Information Covering More Than One Election

Aguilar A. 1969: "Los datos los extractamos algunos de las gacetas, otros al no estar en las gacetas, de los periódicos. En Archivos Nacionales no conseguimos ningún dato de interés. El Registro Civil no tiene nada anterior a 1953. El Tribunal Electoral tiene información de 1948 para acá. Nuestro interés se centró en los resultados de las elecciones. Nos llamó la atención que en muchas elecciones se daban los resultados mesa por mesa pero no los totales finales, en otras no existen ni esos datos. Se anulaban mesas completas por una u otra razón" (page 2-02). "Analisis comparativo elecciones 1962-1966" (pages 3-26 to 3-41). Detailed comparison of electoral statistics from presidential, congressional, and municipal elections. "Analisis de abstencionismo por provincias y cantones, cifras históricas de 1953-1958-1962-1966" (pages 4-20 to 4-34). "Analisis de ciudadanos empadronados por provincias y cantones, cifras históricas de 1953-1958-1962-1966, cifras proyectadas de 1970" (pages 5-08 to 5-32).

Aguilar Bulgarelli 1983: "Votantes inscritos y porcentajes de abstencionismo en los procesos electorales de 1953, 1958, 1962, y 1966" (page 69). Gives by department the number of registered voters and the number that abstained.

Alcántara Sáez 1989: "Porcentaje del voto en las elecciones presidenciales (entre paréntesis el candidato elegido presidente)" (volume 2 page 153). Covers elections from 1953-1990. "El gobierno municipal, que desempeña la administración de los intereses y servicios locales en cada cantón, está integrado por regidores municipales, de elección popular para un período de cuatro años, y de un funcionario ejecutivo perteneciente al servicio civil" (volume 2 page 157). "Composición de la asamblea legislativa" (volume 2 page 162). Covers elections from 1978-1990.

Araya Pochet 1982: Gives by year from 1953-1966 the percent of the vote for PLN in presidential, legislative, and municipal elections (page 78). Gives for same years the number of votes and percent of vote for PLN and the opposition. Gives for same years the percent of vote for PLN by province (page 79).

Biesanz 1988: "Every four years, voters choose the president and two vice presidents, fifty-seven legislators, and local officials for all the municipalities" (page 183). Describes the election process (pages 185-187). "From 1974-1978 women held about 8 percent of elective municipal posts" (page 189). "In the early 1800s municipal councils were so strong that President Carrillo felt he had to eliminate them as sources of dissent and even subversion in order to achieve national unity" (page 200). Describes municipal structure today.

Booth 1984: "Characteristics of Costa Rican presidencies, 1824-1978" (page 160). "Election participation in Costa Rica, 1897-1978" (page 162). Gives year, number of votes, population estimate, vote as percent of population, and turnout. "From 1824 to 1899 the average Costa Rican presidency lasted only 2.4 years, 37 percent of the presidents resigned before completing their terms, and another fifth were deposed by coups d'etat. Over half of the time from 1835 to 1899 Costa Rica was under military rule--the generals in the presidency were almost always coffee aristocrats" (page 159).

Booth 1989a: "Characteristics of Costa Rican presidencies, 1824-1986" (page 390). "Election results, 1946-1986" (pages 396-397). Gives year, candidates, parties, number of votes, percent of vote, and turnout as percent of population.

Booth 1998: "Key Costa Rican electoral developments, 1825-1905" (page 40). "Characteristics of Costa Rican presidencies, 1824-1998" (page 41). "Key Costa Rican electoral developments, 1906-1946" (page 45). "Evolution of the Costa Rican electorate and turnout, selected presidential elections, 1919-1998" (page 46). "Key Costa Rican electoral developments, 1947-1979" (page 48). "Costa Rican legislative assembly elections and representation, 1953-1998" (page 62). "Costa Rican presidential elections, 1948-1998" (page 67). "Every fourth year beginning in 1958 Costa Rica has held its national elections on the first Sunday in February. All public officials are elected simultaneously for coterminous four-year periods of office" (page 72).

Busey 1961: "Table of Costa Rican executives" (pages 64-70). For leaders of the Costa Rican nation from 1824 to 1962 gives name, dates in power, mode of acquiring office, mode of leaving office, and outstanding features, if any, of their term in office.

Carey 1997: "Presidents serve a single four-year term and are permanently prohibited from reelection. (Footnote 2: The eight-year prohibition on presidential reelection imposed by the Constituent Assembly was amended, subsequent to the third presidency of José Figueres (1970-74), to a lifetime ban.)" (page 202). "Partisan support in the Legislative Assembly for Costa Rican presidents (percentages)" (page 204). Gives year of election, president's party, president's status, and seats held by each party.

Carey 1997a: Gives guidelines for executive election, presidential terms, congressional terms, and election timing (page 449).

Central America report January 29, 1998: "Presidential elections since 1949 constitution" (page 3). Gives election year, winning party, candidate, number of registered voters, and percent who abstained.

