Elections and Events 1948-1986

1948

February 8: General election

Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1948" (page 2-19). Gives by province the number of votes for two parties.

Bird 1984: Gives votes for top two candidates (page 62).

Carey 1997: "With the 1948 election approaching, the Social Democrats opted to forego a candidacy for their leader, José Figueres Ferrer, and coalesce with the main conservative opposition groups behind Otilio Ulate. On February 8, 1948, Ulate defeated Calderón in his effort to retake the presidency by 54,931 to 44,438 votes. However, the Republican-Communist coalition retained a majority in the Congress. Again there were charges of fraud - on both sides this time" (page 201).

Cerdas Cruz 1991: "Two great political-electoral coalitions came face-to-face in the elections of February 1948" (page 288). Gives number of votes for two top candidates (page 291).

Denton 1971: "In the 1948 election Calderón was opposed by Otílio Ulate, who had the support of Figueres and his followers. When it became apparent that Ulate had won by a small margin--most of the population did not vote at all--the "calderonistas," who still controlled a majority of the seats in the National Assembly, attempted to nullify the results and declare Calderón the winner. Ulate was imprisoned" (page 30).

Krehm 1957: "(E)l Tribunal Nacional Electoral sostuvo la legalidad de los votos emitidos en favor de Ulate; pero el Congreso que Calderón controlaba, los declaró nulos" (page 221).

Lehoucq 1992: "The 1948 elections" (pages 309-320). Gives a great amount of detail on the elections and their aftermath.

Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for top two parties (pages 155 and 278). Congress invalidates the election results on March 1, based on complaints by the losing candidate whose party controls congress (page 156).

Parker 1981: "For twenty days the country waited for the [National Electoral Tribunal's] decision. Then it was announced that two members had agreed that Ulate had won the presidency by 54,931 votes as against 44,438 for Calderón; the third member of the group contended that still more time was necessary to scrutinize the ballots. Two days later, on 1 March, despite the solemn promises made the previous August, the National Republican majority in Congress by a vote of 27 to 19 decided to annul the elections" (page 267).

Peeler 1985: Discusses the issues involved in the 1948 election and efforts by the opposition to minimize electoral fraud (pages 71-72). "In the election, Calderón received 44,438 votes, to 54,931 for Ulate. The governing coalition, however, won 29 deputies to 21 for the opposition. Calderón refused to recognize Ulate's victory, accused the opposition of fraud, and demanded that the Electoral Tribunal annul the elections" (page 72).

Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Características de las elecciones de 1948" (pages 255-260).

Seligson 1990: "With World War II over and the cold war beginning, the wartime alliance of convenience with the Communists became the target of increasingly strong protests within Costa Rica, and in 1948 a coalition of the traditional coffee oligarchy in league with young reformist social democrats defeated Calderón, who was once again running for the presidency" (page 461).

Stone 1976: Gives votes by department for Unión Nacional and Republicano Nacional (page 591).

Yashar 1997: "The shady process of counting votes and ratifying the winner sparked the civil war. The opposition-appointed Electoral Tribunal announced a split victory: it declared Ulate the presidential winner, with 54,931 votes to Calderón's 44,438, but announced that the reform coalition had won a majority of the legislative seats; the number of PVP seats increased to 12 out of 45" (page 180).

February 10

Martz 1959: "Early on February 10, the lead [for Ulate] widened and Calderón called a press conference. He isued two conflicting statements. First he conceded defeat. In the next breath he charged fraud, an astonishing claim in view of government control of the ballot boxes" (page 217).

March 1

Bird 1984: Congress annuls the election by a vote of 27-19 (page 63).

Busey 1962: "The Calderón-Picado forces held a majority of seats in the Congress of the time, and in March, 1948, that body nullified the presidential election returns on the grounds that the autonomous electoral tribunal had permitted fraud and corruption to influence the outcome" (page 10).

Carey 1997: "The National Electoral Tribunal (TNE) declared Ulate the winner of the presidential election in February, but on March 1 the new Congress convened and, at Calderón's request, nullifed the presidential election" (page 201).

Martz 1959: Describes the discussions in congress (page 218). "After an acrimonious meeting in which debate was long and stormy, the Assembly voted twenty-seven to nineteen to annul the results. Rejecting Ulate, they declared that new elections would have to be conducted in April, if the atmosphere were 'appropriate.'"

Mauceri 1989: "When election returns showed Otilio Ulate (PUN) a center-rightist candidate had won, Calderón and the then-President Teodoro Picado, also of the PRN, implored the Congress to nullify the elections. With the majority of seats on their side, the Calderón-Picado forces declared the elections void due to fraud and corruption, a charge that the autonomous electoral tribunal denied" (page 205).

Yashar 1997: "The legislature...had the final responsibility to ratify the Electoral Tribunal's politically charged and contested declaration. The communists and the archbishop argued that the legislature should accept Ulate's declared victory, even if there was fraud, but Calderón demanded another election. After much debate, the reform coalition, and delegates in the legislature, decided to annul the presidential electoral results but to accept the legislative results" (page 180).

March 19: Civil war breaks out

Busey 1962: "Jose Figueres...led a revolt which succeeded in overthrowing the Picado regime [and] took power as leader of a revolutionary 'junta fundadora de la segunda república.' By arrangements in a pact between Figueres and Ulate, the 'junta' would retain power for eighteen months, after which Ulate would secure the presidency on the basis of the elections of February, 1948" (page 10).

