: Discusses the election and gives the number of votes for the top three candidates (page 53).
Ameringer 1982: "The election of 1924 was another three-way contest in which no candidate received the required majority" (page 24).
Busey 1961: Ricardo Jiménez is elected "by Congress after another indecisive direct popular vote, and after two provincial 'junas electorales' denied Congressional seats to opposition candidates" (page 69).
Lehoucq 1992: Discusses "quasi-legal compromises reached by legislative coalitions" that helped decide the 1924 presidential election (page 68).
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of registered voters, number who voted, and votes for top three candidates (pages 80 and 277). As no candidate receives an absolute majority the election goes to congress. Gives number of seats held by each party (page 81) and votes cast for each candidate on May 1st (page 84).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Elecciones de 1924" (page 119-123). "Resultado elección presidencial de 1924" (page 120). Gives by province the number of votes and percent of vote for each party.
Seligson 1987: "After establishing the Partido Reformista in 1924, Volio ran for president of Costa Rica. Although he lost, he obtained a surprisingly strong 20.4 percent of the vote. As a result of this strong showing he was made the second vice-president and given promises by the PR that some of his social programs would be implemented" (page 164).
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, and votes by department for each candidate (page 574).
Taracena Arriola 1994: "Con un partido de tan sólo diez meses de existencia, Volio obtuvo el 20% de la votación y cinco diputados, que resultaron claves para la elección que hubo de hacer el Congreso puesto que ninguno de los candidatos había obtenido la mayoría absoluta" (page 226).
Wilson 1998: "Having failed to win the presidency in a three-way race, [Volio] threw his support to former president Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno (1910-1914), who was finally elected in a congressional vote with Volio as his vice president" (page 30).
Jaramillo 1993: "La ley 75 de 1925 creó un Consejo Nacional Electoral para la vigilancia del proceso electora, pero el referido Consejo carecía de toda autonomía, como se desprende del hecho de que todos sus integrantes eran nombrados por el Poder Ejecutivo, el cual, además, tenía a su cargo todo lo relacionado con el Registro Cívico y con las tareas de empadronamiento y cedulación, encima de cumplir con las funciones de interpretar las normas electorales y de vigilar el desarrollo de los comicios; asimismo, el Congreso era el encargado de los escrutinios finales y de la proclamación de los resultados, al igual que de decidir sobre la validez o invalidez de las elecciones" (page 58).
Seligson 1990: "In 1925 the secret ballot was instituted" (page 461).
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1925: diputados" (page 2-08). Gives by province the number of votes for 18 parties.
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: Gives votes for four parties (pages 309 and 311).
Taracena Arriola 1994: "(E)n 1925, cuando se celebraron elecciones para renovar una parte del Congreso, el Partido Reformista ya no tuvo avances electorales" (page 227).
Wilson 1998: "Secret balloting did not exist in Costa Rica until 1926; instead, votes were exercised publicly under the watchful eye of the patrón" (page 21).
December 5: Municipal elections
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of registered voters and number who voted (page 91).
Seligson 1990: "(I)n 1927 the Civil Registry, which made a verifiable voter-registration system possible, was established" (page 461).
February 12: General election (González Víquez / PUN)
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elección de 1928" (page 2-09). Gives by province the number of votes for two parties.
Busey 1961: In 1928, Cleto González Víquez is elected "directly in free, competitive contest" (page 69).
Coppedge 1998: Secret ballot is adopted in 1928. "Electoral participation expanded from a tiny minority of the coffee elite in the 1830s to 10-15 percent of the population in 1928" (page 184).
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for top two candidates (pages 94 and 277). Gives seats won by each party.
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Campaña política de 1928" (pages 126-131). "Resultado elección presidencial de 1928" (page 130).
Samper K. 1988: "Elecciones de 1928, Costa Rica. Resultados por provincias" (page 188).
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, and votes by department for each candidate (page 574).
Alexander 1973: "In 1929 a young lawyer, Manuel Mora, led in the establishment of the Communist Party of Costa Rica. During the following decade most of the country's politically conscious young intellectuals were attracted to this party, which led in the effort to establish an organized labor movement, both in the cities and in the country's larger agricultural enterprises, particularly the banana plantations belonging to the United Fruit Company" (page 215).
Aguilar A. 1969:"Elección de 1930" (page 2-10). Gives by province the number of votes for each party.
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: Gives percent of vote for opposition party (Republicano) in several provinces as opposed to the official party (Unión Nacional) (page 150).
Samper K. 1988: "Elecciones de 1930, Costa Rica (resultados por provincias)" (pages 192-194). Gives the number of votes, percent of vote, and seats won by each party.