Cerdas 1986: "The results of the elections of 1982 and 1986, for president and vice-president" (page 311). Gives by province the percent of vote and number of votes for PLN and PUSC in each election. "Abstentionism" (page 312). Gives for 1982 and 1986 by province the registered voters, votes cast, and number of voters and percent of registered voters who abstained.

Chalker 1995: Gives abstention rates in 1953 and 1958 (page 107). "Votes by party in presidential elections" (page 108). Gives year (1953-1994), president, and percent of vote for PLN, opposition, and left. "Representation of the PLN and opposition party (or coalition) in the Costa Rican assembly" (page 109). Gives year (1953-1994), president, and percent of vote for PLN, opposition, and left.

Close 1991: Provides a brief summary of Costa Rican electoral history (pages 66-68). "(A)lthough the reformers' PLN, founded in 1951, was Costa Rica's only permanently organized party until 1983, the incumbents lost every presidential election from 1953 to 1970, which let the old elite have a regular turn at governing" (page 67).

Coppedge 1998: "In recent years, Costa Rica has appeared to have a nearly two-party system in which the nominally social democratic Party of National Liberation (PLN) is pitted against the Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC). The PLN is definitely a strong, well-institutionalized political party. The PUSC, however, formally became a party only in 1984; before that, it was a series of coalitions built from smaller, largely personalist parties" (page 184). "Voter turnout increased from 12.4 percent of the population in 1948 to 21.0 percent in 1953 and 29.7 percent in 1962" (page 185).

Country profile. Costa Rica 1998-1999: "Each canton (the administrative subdivision of a province) has a municipal council, made up of at least five aldermen, who are elected at general elections by local residents to four-year terms. Under an electoral reform which came into effect in 1998, municipal presidents are replaced by the new figure of the mayor. For the first year (1998), the aldermen elect the mayors but they will be directly elected by popular vote at the next general polls" (page 6).

Datos electorales 1994: "Costa Rica: elecciones Presidenciales según categorías (1982-1990)" (page 234). "Costa Rica: números absolutos y porcentaje de votos obtenidos por los cuatro primeros lugares (1982-1990)."

Denton 1971: "Costa Rican voting behavior: an overview" (page 71). Gives for presidential and legislative elections from 1953-1966 the number of votes for the PLN and total "anti-PLN" votes. "Provincial voting data: Costa Rican presidential elections" (page 73). Gives for elections from 1953-1966 the votes and percent of votes in each department for the PLN and the total "anti-PLN" votes.

Denton 1984: "Costa Rica: tasa de participación en las elecciones de 1953 a 1982 (porcentajes)" (page 29). "Porcentajes de votos populares que recibió el Partido Liberación Nacional y otros partidos para la presidencia de la república y la asamblea legislativa 1954-1982" (page 117).

Dunkerley 1988: "Costa Rican elections, 1953-1986" (page 602). Gives year of election, major presidential candidates, percent of vote, and PLN congressional majority.

Elecciones en cifras 1979: "Cuadros estadísticos de las elecciones para presidente y vicepresidentes de la república: 1953-1978" (pages 13-18). Includes the following tables: 1) "Padrón Nacional Electoral, índice de electores, aumento entre períodos de elecciones, abstencionismo, y densidad (electores por kilometro cuadrado) del Padrón Nacional Electoral," 2) "Porcentaje promedio de abstencionismo de los siete períodos electorales, según provincias," 3) "Densidad por kilometro cuadrado del Padrón Electoral, por año electoral, según provincas," 4) "Población total, Padrón Nacional Electoral, con relación porcentual del Padrón Electoral con la población total, según elección," and 5) "Población total y población electoral por provincias y relación porcentual del Padrón Electoral con la población total, según elección."

Elecciones en cifras 1996: "Cuadros estadísticos y gráficos de los procesos eleccionarios ocurridos de 1953 a 1994" (pages 13-28). Includes types of tables listed in 1979 edition. "Resultados de las elecciones para presidente y vicepresidentes de la república: 1953-1994" (pages 29-35). For each election gives by province the number of "juntas receptoras," registered voters, total votes cast, votes for each party, null votes, blank votes, and number who abstained.

García 1994: Gives the number of women elected to congress in each election from 1953 to 1994 (pages 23-24).

Goodman 1992: "Legislative assembly elections, Costa Rica" (page 381). Gives party, year (1953-1990), and seats won.

Hernández Rodríguez 1991: "Evolución del Padrón Electoral, 1953-1986" (page 119). Gives year of election, number of registered voters, and increase from previous election. "Abstencionismo en las Elecciones de 1953 a 1986" (page 121). Gives year of election, number of registered voters, number who abstained, and percent of registered voters who abstained. "% de abstencionismo provincial en el período 1953-1986" (page 124). Gives percent of abstention by date of election and by province. "Comparación del % de abstencionismo nacional y provincial según sexo. Elecciones 1974-1978-1982" (page 125).