April 24: Figueres' forces enter San José

Denton 1971: Picado resigns, Figueres takes over the government of the country, and "On December 4, 1948...Figueres disbanded the military forces of his country" (page 30). "A constituent assembly was elected...One of the first actions of the new assembly, in which the followers of Calderón had no representation, was to approve the election of Otílio Ulate in the 1948 election" (page 31).

May

Mauceri 1989: "After the 1948 breakdown, a transitional 'junta' was established for one year to oversee the disbanding of the armed forces, the holding of elections, and the drawing up of a new constitution" (page 205). "During the period of 'junta' rule (from May 1948 to November 1949), the democratic norms that had governed Costa Rica over the previous half-century reasserted themselves. The 'junta's' eleven members, consisting of Figueres, Ulate, and their supporters, scheduled Constituent Assembly elections for December" (page 206).

Parker 1981: "The Founding Junta of the Second Republic governed for eighteen months, from 8 May 1948 to 8 November 1949" (page 268).

Peeler 1998: On May 1, 1948 Figueres signs a pact with Otílio Ulate "providing that the latter would assume office within eighteen months and that the country would be ruled by a provisional junta in the meantime. The junta would be responsible for holding an election for a Constituent Assembly to draft a new constitution" (page 52).

Yashar 1997: "The revolutionary junta took power on May 8, 1948. To institutionalize the new democratic compromise and reconfigure bases of social power, the junta began by annulling the 1871 Liberal constitution, suspending the Congress, calling for a new Constituent Assembly..., and declaring the founding of the 'Second Republic'" (page 184).

December 8: Constituent assembly election

Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1948: constituyentes" (page 2-20). Gives the total number of votes for each party.

Aguilar Bulgarelli 1983: Discusses the election and gives the number of seats won by each party (page 66).

Bird 1984: Gives number of votes and seats won by each party (page 106).

Busey 1962: "A first act of the 'junta' was to officially bring the Constitution of 1871 to an end, and to call elections for December 8, 1948, for a...constitutional assembly" (page 10).

Mauceri 1989: "Election results gave Ulate's PUN a landslide: thirty-three of the forty-one contested seats. Calderón's PRN was not allowed to participate in the elections" (page 206).

Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of seats won by each party (page 162).

Parker 1981: "The constituent assembly chosen by the people in December 1948, while the junta ruled, was distinctly pro-Ulate rather than pro-Second Republic. The National Union party...held 33 seats, two other friendly groups 8 seats between them, and the Social Democrats, to whom Figueres belonged, only 4. The constitution suggested by the junta was rejected in March" (page 269).

Peeler 1998: The "social democrats' neglect of popular organization led to their defeat in elections for the Constituent Assembly, which instead had a strong majority for Ulate's conservative Unión Nacional" (page 52).

Wilson 1998: "Constituent Assembly election results, December 1948" (page 44). Gives number of votes and total seats won by each party.

Yashar 1997: "Party strength in the 1948 Costa Rican Constituent Assembly" (page 185). Gives parties, number of votes, and number of deputies elected.

December 11

Martz 1959: "Three days after the election...a calderonista counterrevolution was launched with an invasion from Nicaragua...The invasion was formed by calderonistas determined to overthrow the junta, exile Ulate, and take the presidency for Calderón. The ex-President was aided substantially by Nicaraguan dictator Somoza. Many of his supporters had fled to Nicaragua after Figueres' victory, and under Calderón's leadership and Somoza's eye had passed the intervening months planning their return" (page 227).

1949

April

Rojas Bolaños 1994: "(E)n abril de 1949, sectores conservadores dentro de las fuerzas de la Junta intentaron dar un golpe de Estado, descontentos con el rumbo que habían tomado los acontecimientos" (page 94).

June

Elegir y no ser elegidas: el significado político del voto femenino 1994: On June 20, 1949 the constituent assembly gives women the rights to vote and run for office (page 5).

González-Suárez 1994: "In June 1949 an amendment was proposed to article 10 based on a request by the National Teachers Association, an organization composed predominantly of women, to define citizenship as 'the political duties and rights that pertain to all Costa Ricans, of either sex.' The proposal was approved by a vote of 33 to 8" (page 178).

Sánchez 1994: "El 20 de junio de 1949, en la nonagésima segunda acta de las sesiones de la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente, 33 diputados votaron a favor del voto femenino, y 8 legisladores creyeron inconveniente la participación política de las mujeres" (page 19).

August

Carey 1997: "Although Ulate's Partido Unión Nacional (PUN) held 34 of 45 seats in the Constituent Assembly, the delegates drafted a document that protected the institutional interest of the legislature and weakened the powers of the presidency, even as their copartisan was about to assume the office" (page 201).

Martz 1959: "In mid-August, the new [constitution] was finished and approved, giving the country another measure of stability" (page 230).

October 4: Congressional elections

Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1949: diputados (martes 4 de octubre de 1949)" (page 2-21). Gives by province the number of votes for six parties.

Bird 1984: Gives seats won by PUN (page 124).