Cerdas Cruz 1991: The Communist Party is founded on June 16, 1931 (page 279).
LaFeber 1993: "The [Communist] party (the 'Bloque de Obreros y Campesinos,' or Workers and Peasants Bloc) was founded in 1931" (page 100).
Yashar 1995: "Founded in 1931, on the heels of the Great Depression, the Communist party was one of the first Costa Rican parties to organize around a programmatic platform, mobilizing artisans in the capital and banana plantation workers on the coast" (pages 73-74).
Yashar 1997: "In 1931, Congress prevented the recently formed Communist Party from running in national elections" (page 63).
February 14: General election ( Jiménez Oreamuno / PRN)
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1932" (page 2-11). Gives by province the number of votes for four parties.
Busey 1961: Ricardo Jiménez is "named by Congress after a military uprising prevented elections--though the military was opposed to Jiménez" (page 69).
Cerdas Cruz 1991: Gives percent of the vote won by each presidential candidate and discusses the aftermath of the election (page 279). "The Communist Party was not permitted to participate in these elections under its own name and nominated candidates only in the municipal elections, in the name of the Workers' and Peasants' Bloc" (page 279).
Lehoucq 1992: "Jiménez Oreamuno became the last individual to become president as a result of a compromise once no candidate gained the support of more than fifty percent of the voters in the 1932 elections" (page 69).
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives total votes cast and number of votes cast for each party (page 106). As no candidate wins an absolute majority the election goes to congress which decides to have a second round of the popular vote to decide between the top two candidates. The candidate who had come in second refuses to participate, resulting in congress's decision to hold another election with all parties participating (pages 108-109). Gives number of votes and percent of vote won by each party in this second election (pages 109 and 277).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Elecciones de 1932" (pages 149-154). ""Resultado elección presidencial de 1932" (page 152). Gives by province the number of votes and percent of vote for each party.
Samper K. 1988: "Elecciones de 1932, Costa Rica (resultados por provincias)" (page 195). Gives the number of votes, percent of vote, and seats won by each party.
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, and votes by department for each candidate (page 576).
Cerdas Cruz 1991: PUR candidate attempts to seize power by taking over the Bella Vista garrison (page 279).
Lehoucq 1992: "In the absence of a popularly-elected president, the new Congress, on 1 May, chose Jiménez Oreamuno to become president for the four-year term beginning in 1932" (page 69).
February: Congressional election
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1934" (page 2-12). Gives by province the number of votes for each party.
Aguilar Bulgarelli 1983: Describes the participation of the "Bloque de Obreros y Campesinos" in the 1934 congressional election, the victory of two of its candidates, and the government's response (pages 60-61).
Samper K. 1988: "Elecciones de 1934, Costa Rica (resultados por provincias)" (pages 196-198). Gives the number of votes, percent of vote, and seats won by each party.
Seligson 1987: "In 1934 two Communist deputies to the Congress and eight municipal Communist councilmen were elected" (page 165).
Yashar 1997: "In 1934, communists were allowed to run, but there was widespread fraud. The regime denied the right to assume office to those communists elected in legislative races. Overall, elite machine politics maintained a measure of formal respect for the electoral political process. Nonoligarchic parties gained the right to enter elections, and workers gained the right to vote. But the oligarchy essentially maintained veto power over who had the right to assume office and whose vote mattered" (page 62).
August: Strike of banana workers, troops are sent to restore order
LaFeber 1993: The Communist party "made its political fortune in 1934 by leading a massive strike in the banana plantations. A government commission examined the situation and condemned United Fruit...For the first time in its history, the company buckled and granted better wages and working conditions. Banana workers became devout party members" (pages 100-101).
Schooley 1987: "In 1934 two of the [Workers' and Peasants' Bloc] candidates were elected to seats in the national Congress and the party headed a strike in the banana zone of Limón" (page 99).
February 9: General election (Cortés Castro / PRN)
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1936" (page 2-13). Gives by province the number of votes for three parties.
Busey 1961: León Cortés is elected directly in "free, competitive contest" (page 69).
Cerdas Cruz 1991: "The rise of fascism had an especially acute impact on local politics in 1936, when the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War provoked strong confrontations and affected the election of 1936, won by León Cortés...As the absolutely anti-communist candidate of the Republican National Party, Cortés won 60 percent of the total vote" (page 281).
McDonald 1989: "In the 1936 elections, coffee barons...backed conservative, antilabor candidate, León Cortés Castro" (page 170).
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of registered voters, number who voted, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party (pages 118 and 277).