Hernández Rodríguez 1991a: "% de votos válidos de las elecciones presidenciales en el período 1953-1990" (page 25). Gives election year and percent by party for each. "% votos válidos del PLN, del PU (1978 y 1982), y del PUSC (1986 y 1990) para total del país y provincias" (page 26).

Hernández Valle 1986: Gives for PLN elections won since 1953 and percent of vote won in each election since 1953 (pages 16-17). "Electores y abstencionismo en votación para presidente y vicepresidente, elecciones de 1953-1986" (page 67). "Votos totales y emitidos para el partido Liberación Nacional en elecciones para presidente y vicepresidente in las elecciones de 1953-1986" (page 68). "Votos emitidos para partidos que integran la oposición a Liberación en elecciones para presidente y vicepresidente en 1953-1986" (page 69).

ICSPS Costa Rica 1966: Tables on 1953, 1958, and 1962 elections. "Registered voters and votes cast: 1953, 1958, and 1962" (page 14). Gives year, population, registered voters, votes cast, registered voters as percent of population, votes cast as percent of registered voters, and votes cast as percent of population. "Resume of party activity and support: elections of 1953, 1958, and 1962" (page 26). Gives by party the level of organization, whether they offered candidates for president, deputy, or council in each of the three elections, and the greatest vote they received.

"Distribution of total votes cast in Costa Rican elections: 1953, 1958, and 1962" (page 28). Gives by party the percent of the total vote received by each party's presidential, legislative, and municipal candidates in each of the three elections. "Percentage of valid votes received by each party in presidential, legislative, and municipal elections: 1953, 1958, and 1962" (page 29). "PLN's percentage of the total votes cast in the presidential, legislative, and municipal elections, by province: 1953, 1958, and 1962" (page 30). "Distribution of seats in the Legislative Assembly, by party, resulting from elections of 1953, 1958, and 1962" (page 31).

Jaramillo 1993: "Con respecto a Costa Rica, país que como ya se vio posee un Tribunal Electoral ampliamente autónomo, tenemos que en él los comicios realizados desde la expedición de la Constitución de 1949 son considerados unánimemente como transparentes y libres de todo fraude. La relación entre la autonomía del Tribunal y la limpieza y aceptación de las elecciones es más clara si se atiende un poco a la historia institucional-electoral costarricense. Como ya se precisó antes, hasta el año 1948 las denuncias sobre manipulación electoral hacían parte de la vida política ordinaria del país" (page 58).

Jiménez Castro 1977: "Resumen de los resultados electorales para presidente y vicepresidentes de la república, años 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966, 1970 y 1974. Según: sufragantes inscritos, votos recibidos, abstención, votos nulos, votos en blanco y votos válidos por partidos, en números absolutos por: provincias" ("Cuadro 1" unpaged in "Anexos"). "Resumen de los resultados electorales para presidente y vicepresidentes de la república, años 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966, 1970 y 1974 según: sufragantes inscritos, votos recibidos, abstención, votos nulos, votos en blanco y votos válidos por partidos, en números relativos en % por: provincias" ("Cuadro 2" unpaged in "Anexos"). "Resumen de los resultados electorales para diputados años 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966, 1970 y 1974 según: sufragantes inscritos, votos recibidos, abstención, votos nulos, votos en blanco y votos válidos por partidos, en números absolutos por: provincias" ("Cuadro 3" unpaged in "Anexos"). "Resumen de los resultados electorales para diputados años 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966, 1970 y 1974 según: sufragantes inscritos, votos recibidos, abstención, votos nulos, votos en blanco y votos válidos por partidos, en números relativos en porcentajes por: provincias" ("Cuadro 4" unpaged in "Anexos"). "Resumen de los resultados electorales para síndicos y regidores municipales años 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966, 1970 y 1974 según: sufragantes inscritos, votos recibidos, abstención, votos nulos, votos en blanco y votos válidos por partidos, en números absolutos: provincias" ("Cuadro 5" unpaged in "Anexos"). "Resumen de los resultados electorales para síndicos y regidores municipales años 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966, 1970 y 1974 según: sufragantes inscritos, votos recibidos, abstención, votos nulos, votos en blanco y votos válidos por partidos, en números absolutos y relativos en porcentajes por: provincias" ("Cuadro 6" unpaged in "Anexos"). Contains numerous charts and maps reflecting these statistics.

Kantor 1969: "During the nineteenth century, government in Costa Rica was the monopoly of a small aristocracy. From the gaining of independence till 1889, popular representation in government was nonexistent or only of the most formal sort" (page 191).