Martz 1959: "On October 2, elections were conducted for deputies of the Legislative Assembly as well as for municipal officers...When returns were complete, Unión Nacional had polled fifty-one thousand of the seventy-two thousand votes cast, winning thirty-three of the forty-five Assembly seats" (page 230).

Parker 1981: "Ulate's National Union party captured 33 seats as it had in the constituent assembly, while the Social Democrats took 3 and others 9" (page 270).

November

Jaramillo 1993: "(E)n la Constitución de 1949 se implantó un Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones ampliamente independiente, ...el cual, sin duda alguna, ha contribuido de manera decisiva a la consolidación de la democracia en Costa Rica, en tanto que con su accionar ha establecido una garantía de pureza de las elecciones en el país" (page 59).

Parker 1981: New constitution takes effect on November 7, "specifying the absolute control of elections by a Supreme Electoral Tribunal,...[a] four-year presidential term, [and]...a Legislative Assembly elected in one body for the four-year term...Ulate took office as scheduled on 8 November 1949" (pages 269-270).

Peeler 1985: The 1949 constitution gives women the right to vote, prohibits immediate reelection of the president and members of the legislative assembly, and places restrictions on operations of the Communist party (pages 74-75).

Seligson 1990: "Although it was a modern constitution, guaranteeing a wide range of rights, it outlawed parties that were perceived as threatening to democratic rule, such as the Communist party" (page 462).

Stansifer 1998: "The most direct, concrete product of the Costa Rican revolution of 1948 was the Constitution of 1949, which was drawn up by a constituent assembly composed of more opponents of Figueres than supporters...The constitution...fortified the electoral branch of government (the National Electoral Tribunal became the Supreme Electoral Tribunal), weakened the executive, provided for proportional representation, and limited the terms of both presidents and legislators" (page 127).

1950

Elegir y no ser elegidas: el significado político del voto femenino 1994: Women vote for the first time on July 30, 1950 in a plebiscite regarding the status of two municipalities (page 5).

1951

Mauceri 1989: "(T)he political alliance forged between Figueres and Ulate during the revolution collapsed. In 1951 Figueres formed a new party (PLN) and attacked Ulate's increasingly conservative economic policies" (page 207).

Rovira Mas 1994: "El PLN se fundó el 12 de octubre de 1951 como organización que heredaba las aspiraciones de cambio social sustentadas por el Movimiento de Liberación Nacional que encabezó José Figueres Ferrer en 1948" (page 49).

1953

Plebiscite

Aguilar A. 1969: "Elecciones de 1953: plebiscito" (page 2-22). Gives by province the number of votes for "si" and "no."

July 26: General election (Figueres Ferrer / PLN)

Aguilar A. 1969: "Resumen de toda la república: votos para presidente y vicepresidente (elecciones 26 de julio 1953)" (page 3-10). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for two parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Resumen de toda la república: votos para diputados (elecciones 26 de julio 1953)" (page 3-02). Gives by province the registered voters, "juntas receptoras," votes for five parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Resumen de toda la república: votos para regidores y síndicos municipales (elecciones 26 de julio 1953)" (page 3-03). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for six parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes.

Araya Pochet 1982: Discusses the campaign and election (pages 65-67). "Votación para presidente" (page 67). Gives by province the number of votes for Liberación Nacional and Demócrata, total votes, valid votes, null votes, and blank votes. "Votación para diputados." Gives by province the votes for four parties.

Bird 1984: "Figueres won a bitterly fought campaign by almost two to one. His party won 30 seats in the Legislature, including three going to the first women deputies (women had voted in the elections for the first time)" (page 126).

Cerdas Cruz 1991: Figueres receives 123,444 votes, 65 percent of votes cast (page 301).

Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales, 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966 1969: This is the primary source for all aspects of the election.

Elecciones en cifras 1979: "Elecciones de 1953: Padrón Electoral, votos recibidos y no recibidos, por clase de voto, según provincias" (page 79). For the country and each province gives registered voters, total votes received, total valid votes, votes for each party, null votes, blank votes, and votes not received (abstentions).

Elegir y no ser elegidas: el significado político del voto femenino 1994: "En 1953, fueron electas las primeras 3 mujeres diputadas (6% del total de diputaciones)" (page 7).

ICSPS Costa Rica 1966: "1953 presidential vote" (page 42). Gives by province numbers of votes received by party, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and totals each category for the nation. "1953 legislative vote" (page 43). Gives by province numbers of votes received by party, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and totals each category for the nation. "1953 municipal vote" (page 44). Gives by province numbers of votes received by party, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and totals each category for the nation.

Kantor 1958: General election data for 1953 election (pages 64-65). Gives total votes received by top two presidential candidates with the number of blank and null votes, the total of votes cast, the total registered to vote, and the number of seats in the Legislative Assembly won by each party.

Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party and abstention rate (pages 165 and 278).

Rojas Bolaños 1994:"Del total de votos válidos Figueres obtuvo el 65%; sin embargo, un abstencionismo del 32,5% indicaba la renuencia de los sectores derrotados en la guerra civil de 1948 a integrarse dentro del nuevo esquema político" (page 95).

Sánchez 1994: Women vote for the first time in national elections in July 1953. Gives the names of the first three women elected to congress, all from PLN (page 19).

Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, votes by department for each party, null votes, and blank votes (page 580).