Peeler 1985: "Jiménez arranged the election in 1936 of León Cortés Castro, his minister of development, a lawyer and 'cafetalero'" (page 66).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Elecciones de 1936" (pages 177-180). Gives the number of seats won by each party (page 179). "Resultado elección presidencial de 1936" (page 180). Gives by province the number of votes and percent of vote for each party.
Samper K. 1988: "Elecciones de 1936, Costa Rica (resultados por provincias)" (pages 192-194). Gives the number of votes and percent of vote.
Seligson 1987: "In 1936 the Communist party won 5.1 percent of the national vote for president and vice-president" (page 165).
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, and votes by department for each candidate (page 577).
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1938" (page 2-14). Gives by province the number of votes for three parties.
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: Gives total number of votes for each party (page 317).
February 11: General election (Calderón Guardia / PRN)
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1940" (page 2-15). Gives by province the number of votes for three parties.
Bird 1984: "Politically the National Republican Party basked in the glow of its candidate, Calderón Guardia, who enjoyed phenomenal success in the election of February 1940 when he obtained almost 93,000 votes out of 102,000 cast" (page 37).
Busey 1961: Rafael Angel Calderón Guardia is elected "as virtually the only candidate, after one potential minor opposition candidate was discouraged from running" (page 69).
Cerdas Cruz 1991: Cortés' efforts assure the "landslide victory of the official candidate, Dr. Rafael A. Calderón Guardia, who obtained 90 per cent of the vote and who would soon become Cortés' strongest adversary and an ally of the Communists" (page 282).
Krehm 1957: "Con un solo candidato de oposición--el comunista--, Calderón Guardia pudo anotarse 100,000 votos, la cifra más alta en la historia de Costa Rica" (pages 204-205).
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for three parties that participated (pages 131 and 277).
Peeler 1985: "Cortés found himself able in turn to assure the election of his own chosen successor in 1940...Indeed, in the end only the Communists ran a candidate against Rafael Angel Calderón Guardia, and he took office with support from all other organized political sectors" (page 66).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Proceso electoral de 1940" (pages 198-203). "Resultado elección presidencial de 1940" (page 202). Gives by province the number of votes and percent of vote for each party.
Sánchez Machado 1985: "Porcentajes de votación obtenida por los partidos en los diferentes cantones, elecciones de 1940" (pages 123-125). Gives total number of votes cast in each district and percent of vote for each party.
Seligson 1987: In 1940 the Communist party won 10.9 percent of the national vote for president and vice-president (page 165).
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, and votes by department for each candidate (page 578).
Vega Carballo 1992: The PR obtained 90 percent of the votes cast (page 206).
Weaver 1994: "In 1940, Rafael Calderón Guardia became president through the oligarchical selection process that characterized Costa Rican politics...Calderón moved quickly to consolidate his authority, establishing political independence from the conservative politicians who had sponsored him" (page 141).
Yashar 1995: "Chosen by the previous president, León Cortes Castro, and born into a prominent coffee family, Calderón ostensibly represented the continued control and political unity of the agro-export coffee elites" (page 74).
Winson 1988: "The economic damage done to the oligarchy during the Great Depression...had important repercussions for this political monopoly. In the early 1940s, the large coffee interests became 'detached' from their traditional political party once its new leader and then president Rafael Calderón Guardia, formed an alliance with the Communist political party, 'Vanguardia Popular,' to ensure his political future. This seemingly unlikely event must be seen in the light of a weakened export oligarchy and also the growing Communist influence among the small urban working class and the more numerous laborers on the coastal banana plantations." (page 90).
Yashar 1995: "On December 11, 1941, President Calderón declared war on Germany. Responding to U.S. pressure, Calderón expropriated land and goods held by Costa Ricans of German and Italian descent and placed these people in internment camps...Calderón's anti-Axis policies directly attacked some of the most influential and affluent individuals in Costa Rica and generated fear and opposition within oligarchic circles...Opposition within the agro-export and industrial sectors prompted arrangements for a coup d'état...A coup never materialized" (pages 74-75).
Yashar 1997: Calderón's election "seemed a continuation of the oligarchic politics that had characterized 70 years of Liberal rule....[His] administration, however, witnessed the demise of the oligarchy's largely uncontested control over state resources and policies. In the first years of his presidency, the elite divided as the popular classes started to organize more vigorously. This division within the oligarchy...ultimately pitted a reform movement spearheaded by President Calderón, the communists, and the Archbishop of San José against an opposition alliance composed of the conservative faction of the oligarchy and middle- and upper-middle-class members of the Social Democratic Party" (pages 72-73).