Lehoucq 1992: "Presidential selection, 1882-1948" (pages 64-65). Gives election dates, name, party affiliation, percentage of votes and first and second rounds, method of acquiring office, and period in office. "Rafael Iglesias Castro (1894-1902) and González Víquez (1906-1910) became presidents through the use of violence and fraud. Their predecessors annulled electoral results in selected regions of the country to reduce the political strength of their opponents...After the first round of the two-stage electoral process, their predecessors also jailed many opposition delegates to prevent them from attending the provincial electoral assemblies where presidents and legislative deputies were chosen" (page 66). "Between 1882 and 1948, thirty-three legislative elections were held, each of which replaced one half of the members of Congress. Such elections occurred every two years, one half of which coincided with presidential elections" (page 71). "Legislative sessions, 1890-1948" (page 73). Gives the number of seats won by the pro-government party and total seats to be elected.

Lehoucq 1997: "Los diputados permanencen por un período de cuatro años, conjuntamente con el Presidente. La Asamblea Constituyente de 1949 eliminó las elecciones de medio período para la mitad del total de asientos en el Congreso. Los diputados son elegidos en siete jurisdicciones provinciales y plurinominales...Cuando votan para presidentes y legisladores, los ciudadanos eligen también a los regidores, representantes de los cantones" (page 24). "Costa Rica es uno de cuatro países en los cuales los legisladores no pueden reelegirse inmediatamente: deben esperar un período de 4 años antes de participar nuevamente en las elecciones" (page 25). "Desde 1949, 5 de 12 presidentes han tenido que gobernar sin el respaldo de una mayoría legislativa" (page 30). Gives dates and percent of congress of party in power for each.

Leonard 1998: "Pressure for change in Costa Rica came in the 1930s with Manual Mora and his founding of the Communist Party. The support of his workers was crucial to the 1940 presidential election of Rafael Calderón Guardia and to his social legislation program between 1940 and 1944" (page 96).

Martz 1967: "The voter receives three ballots and may divide his vote to that extent among rival parties, although his congressional and municipal choice is based upon party rather than individual. The seven Costa Rican provinces are divided into 68 cantons; these in turn include 337 districts, within which in 1966 there were 3,015 voting "'mesas,' each supervised by a 'junta receptora,' the local election board" (page 895). "National totals" (page 896). For presidential, congressional, and municipal elections of 1953, 1958, 1962, and 1966 gives number of votes, percent of vote, and seats won by each party.

Matland 1997: "Costa Rica has the longest history of democracy of any country in Latin America. As is the norm in Latin America, Costa Rica has a centralized, presidential system. Unlike many Latin American countries, however, the legislature and judiciary effectively check the power of the president. Because the legislative branch wields actual power, the composition of the legislature is important" (page 187). "Despite having [proportional representative] elections, Costa Rica has evolved into a two-party dominant system. The two major parties, National Liberation (PLN) and Social Christian Unity (PUSC) have won, on average, 90% of the seats in the past five elections. All the women elected to the Assembly have been from these two parties" (page 188). "(W)omen's representation has been higher in the Costa Rican Assembly than in the United States Congress for the past 30 years...[Since receiving the vote in 1949] women's participation rates in voting have quickly neared men's" (page 189). "Women's chances of getting elected to the Legislative Assembly, 1974-1994" (page 191). "Actual results of Legislative Assembly elections 1974-1994" (page 202).

McDonald 1989: "Throughout most of the nineteenth century, Costa Rican politics was dominated by a coffee-planter elite...During the rule of the coffee oligarchy, the liberal, secular consensus among the elite and the small size of the eligible literate electorate (10 percent of adults) made political parties unnecessary. Politicians simply formed temporary, informal networks of followers" (page 170). "Elections to choose the Costa Rican president and the unicameral Legislative Assembly (fifty-seven members) are held concurrently using separate ballots once every four years. The candidate who wins more than a 40 percent plurality of the vote is declared president" (pages 177-178). "Costa Rican Legislative Assembly: election returns by party and rates of participation, 1953-1986 (in percentages)" (page 178). "Costa Rican Legislative Assembly: distribution of seats by party, 1953-1986" (page 179). "Costa Rican Presidential election results, 1974-1986 (in percentages)" (page 180).

Menjívar 1986: "Costa Rica: resultados elecciones presidenciales 1982 y 1986" (page 59). Gives for each party the total votes, percent of valid votes, percent of total votes, and percent of registered voters. "Costa Rica: cambios en la presidencia según forma de ascenso al poder, por años de 1944 a 1984" (unpaged in "Anexo 2").

Moreno 1995: "Población total y población en edad de votar o inscritos" (page 43). Covers 1982 to 1994. "Índices de abstención a nivel nacional por sexo para elecciones presidenciales" (page 44). Covers 1953 to 1994. "Índices de abstención por sexo y provincia para elecciones presidenciales" (page 46). Covers 1982 to 1994. "Índices de abstención por zona, sexo y estado civil para las elecciones presidenciales" (pages 48-49). Covers 1982 to 1990. "Participación de las mujeres en las gobernaciones de provincia" (page 60). Covers 1970 to 1994. "Participación de las mujeres en la asamblea legislativa a nivel nacional y por partidos políticos mayoritarios" (page 62). Covers 1953 to 1994. "Participación de las mujeres en la asamblea legislativa por provincias" (page 63). Covers 1953 to 1994. "Participación de las mujeres en los consejos municipales como regidoras propietarias" (page 73). Covers 1953 to 1994. "Participación de las mujeres en los consejos municipales como síndicas propietarias" (page 75). Covers 1953 to 1994. "Partidos y resultados electorales en elecciones para presidente de la república 1953-1994 - porcentajes" (page 77).