Winson 1988: "The substantial majority won by Figueres in the 1953 elections showed that support for him and the PLN was particularly strong among the rural population of the 'meseta central,' and considerably weaker among the banana workers on both coasts. In the latter areas, the rates of abstention in 1953 were approximately double the national average, at a time when both the Calderonista and the Communist parties were banned" (page 97).

1954

Gorvin 1989: "In the following year [1954] Costa Rica faced the first major threat to its 1949 Constitution when supporters of former President Calderón invaded the country with support from Cuba, Nicaragua, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic and Colombia. Figueres appealed for aid from the Organization of American States and the invading forces were dispersed" (page 71).

1955

Mauceri 1989: "In early 1955 remnants of Calderón's forces invade Costa Rica with four hundred men and support from Somoza. The invasion fizzles after the United States and the OAS condemned it" (pages 205 and 207).

Rojas Bolaños 1994: "Calderón Guardia había realizado el último intento armado de derribar al nuevo régimen, a principios de 1955, otra vez con el apoyo de Somoza" (page 95).

1958

February 2: General election (Echandi / PUN)

Aguilar A. 1969: "Resumen de toda la república: votos para presidente y vicepresidente (elecciones 2 de febrero de 1958)" (page 3-04). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for three parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes.

"Resumen de toda la república: votos para diputados (elecciones 2 de febrero de 1958)" (page 3-05). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for eight parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Resumen de toda la república: votos para regidores y síndicos municipales (elecciones 2 de febrero de 1958)" (page 3-06). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for seven parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes.

Araya Pochet 1982: Discusses the campaign and election (pages 68-72). "Votación para presidente y vice-presidente" (page 71). Gives by province the vote for three parties, total votes, valid votes, null votes, and blank votes. "Votación para diputados." Gives by province the vote for four parties, total votes, valid votes, null votes, and blank votes.

Bird 1984: Gives votes for three presidential candidates and seats won by each party (page 129).

Busey 1962: "It is significant that in elections of 1958, the candidate of Liberación Nacional lost to more conservative Mario Echandi, of the PUN-PRN coalition. Nevertheless, the party salvaged twenty of the forty-five seats in the one-house Legislative Assembly" (page 21). Gives percent of vote for each candidate (page 22).

Cerdas Cruz 1991: Gives total votes and percent of vote for top three candidates (page 307). President lacks a majority in Legislative Assembly.

Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales, 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966 1969: This is the primary source for all aspects of the election.

Dunkerley 1988: In "1958, the conservative coalition secured a clear presidential victory for Mario Echandi on a platform of sobriety in both fiscal and foreign affairs whilst the PLN maintained its large congressional majority" (page 609).

Elecciones en cifras 1979: "Elecciones de 1958: Padrón Electoral, votos recibidos y no recibidos, por clase de voto, según provincias" (page 80). For the country and each province gives registered voters, total votes received, total valid votes, votes for each party, null votes, blank votes, and votes not received (abstentions).

ICSPS Costa Rica 1966: "1958 presidential vote" (page 42). Gives by province numbers of votes received by party, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and totals each category for the nation. "1958 legislative vote" (page 43). Gives by province numbers of votes received by party, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and totals each category for the nation. "1958 municipal vote" (page 44). Gives by province numbers of votes received by party, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and totals each category for the nation.

Lehoucq 1997: "En 1958, Echandi Jiménez (PUN) fue electo junto con una delegación que controlaba únicamente el 22 por ciento de las curules" (page 30).

Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number who voted, number of votes and percent of vote for each party

(pages 175 and 278).

Parker 1981: Gives votes for each party for president and for congress (page 275).

Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, votes by department for each party, null votes, and blank votes (page 581).

1959

Seligson 1987: "Turnout became a central concern of the post-Civil War governments, especially after the 1958 election, in which the percentage of the population voting dropped. As a result, in 1959 a constitutional amendment making the vote obligatory was approved" (page 163).

1962

February 4: General election (Orlich / PLN)

Aguilar A. 1969: "Resumen de toda la república: votos para presidente y vicepresidente (elecciones 4 de febrero de 1962)" (page 3-07). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for four parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes.

"Resumen de toda la república: votos para diputados (elecciones 4 de febrero de 1962)" (page 3-08). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for nine parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Resumen de toda la república: votos para regidores y síndicos municipales (elecciones 4 de febrero de 1962)" (page 3-09). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for nine parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Resumen de toda la república: presidente (elección 1962)" (page 3-13). Gives by province "juntas receptoras," number of votes and percent of vote for three parties, and total votes. "Resumen [province]" (pages 3-14 to 3-27). Gives at "cantón" level the same information for the presidential, congressional, and municipal elections.

Araya Pochet 1982: Discusses the campaign and election (pages 72-74). "Votación para presidente y vice-presidente" (page 73). Gives by province the vote for four parties, total votes, valid votes, null votes, and blank votes. "Votación para diputados" (pages 73-74). Gives by province the vote for four parties, total votes, valid votes, null votes, and blank votes.

Cerdas Cruz 1991: "The general elections of 1962 saw the old rivals from the civil war era return to the fray with their own parties" (page 309). Gives percent of vote for each candidate.

Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales, 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966 1969: This is the primary source for all aspects of the election.

