Blasier 1985: In "1976, Cuba took the historically unprecedented move of sending thousands of Cuban troops to Angola, soon after backed by Moscow, to defend the Neto regime against South African incursions and domestic opposition" (page 278).
Domínguez 1986: "The Cuban-Angolan agreement of 1976 committed Cuba to the unlimited defense of Angola against hostile neighbors" (page 275).
Lutjens 1992: "Women made up 17.2 percent of provincial delegates and 21.8 percent of national deputies in 1976" (page 64).
February 15: national referendum
August 1999: "In this referendum, 98% of the citizens having the franchise voted. Of these, 97.7% voted in favor of the Constitution, and 1% voted against. The rest consisted of spoiled and blank ballots" (page 220).
Fernández 1986: "El proyecto de Constitución resultante de todo este proceso fue sometido a Referéndum el 15 de febrero de 1976, a través del ejercicio del voto libre, directo y secreto de todos los ciudadanos mayores de 16 años" (page 210). Table gives the number of registered voters and the number and percent who voted, yes votes, no votes, blank votes, and nullified votes.
Robinson 1987: The draft constitution "was ratified by 97.7 percent of the voters in a national referendum on February 15, 1976" (page 162).
Suárez Hernández 1991: "The referendum, held on February 15, 1976, to ratify the constitution was carried out through the free, direct, and secret vote of Cuban citizens 16 years of age and older, and 98 percent of them took part" (page 61).
February 24: constitution promulgated
Andrain 1988: "As a way to stimulate greater local participation in the policy process, the 1976 Cuban Constitution established 'organs of people's power,' specifically assemblies at the municipal, provincial, and national government levels. Yet citizens have the right to elect directly only delegates to the municipal assembly, not to the provincial or national legislatures. The municipal assembly operates as an agency of political communication between citizens and their legislators…Ultimately responsible to Fidel Castro, the local PCC executive committee oversees the performance of the municipal and provincial governments" (page 134).
August 1999: "The Constitution was promulgated...on February 24, 1976. One of the provisions in the Constitution was the holding of elections on the municipal, provincial and national levels based on the 1974 Matanzas pilot project" (page 220).
Baloyra 1983: "The Constitution of 1976 describes the Cuban Republic as a socialist state (Art. 1)…A unicameral legislature, the National Assembly of Popular Power, is the supreme organ of the State (Art. 67) and the only one endowed with constituent and legislative powers (Art. 68). The National Assembly elects 31 of its own deputies to form the Council of State, considered the supreme representative of the Cuban state (Art. 87) and in charge of legislative initiative whenever the Assembly is not in one of its two brief ordinary annual sessions (Art. 88). The President of the Council of State is also the President of the Council of Ministers and is the chief of state and chief of government (Art. 72)" (page 523).
Chronicle of parliamentary elections and developments 11 1977: Gives details of Article 68 of the constitution, which governs the National Assembly of People's Power and defines the role of deputies and the Assembly itself (page 12).
Cockburn 1979: "The new system of government provided for under the Constitution is based on 169 Municipal Assemblies, covering the entire area of Cuba. They include urban 'municipios' and the old rural 'seccionales.' Above the Municipal Assemblies are fourteen Provincial Assemblies. And in Havana there is the National Assembly of People's Power…The NAPP elects from among its members the Council of State, whose President will be the head of government and of State, and an executive Council of Ministers" (page 23).
Domínguez 1993: "The Constitution of 1976 mandated the establishment of a new National Assembly with legislative powers, these having been vested in the Council of Ministers between 1959 and 1976. The National Assembly would elect the Council of State to function when the assembly was not in session...Unlike other socialist constitutions, Cuba's requires that the head of state and the head of the government be the same person, a typical Latin American pattern. A new political and administrative division of the national territory was also implemented in 1976. Instead of the six provinces inherited from the nineteenth century...there would be fourteen... There would be 169 municipalities...The Constitution also established elected provincial and municipal governments" (page 133).
Eckstein 1994: "The successor to Poder Local, the Organs of Popular Power (OPP), was introduced nationally in 1976. At its base have been 169 municipal assemblies, which functioned as local government bodies. Citizens in the respective districts chose their local Municipal Assembly delegates by secret ballot in, by law, multicandidate elections" (page 27).