Mujeres latinoamericanas en cifras: Costa Rica 1993: "Participación en elecciones presidenciales según sexo, 1956-1990" (page 101). "Participación femenina en gobernaciones, según provincia por período presidencial, 1981-1990" (page 103). "Participación femenina en las municipalidades, según cargo, 1982-1990." "Participación femenina en la asamblea legislativa, 1978-1990" (page 104). "Diputadas por partido político según período presidencial, 1978-1990."

Munro 1967: Description of elections and participation as seen by the author in 1917 (pages 148-157).

Nickson 1995: "Costa Rica is a unitary nation divided for administrative purposes into seven provinces. Below the province level, the country is covered by eighty-one cantons ('cantones'), each of which has municipal status. Municipalities are divided for administrative purposes into 435 districts" (page 154). Describes the organizational structure of the municipality (pages 156-157). "Local government elections are held at the same time as presidential and congressional elections, and local government councillors are elected for the same term as their national counterparts" (page 157).

Nohlen 1993a, 1993b: Electoral information and tables (1993a pages 183-210; 1993b pages 221-250). 2.1) "Evolution of the electorate 1919-1990" gives year, type of elections, population, registered voters (total number and percent of population) and voters (total number, percent of registered voters, and percent of population). 2.2) "Abbreviations of parties and coalitions." 2.3) "Electoral participation of parties and coalitions 1913-1990" gives party, dates of participation, and the numbers of elections for president and Congress in which they participated. 2.4) "Dates of national elections and institutional interruptions 1913-1990" includes presidential, congressional, and Constituent Assembly elections. 2.5) "Election for Constituent Assembly 1948" has two parts: a) gives total and percent of registered voters, voters, blank, null, and valid votes and b) gives by party number of votes and percent of total vote, seats won and percent of total seats. 2.6) "Congressional elections 1953-1990 (total numbers)" gives by year registered voters, voters, blank, null, and valid votes and total votes received by each party. 2.7) "Congressional elections 1953-1990 (percentages)" gives the percent of registered voters who voted, the percent of blank, null, and valid votes and the percent of votes received by each party. 2.8) "Composition of Congress 1953-1990" gives by year the total seats and the number and percent of seats held by each party. 2.9) "Presidential elections 1913-1990" gives by year a) the registered voters, the percent who voted, blank, null, and valid votes and b) candidates/parties with their total votes and percent of vote. 2.10) "List of national leaders (presidents, juntas, dictators, generals, etc.) 1898-1990" gives names, dates, and observations on how they came to power and details on electoral issues in their regimes.

Nohlen 1998: "Elecciones parlamentarias en Costa Rica durante 1982-1994" (page 306). Gives year, party, percent of votes won, and percent of seats in congress won. "'Split-voting' en Costa Rica" (page 307). Gives year of election (1978-1994) and percent of presidential and congressional vote won by PLN and PUSC.

Ochoa 1987: "Costa Rica population voting in presidential elections, 1849-1986 (%)" (page 876). Gives year of election, number of voters, total population, and percentage of population voting.

Parker 1981: "The basic unit of local government in Costa Rica is the 'cantón,' roughly the equivalent of the 'municipio.' The 'cantón' is divided into 'distritos'...Altogether there are sixty-five 'cantones' and 326 'distritos' in the country (1959). Councilmen for the 'cantones' are elected locally...In place of the department..., Costa Rica has seven 'provincias'..., each one ruled by a governor appointed by the president of the republic" (pages 258-269).

Peeler 1985: "Constitutionally, all regimes until the Constitution of 1949 employed variants of the indirect election: presidents...were elected by electoral colleges, which were in turn popularly elected. The right to vote was normally restricted by literacy and property requirements" (page 61). "Periods of political hegemony in Costa Rica" (page 63).

Peeler 1998: "The liberal democratic regime in Costa Rica since 1949 has displayed a high level of stability based on the interaction of a strongly presidential political system with proportional representation in congressional elections...Control of the presidency has tended to alternate between the center-left PLN and a gradually consolidated anti-PLN coalition of the Center-Right...Seven presidents since 1949 have been PLN members, and five have been from the anti-PLN sector" (page 53).

Roberts 1968: "Presidential" (page 169). Gives presidential candidates, number of votes, percent of vote, and total valid vote for elections from 1948 to 1966. "Congressional." Gives party, number of votes, and seats won in elections from 1948 to 1966.