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1942: diputados" (page 2-16). Gives by province the number of votes for six parties.
Bird 1984: "(T)he Bloque de Obreros y Campesinos increased their share of the vote by over 50% i.e. from about 10,000 (in the 1940 election) to over 16,000. Other smaller parties and independents polled over 20,000 votes, so the voting strength of the National Republicans was much depleted from the approximately 93,000 votes cast for their candidate two years earlier" (pages 45-46).
Lehoucq 1992: "Fraud and the 1942 midterm elections" (pages 168-170). Gives details on the election.
Peeler 1985: "By the midterm elections of 1942...Calderón's regime had shaken out its early establishment supporters and had acquired the Communists...The most important element of the opposition was the Partido Demócrata...which tended to represent the interests of the more conservative bourgeois sectors, such as the 'cafetaleros'" (page 69).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: Gives total votes for five parties (page 317).
Cerdas Cruz 1991: The Communist Party changes its name to the Partido Vanguardia Popular on June 13, 1943 (page 283).
González-Suárez 1994: "The Feminist League participated in the demonstration held on 15 May 1943, which was the most significant protest regarding women's right to vote" (page 178).
LaFeber 1993: "In 1943, with Church and Communist support, Calderón passed the most extensive social reform program in Central American history" (page 101).
Seligson 1987: In 1943 Calderón "took the unprecedented step of forming an electoral alliance with the Communists, who had renamed their party the Partido Vanguardia Popular" (page 165).
Seligson 1990: "In 1943, after the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, [Calderón] formed an electoral alliance with the Costa Rican Communist party, known as the Partido Vanguardia Popular" (page 461).
Yashar 1997: "The PRN and PVP formalized their rapprochement on September 22, 1943, with the electoral alliance Bloque de la Victoria. On that date Calderón's Republican Party and Mora's Vanguardia Popular signed a seven-point accord...Calderón had opened up the regime to a nonoligarchic party in exchange for increased political support. The PVP, in turn, traded its right to run a presidential candidate in the 1944 elections for the opportunity to define the electoral platform" (page 85).
February 13: General election (Picado Michalsky / PRN)
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1944" (page 2-17). Gives by province the number of votes for two parties.
Bird 1984: "Picado had a majority of almost 30,000 of the 137,000 votes registered" (page 49). The PRN "succeeded in securing the election of 28 delegates to Congress against 13 Democrats and 4 from Vanguardia Popular" (page 50).
Busey 1961: Teodoro Picado is elected; "unusual fraud and violence prevented any alternative" (page 69).
Cerdas Cruz 1991: Gives number of votes for two top candidates (page 285). "(T)he evidence of fraud and popular support for the opposition suggested a very much closer result than was formally declared."
Denton 1971: "Constitutionally prohibited from succeeding himself, Calderón arranged for the election of another San Jose lawyer friend, Teodoro Picado, who assumed the office of chief executive in 1944" (page 29).
Lehoucq 1992: "Expectations and outcomes of the 1944 presidential elections" (page 191). Gives electoral data, by province, for PRN and PD.
Leonard 1998: "Just prior to the 1944 presidential contest, Mora [founder of the Communist Party] struck a deal with Teodoro Picado, the candidate of the National Republican Party. In return for promises of political support, Mora gained Picado's assurances that he would accelerate economic and social reforms. Picado won the election, the most fraudulent in Costa Rica's history" (page 96).
Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for top two candidates (pages 139 and 278).
Parker 1981: "The Congress elected in 1944 consisted of 28 delegates from the National Republican party, 13 Democrats, and 4 from the Popular Vanguard" (page 265).
Peeler 1985: "The opposition ultimately was able to unite behind the candidacy of Cortés for the presidential campaign of 1944, in which he was heavily defeated by Calderón's chosen candidate, Teodoro Picado" (page 70).
Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Elecciones de 1944" (pages 227-233). "Resultado elección presidencial de 1944" (page 231). Gives by province the number of votes and percent of vote for each party.
Seligson 1990: "The alliance between Calderón and the Communists caused great concern and division within Costa Rica, but in the 1944 elections the alliance forces won, supporting a candidate of Calderón's choosing" (page 461).
Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, and votes by department for each candidate (page 579).
Yashar 1995: "In 1944, the PC made a formal electoral alliance with the PRN in order to elect...Picado...In response, the oligarchic opposition rallied around the newly formed Partido Unión Nacional" (page 76).
Yashar 1997: "This historic union of the National Republican Party, the communist PVP, and the Catholic Church shocked many and instilled fear in others. The presidential candidate for the Bloque de la Victoria, Teodoro Picado Michalski, won the elections with about 60 percent of the vote" (page 86).