Elecciones en cifras 1979: "Elecciones de 1962: Padrón Electoral, votos recibidos y no recibidos, por clase de voto, según provincias" (page 81). For the country and each province gives registered voters, total votes received, total valid votes, votes for each party, null votes, blank votes, and votes not received (abstentions).

Gorvin 1989: "The PLN returned to power in 1962 when Orlich secured 177,681 votes compared with 122,534 votes for his nearest rival, Republican candidate Calderón; the PLN also won 30 of the 57 assembly seats" (page 71).

ICSPS Costa Rica 1966: "Distribution of registered voters and votes cast, 1962, by province" (page 15). Gives for each province the population, registered voters, votes cast, votes cast as percent of registered voters, votes cast as percent of provincial population, provincial population as percent of national population, and votes cast as percent of national electorate. "1962 presidential vote" (page 42). Gives by province numbers of votes received by party, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and totals each category for the nation. "1962 legislative vote" (page 43). Gives by province numbers of votes received by party, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and totals each category for the nation. "1962 municipal vote" (page 44). Gives by province numbers of votes received by party, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, total votes, and totals each category for the nation.

Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party (pages 184 and 278).

Schifter Sikora 1982: "Elecciones presidenciales de 1962 (votos válidos urbanos y rurales, Partido Republicano Calderonista)" (page 87). "Elecciones presidenciales de 1962 (votos para el Partido Republicano Calderonista en porcentaje y números absolutos)." "Elecciones presidenciales de 1962 (votos para el Partido Republicano Calderonista en zona bananera)."

Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, votes by department for each party, null votes, and blank votes (page 582).

1965

Alexander 1973: "The Christian Democratic Party of Costa Rica was established by a congress at San José in March 1965" (page 366).

1966

February 6: General election (Trejos Fernandez / UN)

Aguilar A. 1969: "Resumen de toda la república: votos para presidente y vicepresidente (elecciones 6 de febrero de 1966)" (page 3-10). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for two parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes.

"Resumen de toda la república: votos para diputados (elecciones 6 de febrero de 1966)" (page 3-11). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for five parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes. "Resumen de toda la república: votos para regidores y síndicos municipales (elecciones 6 de febrero de 1966)" (page 3-12). Gives by province the "juntas receptoras," registered voters, votes for six parties, valid votes, null votes, blank votes, and total votes.

Araya Pochet 1982: Discusses the campaign and election (pages 74-76). "Los resultados electorales fueron para presidente" (page 76). Gives votes for two parties by province. "Para diputados." Gives votes for three parties by province.

Cerdas Cruz 1991: "This was perhaps the closest election in national history: Trejos Fernández obtained 222,810 votes (50.5 per cent) and Oduber 218,590 (49.5 per cent)" (pages 312-313). Gives number of seats in congress won by each party (page 313).

Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales, 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966 1969: This is the primary source for all aspects of the election.

Elecciones en cifras 1979: "Elecciones de 1966: Padrón Electoral, votos recibidos y no recibidos, por clase de voto, según provincias" (page 82). For the country and each province gives registered voters, total votes received, total valid votes, votes for each party, null votes, blank votes, and votes not received (abstentions).

Lehoucq 1997: "Trejos Fernández contó con el apoyo de apenas el 46 por ciento de los miembros de la Asamblea Legislativa" (page 30).

McDonald 1989: In 1966 "UN candidate José Joaquín Trejos beat his PLN rival by a single percentage point" (page 172).

Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party (pages 200 and 278).

Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, votes by department for each party, null votes, and blank votes (page 583).

1970

February 1: General election (Figueres / PLN)

Araya Pochet 1982: Discusses the campaign and election (pages 188-190). "Los resultados electorales fueron los siguientes" (page 189). Gives by province the number of votes for five parties.

Cerdas Cruz 1991: In the 1970 election, "two ex-presidents, José Figueres and Mario Echandi, faced each other" (page 314). Gives percent of vote for these two candidates (page 315).

Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales: elecciones del 1o de febrero de 1970 y elecciones municipales en los nuevos cantones de Upala, Los Chiles, Guatuso, La Cruz, Talamanca y Matina 1970: This is the primary source for all aspects of the election.

Elecciones en cifras 1979: "Elecciones de 1970: Padrón Electoral, votos recibidos y no recibidos, por clase de voto, según provincias" (page 83). For the country and each province gives registered voters, total votes received, total valid votes, votes for each party, null votes, blank votes, and votes not received (abstentions).

Gorvin 1989: "José Figueres returned to the presidency in the February 1970 election with a landslide victory over Echandí Jiménez; the PLN also won 32 of the 57 parliamentary seats. The election was also noteworthy because the communist Popular Vanguard Party (PVP) participated for the first time since 1944. The PVP formed a coalition with other left-wing parties in the Socialist Action Party, but gained only two parliamentary seats and its candidate, Lisimaco Leiva, won only 7,227 votes compared with 294,266 for Figueres and 221,152 for Echandí" (page 71).

Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party (pages 216 and 279).

Schifter Sikora 1982: Gives number of votes for each party in the presidential election (page 111).

Stone 1976: Gives candidates, total votes cast, votes by department for each party, null votes, and blank votes (page 584).