Roberts 1968a: Gives total population, number of registered voters, and percent of population registered for elections from 1948 to 1966; and total vote, percent of registered voters voting, and percent of population voting in executive and legislative elections for the same period (page 181).

Rojas Bolaños 1994: "Costa Rica: presidentes por período de ejercicio del mandato según partido político que los eligió (1940-1982)" (page 138).

Rojas Bolaños 1994a: "Costa Rica: evolución de los partidos políticos, 1978-1994 (inscritos a nivel nacional)" (page 251). "Resultados de las votaciones para presidente y vicepresidentes, 1978-1990 (porcentajes)" (page 253).

Rojas Bolaños 1997: "De acuerdo con el artículo 88 del Código Electoral de Costa Rica, los empleados públicos no pueden dedicarse a actividades políticas durante su jornada laboral...En el momento en que un gobierno se constituye como tal ocurre una especie de tajo que corta las relaciones del gobierno con el partido político que lo eligió" (page 185). "Evolución del bipartidismo 1953-1994" (page 188). Gives by year the percent of the vote for PLN, PUSC, opposition to PLN, and "other." "Evolución de los partidos políticos, 1978-1994 (inscritos a nivel nacional)" (page 189).

Rottenberg 1993: "The country is divided into 7 provinces, which in turn are subdivided into 81 'cantones' (counties) and 415 districts. Each 'cantón' has a municipal government elected by popular vote for a four-year term" (page 19). "Costa Rica: presidential administrations" (page 22). Gives year of election, president, party, and percentage of votes won.

Rovira Mas 1990: "Porcentaje de abstencionismo de los diez períodos electorales 1953-1990" (page 48). "Comportamiento electoral en la elección de presidente y vice presidentes, según partidos políticos. Años 1982, 1986 y 1990. Valores absolutos y relativos" (page 49). Gives for three parties the number of votes and percent of vote. "Número de diputados según partidos políticos. Años 1982, 1986 y 1990. Valores absolutos y relativos."

Rovira Mas 1994: "Comportamiento electoral en la elección de Presidente y Vicepresidentes, según partidos políticos. Años 1988, 1990, y 1994. Valores absolutos y relativos" (page 51) (also in Rovira Mas 1994a page 41). For PLN, PUSC, "izquierda," and "otros" gives number of votes and percent of votes won in each election. "Número de diputados según partidos políticos. Años 1986, 1990 y 1994. Valores absolutos y relativos" (page 56) (also in Rovira Mas 1994a page 42). For PLN, PUSC, "izquierda," and "otros" gives number of seats and percent of total seats won in each election.

Rovira Mas 1994a: "Porcentaje de abstencionismo de los once procesos electorales 1953-1990" (page 43).

Ruddle 1972: Presidential elections, 1940-1970 (page 80). Gives date, candidates, votes, and percent of vote received. For 1953-1970 gives blank and null votes. Congressional elections, 1948-1970 (page 80-81). Gives date, party, votes, and percent of vote won. For 1953-1970 gives blank and null votes.

Saint-Germain 1991: "A feminist league, founded in 1923 by teachers, presented proposals on the vote for women to the National Legislature almost continuously from 1925 to 1943. This action kept the debate alive not only in the National Legislature but also in the popular media, until finally after the (brief) civil war of 1948, the new constitution of 1949 included full political rights for women...Since first voting in national elections in 1953, Costa Rican women have been about 45% of the voters, but only 6% of all elected deputies" (unpaged electronic document).

Saint-Germain 1993: "The constitution adopted shortly after independence from Spain expressly restricted citizenship to men. Arguments against giving women the vote were often couched in terms of women's supposed heightened susceptibility to control by the Catholic Church, which would therefore give the Church more control over politics if women got the vote...Costa Rica became the first Central American state to grant full citizenship to women--the right both to vote and to be elected" (page 121).

Saint-Germain 1994: "Women and minorities in the national legislatures of Costa Rica and Nicaragua, 1984-1990" (page 212). "The number of seats held by women in the national legislature has climbed slowly from three in 1958, to four in 1970, five in 1978, and seven in 1986 and 1990" (page 217).

Salazar Mora, Jorge Mario 1995: "Candidatos a diputados por períodos y posición en el congreso (1914-1936)" (pages 307-308). "Resultado elecciones diputadiles de 1921-1934" (page 309). "Candidatos a diputado, partidos políticos y plazas en el congreso (1921-1934)" (page 310). "Resultado elecciones diputadiles de medio período 1921-1934 (absolutos)" (page 311). "Resultado elecciones presidenciales de 1924, 1928, y 1932" (page 312). "Resultado de las elecciones presidenciales del período 1936-1948" (page 313). "Candidatos a diputados por períodos y posiciones en el congreso (1936-1948)" (pages 314-315). "Cantidad diputados electos por partidos en los períodos 1936-1948" (page 316). "Resultado elecciones diputadiles de medio período: 1938-1946" (page 317).