García Brigos 2001: "The municipal, provincial and national assemblies of People's Power constituted in 1976 replaced the provisional institutions of government that had operated during the first years of socialist construction in Cuba. These Organs of People's Power...were designed to provide real, regular, and more systemic and systematic forms through which people could participate in running the society" (page 113).
LeoGrande 1981: "In 1976 a new constitution was ratified, providing for an extensive reorganisation of the government bureaucracy, including the creation of the Organs of People's Power-the first elected representative assemblies in the revolutionary period. This strengthening of civilian political institutions not only reduced the revolution's dependence on the charismatic authority of Fidel Castro, but also served to reduce the military's extensive influence in non-military matters" (pages 244-245). "The Organs of People's Power (OPP), first created nationwide in 1976, form the backbone of the State apparatus. Organised at the municipal, provincial and national levels, these elected assemblies are the formal sovereign State authority" (page 248). Gives additional details.
Lutjens 1992: "Within the centralizing reform of planning and the strengthening of the PCC, the system of 'Poder Popular' promised electoral representation and decentralization of decisionmaking. Formal representation involved the creation of local, provincial, and national assemblies of 'Poder Popular'" (page 59).
McDonald 1989: "Consistent with orthodox Communist theory, the 1976 Cuban constitution formally subordinates all other institutions to the party, and power has become centered in the PCC's Politburo. The Politburo controls all of Cuba's representative bodies through the party's right to nominate candidates to the executive committees of the People's Power Assemblies, especially the critically important Council of State of the National Assembly. The Council of Ministers, whose executive committee coordinates the work of the state bureaucracy, is, in practice, subordinate to the Council of State" (page 26).
Pérez 1995: Describes the 1976 constitution (pages 350-351).
Robinson 1987: Describes the state structure under the constitution of 1976 (pages 163-173).
Roman 1999: "Under the 1976 Constitution, the municipal assembly delegates elected the provincial assembly delegates every two and a half years and the National Assembly deputies every five years" (page 3). "During the period between the triumph of the Cuban Revolution in 1959 and the inauguration of the Organs of People's Power in 1976, Cuba experimented with a series of provisional governmental structures. The 1976 Cuban Constitution, which included the establishment of the new governmental institutions, was not a radical break in the political course of the Cuban Revolution but a formalization, revitalization, strengthening, and restructuring of past practices and tendencies, with, however new emphasis on decentralization" (page 63). The "concept of unitary government, without division of powers, was retained in the 1976 Constitution. At the same time, the party apparatus was modified, and its role and responsibilities were redefined, especially in relation to the state" (page 71).
Stubbs 1994: "An attempt to broaden the base of legal and political institutionalization in the early 1970s…culminated in the constitution of 1976 and a significant change in electoral government that combined multicandidate, secret-ballot, direct elections for municipal People's Power Assemblies with indirect elections for the provincial and national assemblies" (page 192).
Sznajder 2001: "According to the 1976 constitution, Cuba was proclaimed to be a socialist state, and as such, a highly centralized country, from an administrative and economic point of view. The constitution contained many articles that were directly copied from its Soviet counterpart" (page 8). According to the 1976 constitution, "every electoral district composed of at least 500 voters elected its representative to a Municipal Assembly every two and a half years. Representatives to the Provincial Assemblies were elected by Municipal Assembly members without direct citizen electoral participation. The indirectly elected members of the Provincial Assemblies elected their representatives to the National Assembly of Popular Power. The result was a cautious political 'filtering' system controlled by the Communist Party and the State in which representatives to the lower bodies elected from within their ranks the members of the higher bodies" (page 9).
Chronicle of parliamentary elections and developments 11 1977: "In view of the first elections for the municipal, provincial and national assemblies, the Council of Ministers issued on July 7, 1976, a decree-law governing the election procedure" (page 12).
Roman 1999: "Under the new political and administrative division, which provided the context in which the OPP [was] to function, the previous six provinces were divided into fourteen. The City of Havana was made into a separate province. The regional level of government, between the municipalities and the provinces, was eliminated. The previous 407 municipalities were reduced to 169, each divided into from 30 to 200 electoral districts. Each municipality and province was to be governed by a municipal and a provincial assembly, respectively" (page 74).