Wells 1970: "A record number of citizens went to the polls: 83.3 percent of the registered voters cast ballots, as compared with the 81 percent who had voted in the elections of 1962 and 1966" (page 13). "(I)n the 1970 election the PLN won by an unusually large margin in all three contests--presidential, legislative, and municipal." "(T)he two major parties together won 96 percent of the valid votes cast for the presidency...(T)he PLN and UN tickets together garnered 92 percent of the valid votes and elected all but two of the 57 deputies in the unicameral Legislative Assembly" (page 14). In the text gives a variety of statistics concerning the 1970 elections.

April

Nickson 1995: "In the late 1960s a municipal reform movement sought to strengthen local government. This bore fruit on 30 April 1970 with the promulgation of a new municipal code...Municipal autonomy was enhanced by the removal of centrally appointed provincial governors as executive heads of the municipalities that were provincial headquarters, and by ending the appointment of central government nominees, know as 'jefes políticos,' as executive heads and police chiefs in all other municipalities' (page 156).

1972

Gorvin 1989: The Partido Socialista Costarricense is founded in 1972 (page 70).

1974

February 3: General election (Oduber Quiroz / PLN)

Araya Pochet 1982: Discusses the campaign and election (page 190-192). "Los resultados por provincia para presidente fueron los siguientes" (page 191). Gives by province the number of votes for eight parties.

Cerdas Cruz 1991: "In the elections of February 1974, the opposition to the PLN again failed to unite behind a single candidate" (page 317). Gives percent of vote for each party.

Close 1991: "In 1974, the incumbent PLN won, ending the pattern of alternating the presidency between parties" (page 67).

Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales: elecciones del 3 de febrero de 1974 y elecciones municipales en el nuevo cantón de Corredores 1974: This is the primary source for all aspects of the election.

Elecciones en cifras 1979: "Elecciones de 1974: Padrón Electoral, votos recibidos y no recibidos, por clase de voto, según provincias" (page 84). For the country and each province gives registered voters, total votes received, total valid votes, votes for each party, null votes, blank votes, and votes not received (abstentions).

Gorvin 1989: "Odúber defeated National Unification candidate Fernando Trejos Escalante by securing 43.4 per cent of the votes in the first round. The PLN, however, lost its majority in the assembly by winning only 25 of the assembly's 57 seats" (page 71).

Lehoucq 1997: "En 1974, el presidente Oduber Quirós (PLN) fue electo junto con una delegación que controlaba el 47 por ciento de los escaños legislativos" (page 30).

Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party (pages 234 and 279).

Sánchez Machado 1985: "Costa Rica: perfil de clases social de la base electoral de los diferentes partidos políticos" (page 35). "Preferencia electoral de las clases sociales en las elecciones de 1974 según partido político" (page 36). "Costa Rica: preferencias electorales de los votantes en los comicios de 1974 según área urbana y rural" (page 116). "Características socioeconómicas de los entrevistados según participación electoral en 1974" (page 117). "Distribución de preferencias electorales según características sociales de los entrevistados, 1974" (page 118).

Schifter Sikora 1982: Gives number of votes for each party in the presidential election (page 113).

1978

February 5: General election (Carazo Odio / UC)

Araya Pochet 1982: Discusses the campaign and election (pages 192-194). "Los resultados electorales de 1978" (page 193). Gives by province the votes for president for eight parties. "Liberación Nacional experimentó en estas elecciones su derrota más importante pues por primera vez en su historia perdió el control del Poder Legislativo y de la mayoría de las municipalidades del país."

Cerdas Cruz 1991: "Despite the participation of eight candidates, the 1978 poll centred on two principal groups: the Partido Unidad, whose candidate was Rodrigo Carazo, and the PLN, led by Luis A. Monge" (page 320). Gives percent of vote for each candidate.

Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales 1978?: This is the primary source for all aspects of the election.

Elecciones en cifras 1979: "Elecciones de 1978: Padrón Electoral, votos recibidos y no recibidos, por clase de voto, según provincias" (page 85). For the country and each province gives registered voters, total votes received, total valid votes, votes for each party, null votes, blank votes, and votes not received (abstentions). "Resultados para presidente y vicepresidentes de la república en las elecciones del 5 de febrero de 1978). Tables include: Grafico C "Distribución porcentual del Padrón Electoral según provincias" and Cuadro 6) "Resultados electorales para presidente y vicepresidentes de la república de 1978, juntas receptoras de votos, sufragantes inscritos, votos recibidos, votos validos por partido, votos nulos, votos en blanco y abstencionismo en cifras absolutas y relativas, según provincas, cantones y distritos." "Abstencionismo para presidente y vicepresidentes de la república en las elecciones del 5 de febrero de 1978" (pages 45-75). Tables include: Grafico D "Distribución porcentual del abstencionismo según provincias" and Cuadro 7 "Resultados electorales para presidente y vicepresidentes de la república de 1978, votos recibidos y abstencionismo por sexo, en cifras absolutas y relativas, según provincias, cantones y distritos."

Granados 1983: "Asignación de diputados por partido, 1978" (page 195). Gives percent of votes, number of deputies assigned, and percent of assembly this constitutes for seven parties.