Salazar Mora, Orlando 1990: Detailed discussion of electoral laws and changes from 1870-1914 (pages 119-137). "Las disputas por el poder político: elecciones de 1870 a 1914" (pages 171-243). Detailed history with statistics.

Salazar Mora, Orlando 1992: Gives percent of vote for PC in elections between 1934 and 1940 (page 64). Gives electoral results for the PLN between 1949-1974 (pages 96-100).

Samper K. 1988: "Votación relativa 1919-1936" (page 190).

Sánchez Machado 1985: "Cobertura del sistema electoral costarricense, porcentajes de votación y abstención electoral 1953-1978" (page 109). "Costa Rica: participación y abstención electoral en las diferentes provincias según zona urbana y rural 1953-1978" (page 113). "Costa Rica: votación liberacionista y anti-liberacionista en las diferentes provincias según zona urbana y rural 1953-1978" (page 114).

Schifter 1979: "Porcentajes de los resultados electorales en Costa Rica, desde 1923" (page 81). Gives date, number of registered voters, number of votes cast, and percent of registered voters who voted. "Comparación del resultado de las elecciones del 10 de febrero de 1946 (medio periódo) y las del 8 de febrero de 1948 (elecciones presidenciales)" (page 82). Gives number of votes by department for two parties in each election, the total votes cast, the total registered voters, and the percent of registered voters who voted. Gives a number of tables analyzing the elections of 1953 to 1963 based on a range of variables (page 89-101). "Resultados de las elecciones para la presidencia obtenidos por Liberación Nacional en las siete ciudades más grandes de Costa Rica" (page 103). Gives percent of the vote in elections from 1953-1974. "Resultados obtenidos por los diferentes partidos en las elecciones para la presidencia (desde 1953), en los cantones productores de banano (porcentajes)" (page 105). Gives the percent of the vote for major parties in elections from 1953 to 1974. "Resultados de las elecciones para la Asamblea en los cantones productores de banano, Osa y Golfito" (page 106). Gives the percent of the vote for major parties in elections from 1953 to 1974.

Seligson 1987: "Electoral participation in Costa Rica in presidential and vice-presidential elections, 1844-1982 (in percentages)" (page 158). Gives election year, abstention of registered voters, population registered, and population voting. "Communist/Socialist voting strength in Costa Rica, in presidential and vice-presidential elections, 1936-1982 (percentage of total vote)" (page 166). "PLN voting strength in Costa Rica in presidential and vice-presidential elections, 1953-1979 (in percentages)" (page 168).

Seligson 1989: "Votes for the left, 1962-1986" (page 166). Gives year, votes for deputies (percent), and votes for president/vice-president (percent). "Votes by party, 1953-1986" (page 166). Gives year, percent of vote for National Liberation Party, and percent of vote for opposition. "Abstentions, 1953-1986" (page 167). Gives year and percent of abstention.

Seligson 1990: "The [political] system was weakened by regional rivalries between the two major population centers, San José and Cartago, and civil wars punctuated the first twenty years of independence, as did coups, assassinations, and invasions" (page 461).

Stansifer 1998: "The Costa Rican Catholic church, which had identified itself with the reformist policies of the 1940-1948 period, found itself on the losing side in the revolution of 1948. Reacting quickly to the changed circumstances, the church lowered its profile and accommodated itself to the Figueres movement. It has not been a divisive factor in subsequent political debate" (page 127).

Statistical abstract of Latin America volume 22 1983: "Costa Rica presidential winning percentages, 1953-82" (page 535). Gives year, president, and percent of vote won. "Costa Rica elections for diputados, 1978 and 1982" (page 535). Gives by party the number of votes and percent this constituted of the total valid votes.

Statistical abstract of Latin America volume 25 1987: "Costa Rica presidential winning percentages, 1953-86" (page 185). "Costa Rica comparative presidential winning percentages between major political parties, 1982 and 1986."

Statistical abstract of Latin America volume 32 1996: "Costa Rica president and winning percentages, 1953-90" (page 289).

Stone 1976: "Hasta 1913, el sufragio había sido indirecto y las elecciones se hacían en dos o tres etapas llamados 'grados.' Los ciudadanos elegían electores, quienes a su vez nombraban a los miembros del Poder Legislativo y del Ejecutivo" (page 215). "El sufragio directo introducido en 1913, eliminaba un importante obstáculo, que eran los puestos de electores hasta entonces reservados a la élite" (page 235). "Importancia de los votantes en Costa Rica a partir de la introducción del sufragio directo en 1913" (page 236). Gives by year of election (1897-1970) the national population, number who voted, and the percent they constituted of the national population. "Resultados de las elecciones de primer grado en la provincia de San José antes y después de la llegada del Olimpo" (page 270). Gives year of election (1889-1909) and number of voters.

Teichgraber 1994: "Costa Rica political parties: 1953-1990" (pages 111-112, 117-118).