Stansifer 1998: "In 1945 the National Assembly, responding to popular demand, created the National Tribunal of Elections, making it independent of the executive branch" (page 125).
Yashar 1997: The Partido Social Demócrata is founded in March 1945 (page 174).
Jaramillo 1993: "(E)n 1946 se expidió un nuevo código electoral, mediante el cual se cambió el nombre del Consejo por el de Tribunal Nacional Electoral y se previó que éste asumiría todas las funciones electorales que hasta entonces reposaban en el Ejecutivo, así como la tarea del escrutinio y de la proclamación provisional de los electos en los diferentes comicios, permaneciendo, sin embargo, la declaración definitiva en manos del Congreso" (pages 58-59).
Yashar 1997: "The electoral law, passed in January 1946 after extensive and often vitriolic debates and postponements, ostensibly sought to combat the fraud characteristic of Costa Rican elections. The law created an Electoral Tribunal with three members who were to be nonpartisan. It had the power and responsibility to oversee elections, to count ballots, and to declare provisional electoral results; the legislature assumed the role of declaring official results" (pages 114-115).
Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1946: diputados" (page 2-18). Gives by province the number of votes for three parties.
Bird 1984: "The movement away from the National Republicans continued..., but in the mid-term election of 1946 they still held about 50% of the vote and elected eleven of their candidates. The Opposition were able to record success for ten of their number but, as Vanguardia Popular had two successes, the government could still claim it had a majority of popular support" (page 52).
Oconitrillo 1982: The opposition wins 9 out of 23 seats (page 148).
Parker 1981: Gives seats won by each party (page 266).
Peeler 1985: "The 1946 midterm elections, which again drew charges of fraud from the opposition, showed a decline in support for the government, but it retained a solid majority in Congress" (page 70).
Yashar 1997: "The opposition...coalesced into three parties: the Partido Demócrata (former president Cortés's party), the Partido Unión Nacional (Ulate's party), and the Partido Social Demócrata...The outcome of the 1946 elections favored the government parties (57,154 votes), followed by the opposition parties (41,821 votes) and independent parties (3,000 votes)" (page 175).
Alexander 1973: "In preparation for the presidential election campaign of 1948, the PSD joined forces with the much more conservative Unión Nacional, headed by newspaper publisher Otilio Ulate...Figueres made very clear his belief that the government was not going to allow the opposition to win. He began to prepare for armed resistance to the government's stealing of the 1948 election, such as the opposition was sure had occurred in the 1944 presidential poll and the 1942 and 1946 congressional elections" (page 221).
Alexander 1973: "Before the election of February 1948 there was a showdown between the government and the opposition. In July 1947, following an incident in which police machine-gunned crowds leaving two movie theaters in the city of Cartago, the opposition declared a national strike. Virtually all businesses closed down and all economic activity was halted for a week" (page 221).
Martz 1959: "On Sunday, July 20, 1947, government forces precipitated a clash in Cartago, the ancient national capital some fourteen miles outside San José...The government disclaimed knowledge of the attack, although high ranking army officers were seen at Cartago during the fight" (page 212).
Yashar 1997: "The opposition mobilized its most defiant protest in 1947, shortly after the legislation of the redistributive tax reform and before the 1948 presidential elections. It began as a demonstration in July 1947 and turned into a commercial strike, commonly refereed to as the 'huelga de los brazos caídos'" (page 17).
Alexander 1973: "(O)n August 3 a nine-point agreement was signed between the president and the opposition, one point of which provided for the establishment of the National Electoral Tribunal of three, representing the executive, judiciary, and legislature, to preside over the elections and with final power to announce the results" (page 221).
Martz 1959: "On August 1, the strike was finally ended by one of the most extraordinary occurrences in contemporary Costa Rican history. A group of feminists in San José, Cartago, and Alajuela issued a manifesto calling for the end of dissension. They sent a message to President Picado asking for the restoration of all liberties. On the morning of the second, some eight thousand strong, they marched on the doors of the presidential home singing the national hymn and waving white flags...Although they were dispersed, the government finally conceded the impossibility of its task, and agreed to terms of the general strike committee. The next day, August 3, 1947, a nine-point agreement was drawn up" (pages 214-215).
Yashar 1997: "The strike gained momentum on August 2, when thousands of women demonstrated in the capital of San José to demand guarantees to prevent fraud in the next election. The march ended only when government troops fired shots into the air" (page 177). "The strike ended on August 4, 1947, with the administration providing the electoral guarantees that the strikers had been demanding" (page 179).