Jiménez Castro 1981: "Votos válidos por partidos para presidente y vicepresidentes, por porcentajes, de todo el país y por provincias y cantones, en las elecciones del 5 de febrero de 1978" (page 11). "Votos válidos por partidos para diputados, por porcentajes, de todo el país y por provincias y cantones, en las elecciones del 5 de febrero de 1978" (pages 12-14). "Votos válidos por partidos para síndicos y regidores municipales, en porcentajes de todo el país, por provincias y cantones, en las elecciones del 5 de febrero de 1978" (pages 15-17). Includes numerous maps charting the electoral results.

Jiménez Castro 1982: Gives percent of vote for each party in elections for president, vice presidents, congress, and municipal councils (pages 155-156).

Lehoucq 1997: "Carazo Odio (Coalición Unidad) luchó para emitir leyes con el apoyo de apenas el 47 por ciento del total de diputados" (page 30).

McDonald 1989: The PLN "suffered its greatest defeat in 1978. It lost control of the presidency and the Legislative Assembly to the new four-party Unity (Unidad) coalition" (page 172).

Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party (pages 252 and 279).

Sánchez Machado 1985: "Costa Rica: votación obtenida por los diferentes partidos políticos en las elecciones de 1978 según área urbana y rural" (page 119). "Características socioeconómicas de los entrevistados según participación electoral en 1978" (page 120).

Seligson 1982: Luis Alberto Monge Alvarez "ran against Rodrigo Carazo Odio in 1978 and was defeated when Carazo took 50.5 percent of the votes, to PLN's 43.8 percent" (page 405).

Wilson 1998: "Carazo and the Unidad coalition captured control of the executive branch of government but failed to win an absolute majority in the Legislative Assembly. Unidad won just twenty-seven of the fifty-seven seats, and the PLN remained the major opposition party with twenty-five seats" (page 103).

1980

Seligson 1987: "In 1980 Costa Rica suffered a $661-million deficit in the balance of payments, and all signs indicate that the problem is growing worse...Added to the economic problems facing Costa Rica is the atmosphere of crisis that runs throughout Central America. Although Costa Rica supported the Sandinista insurrection in its northern neighbor Nicaragua, it did so rather out of distaste for the Somoza dictatorship than out of support for the leftist revolutionary goals of the movement. Consequently, the increasing radicalization of Nicaragua has produced strains in the relations between the two nations and has led to a polarization of domestic public opinion" (page 154).

1982

February 7: General election (Monge Alvarez / PLN)

Ameringer 1982: "1982 Costa Rica elections" (pages 120-121). "Vote for president" gives candidate and total votes/percent of vote won. "Seats won in the legislative assembly, by party" gives seats won by each party.

Biesanz 1988: "In 1982, inflation reached 82%. Per capita income was reduced by 15% and the average salary lost 42% of its buying power" (page 215).

Cerdas Cruz 1991: Gives percent of vote for each candidate (page 323).

Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales 1982?: This is the primary source for all aspects of the election.

Figueroa Ibarra 1994: "En las elecciones de 1982, el líder liberacionista y ex sindicalista, Luis Alberto Monge, ganó la presidencia con casi el 59% de los votos y se consolidó el control de la Asamblea Legislativa con una holgada mayoría (30 curules)" (page 63).

Granados 1983: "Votos para diputados en 1982" (page 194). Gives by province the number of votes for six parties. "Asignación de diputados por partido, 1982." Gives percent of votes, number of deputies assigned, and percent of assembly this constitutes for six parties.

Hernández Rodríguez 1991: "Abstencionismo provincial y total según zona urbana, mixta o rural. Elección de 1982" (page 126). "Diferencias entre el porcentaje de abstencionismo femenino y masculino, según provincias y clasificación urbana, rural y mixta. Elección de 1982." "% de abstencionismo dentro de los que saben o no saben leer. Elección de 1982" (page 130). "% abstencionismo según alfabetismo, sexo y urbanismo. Elección de 1982" (page 131). "% de abstencionismo dentro de las categorías ocupacionales según sexo. Elección de 1982" (page 131). "% de abstencionismo dentro de los diversos estados civiles. Elección de 1982" (page 132). "% de abstencionismo según edad y sexo. Elección de 1982" (page 133).

López Vallecillos 1985: Gives number of votes and percent of vote for major parties (pages 814-815).

McDonald 1989: "(I)n 1982, PLN presidential candidate Luis Monge won in a landslide, carrying all of Costa Rica's seven provinces and collecting nearly 59 percent of the vote. The PLN's share of the Legislative Assembly vote was almost as large (55 percent) giving the party assured control of the body with thirty-three deputies" (page 180).

Oconitrillo 1982: Gives number of registered voters, abstention rate, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party (pages 270-271 and 279).

Rojas Bolaños 1997: "Todavía en las elecciones de 1982, cuando la institucionalización del bipartidismo estaba en camino, los partidos pequeños obtuvieron el 7,6 % de los votos válidos emitidos para la elección de presidente y vicepresidentes" (page 187).

Seligson 1982: "The election on February 7, 1982, saw the PLN returned to power in its most resounding victory since the 1953 election. At the same time, the victory places the PLN in the most difficult position it has ever found itself. The unprecedented economic challenges and the imperative of rebuilding the ruined economy at considerable social cost will call upon all of the party's resources" (page 405). Gives the percent of the vote for two leading parties and the abstention rate (page 406). "(F)or the first time since 1970, the PLN holds a majority in the legislative assembly. Of the 57 seats in the unicameral legislature, the PLN won 33, with 29 needed for a simple majority" (page 406).