Thibaut 1993: "Elecciones presidenciales en Costa Rica 1953-1990: indicadores del sistema partidario" (page 310). For each election gives percent of vote won by top two parties, number of parties participating, and effective number of parties. "Elecciones parlamentarias en Costa Rica 1953-1990: indicadores del sistema partidario.""Abstención en Costa Rica: 1953-1990" (page 311). "Elecciones presidenciales en Costa Rica: 1978, 1982, 1986, 1990 (en % de votos válidos)." "Elecciones parlamentarias en Costa Rica: 1978, 1982, 1986, 1990 (distribución de votos y mandatos en %)."

Tomasek 1970: "Recent party strength in congress by provinces" (page 146). For elections of 1958, 1962, and 1966 gives the number of deputies elected for each province, the number for each party, the total votes cast, and the electoral quotient necessary to elect one deputy. "Registered voters and votes cast: 1953, 1958, 1962, and 1966" (page 152). Gives the population, registered voters, votes cast, registered voters as % of population, votes cast as % of registered voters, and population as % of votes cast.

Vanhanen 1975, 1979, 1990: Results of presidential elections, 1849-1970 (1975 pages 167-171). 1849-1974 (1979 pages 227-229) 1978-1986 (1990 page 32). Gives year, elected presidential candidate, votes received, percent of the total votes, total votes, and percent of the total population who voted.

Vega Carballo 1992: "Voter participation in national elections, 1897-1940" (page 205). Gives year, population, number of voters, and percentage who voted.

Villanueva 1994: "Autonomía electoral en Costa Rica" (pages 73-80). Gives a brief history of elections and electoral reform and describes the structure of the Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones and its responsibilities.

Wilson 1998: "Characteristics of presidencies, 1824-1950" (page 20). "Presidential, legislative, and municipal elections are held simultaneously once every four years on the first Sunday in February. Voters are given three ballots---one for the president and two vice presidents, one for all fifty-seven seats in the Legislative Assembly, and one for the municipal councils" (page 46). "Presidents and heads of state, 1948-1998" (page 47). Gives date of term, name, party, and percentage of votes. "Legislative Assembly election results, 1949-1998" (page 48). Gives year and number of seats and percent of vote won by each party. "Local government is very limited...Most tasks relevant to local governance are administered by the Legislative Assembly or national-level Autonomous Institutions...Representatives ('regidores') to the local councils are elected at the same time and with the same electoral law as the deputies to the Legislative Assembly. Since the Municipal Code reform in 1970, the president no longer appoints municipal executives; instead, the 'regidores' elect their own council leaders" (page 54). "Between 1953 and 1962, the Legislative Assembly had forty-five members. The number was then increased to the current fifty-seven" (page 78). "Presidents and legislative representation, 1948-1982" (page 87). Gives dates, president and party, and legislative seats held by each party. "Presidential and legislative assembly election results, 1978-1998" (page 139). Gives dates, president and party, legislative seats held by each party, and percent of vote won.

Wilson 1998a: "A peculiarity of Costa Rica's political life is that deputies of the National Assembly must sit out a term before seeking re-election and the president is proscribed from ever seeking re-election. Thus, the electorate votes for an entirely new assembly and for a new president every four years" (page 585).

Yashar 1995: "Costa Rica is the only country in Central and South America that has sustained a stable liberal democracy and a competitive party system in the post-World War II period. Since the 1948 civil war, Costa Rica has experienced honest, competitive elections in the context of a basic respect for human and civil rights" (page 72). "Percentage of vote won by party or bloc in presidential elections, Costa Rica, 1953-1990" (page 82). Gives year; percent of vote for PLN, conservative alliances, and left; and abstention rate. "Percentage of vote won by party or bloc in legislative elections, Costa Rica, 1953-1990" (page 84). Gives year and percent of vote for PLN, conservative alliances, and left. "Seats won by party in legislative elections, Costa Rica, 1953-1990" (page 85). Gives year; seats won by PLN, conservative alliances, left, and minor parties; and total number of seats.

Yashar 1997: "Estimated percentage of population voting in Costa Rican presidential elections, 1872-1940" (page 56). Gives year, reported percentage of population voting, and president elected. "Following the Depression, electoral fraud and manipulation continued, although in a more visible and centralized manner. The main difference between fraud in the early years of the Liberal period and that practiced in the 1920s and 1930s was the direct participation of the executive in this process. The 1930s culminated in the major party consolidating an electoral machine, which organized at the national, regional, and local level, capable of mobilizing the rural vote with the help of patronage" (pages 61-62). "Percentage of vote won by party or bloc in presidential elections, Costa Rica, 1953-1990" (page 219). Gives year; percent of vote for PLN, conservative alliances, and left; and abstention rate. "Percentage of vote won by party or bloc in legislative elections, Costa Rica, 1953-1990" (page 219). Gives year and percent of vote for PLN, conservative alliances, and left.