Statistical abstract of Latin America volume 22 1983: "Costa Rica presidential election results, by province and by political party (February 7, 1982)" (page 534). Gives province, eligible voters, results for six parties, valid votes, invalid votes, blank ballots, total votes received, and total abstentions. "Costa Rica presidential election results by political party (February 7, 1982)" (page 535). Gives by party total votes, as percent of total votes received, as percent of eligible voters, and as percent of valid votes.

Wilson 1998: "The PLN's 1982 landslide election victory...came during the lowest point of the country's worst economic crisis since the Great Depression...(L)arge numbers of traditionally non-PLN supporters voted for the PLN in 1982 in hopes that the party could end the economic crisis and restore their pre-1980 standard of living" (page 115).

1983

Gorvin 1989: The PUSC is "founded in December 1983 by the Christian Democratic Party, the Calderonist Republican Party, the Popular Alliance and the Democratic Renewal Party, which had together formed the Opposition Unity in 1978. The PUSC, the political heir of the PRN, is the major right-centre political group in Costa Rica" (page 71).

Rovira Mas 1994: "(E)l Partido Unidad Social Cristiana (P.U.S.C.) es de fundación reciente, aunque sus antecedentes se remontan a varias décadas atrás. Fue creado el 17 de diciembre de 1983, mediante un pacto de fusión entre otros cuatro partidos: el Partido Republicano Calderonista, el Partido Renovación Democrática, el Partido Unión Popular y el Partido Demócrata Cristiano" (page 50).

1984

Matland 1997: "The Social Christian Unity (PUSC) became the second major party in 1984 when the parties that had formed the anti-National Liberation (PLN) Unity (Unidad) coalition in the 1978 and 1982 elections were allowed to legally fuse into a single party" (page 188).

Rojas Bolaños 1997: "(H)asta 1984, cuando se conformó el Partido Unidad Social Cristiana, el formato no era claramente bipartidista y existía un espacio relativamente amplio para la acción de los partidos pequeños" (page 187).

1986

February 2: General election (Arias Sánchez / PLN)

Cerdas 1986: "Following a long democratic tradition, the 1986 elections for Costa Rica's government were held as scheduled. There were seven parties running for the Presidency, and many traditional and local political organizations for the congress and municipalities" (page 311). Describes the parties involved and the election results. "Deputies" (page 312). Gives the number of votes and percent of vote for each party in the congressional elections. "Finally women played a very important part in the electoral process, not only in their traditional role of candidates' supporters, but as candidates themselves. The election produced the first woman vice-president in the history of Central America: Victoria Garrón" (page 312).

Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales 1987: This is the primary source for all aspects of the election.

Furlong 1986: Gives number eligible to vote, number who voted, number of voting places (page 3). Gives percent of vote for top two candidates and number of seats in congress for two major parties (page 7).

Hernández Valle 1986: Gives votes for president by department and by party (page 57). "Votos para diputados" (page 61). Gives votes by department and party, and divides the votes into seats (pages 62-63). Lists names of winning delegates (pages 64-66).

Hernández Valle 1986a: Gives total number of registered voters and divides by gender; percent of registered voters who voted in each department; percent of voters in various age groups; percent of vote for top two presidential candidates; and percent who abstained (page 324). Gives number of seats won by each party (page 325).

Keesing's record of world events May 1986: Gives the percent of the vote for two presidential candidates, the number and percent of registered voters who voted, the number of votes cast for two parties, the candidates of each party participating in the presidential election, and the number of seats won by each party in the Legislative Assembly (page 34350). "There would be six women in the new Legislative Assembly." "Observers described the presidential election campaign as the closest and most vigorously contested since 1948, the main issues being the economy and Nicaragua" (page 34351).

Lincoln 1986: "Costa Rica election results--February 1986" (page B268). Gives number of presidential votes and percent of vote for six parties and the number of seats they won in the Legislative Assembly.

Matland 1997: "Women's equality was a major policy platform in Oscar Arias's presidential campaign in 1985-1986, and the support of women is commonly viewed as key to Arias's victory. As part of President Arias's efforts to keep his promises to women, the Law of Real Equality was introduced in the Legislative Assembly in 1988" (page 190).

McDonald 1989: "The PLN's victory in 1986 with 52 percent of the vote marks only the second time that 'Liberación' had been able to elect two presidents back to back" (page 181).

Moreno 1995: Victora Garrón is the first woman to be elected second vice president (page 50).

Statistical abstract of Latin America volume 25 1987: "Costa Rica presidential election results, by province and political party (February 2, 1986)" (page 186). "Costa Rica presidential winning percentages, by political party (February 2, 1986)."

Weaver 1994: "Oscar Arias, elected in 1986, returned the PLN to the presidency and brought more energy to the office. Although still burdened by the debt and dependence on foreign aid, Arias successfully concluded the 1987 Central American peace accord at Esquipulas, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize" (page 246).

Yashar 1995: "In the 1986 elections, the PUSC gained control of more than 25 percent of the municipalities (versus 2 percent in the previous elections), and gained an additional 7 seats in the national legislature, which totaled 25 out of the 57 seats" (page 89).