October-November: municipal assembly election
Baloyra 1983: "Local delegates and national deputies, by province, 1976" (page 529). "Differences in representation at the local and national levels, by province, 1976" (page 529).
Bengelsdorf 1994: "(T)he 1976 electoral process witnessed a 76.7 percent participation in the assemblies nominating candidates for delegates at the municipal level and a 95.2 percent participation in the actual vote" (page 113).
Chronicle of parliamentary elections and developments 11 1977: Describes the purpose of the elections, the characteristics of parliament, the electoral system, the general political considerations and conduct of the elections, and gives statistics (pages 37-38). "(N)ational elections were held for the first time since 1958 for members of 169 municipal assemblies, which in their turn elected 14 provincial assemblies and the National Assembly of People's Power. More than 5,000,000 citizens had gone to the polls for the October municipal elections, choosing from among almost 30,000 candidates. Candidates for the 481 Assembly seats were nominated by the Cuban Communist Party and mass organizations. Some 14% of these were women. Among the elected deputies, 55.5% were also delegates to the municipal assemblies and 22.2% were women" (page 38). Statistics include "distribution of deputies according to professional category," "distribution of deputies according to sex," and "distribution of deputies according to age group" (page 38).
Domínguez 1993: "The 1976 nationwide elections were the first since 1959. The only direct elections, however, were for members of the municipal assemblies, who themselves elected the executive committee for each municipal assembly, the delegates to the provincial assemblies, and the deputies of the National Assembly" (page 133). "The electoral law, and some of the procedures in the Constitution itself, further limited the impact of these changes" (page 134). Gives details. "Approximately 44.5 per cent of National Assembly deputies elected in 1976 to a five-year term had never faced the electorate directly" (page 134). "At the bottom of the political pyramid about one-fifth of the adult population was excluded from effective participation in the mass organizations because they were considered-by both themselves and the authorities-opponents of the regime" (page 137).
Eckstein 1994: In "1976 blacks and mestizos accounted for about 28 percent of Municipal Assembly delegates but made up 38 percent of National Assembly representatives" (page 28).
LeoGrande 1978: "The first nationwide election of delegates to the municipal assemblies was conducted in 1976 with some 30,000 candidates contesting 10,725 seats. Voting was by direct secret ballot in closed voting booths. Although voting is voluntary (it was compulsory before 1959), voter turnout was 95.2 percent, the highest in Cuban history. Given the multiplicity of candidates, in many circumscriptions no one received a majority of ballots cast. Runoff elections had to be held to fill about a quarter of the delegate posts; turnout in the runoff election was 94.9 percent""(page 125).
Roman 1999: "On October 10, municipal delegates were elected, and three weeks later, the municipal assemblies met and elected provincial delegates and, two days later, National Assembly deputies" (page 74).
Suchlicki 1997: "At the base of the [political] structure were 10,725 members elected in 1976 to some 169 municipal assemblies. These in turn selected 1,084 delegates to the provincial assemblies and 481 delegates to the National Assembly" (page 186).
Roman 1999: "On November 7, the provincial assemblies met" (page 74).
El proceso electoral en Cuba: 1992-1998 1998: "Primera legislatura 1976-1981: el 2 de diciembre de 1976 se efectuó la primera sesión constitutiva de la Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, con 481 diputados. Estos eligieron el Consejo de Estado y aprobaron la designación del Consejo de Ministros" (page 3). Gives officers.
Roman 1999: On "December 2, 1976, the National Assembly was constituted" (page 74).
Suchlicki 1997: "The National Assembly selected a 31-member Council of State consisting of Fidel Castro as President of the Council, Raúl Castro as First Vice-President, five other Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and 23 members" (page 186).
Blasier 1985: "In 1977, Cuba also sent a large troop contingent to Ethiopia where Soviet logistical and military participation was even greater" (page 278).
Rabkin 1991: "Beginning in the late 1970s, the Cuban government also began to view those practicing Afro-Cuban rites more favorably, and to allow them greater freedom of action. This change was related to the new official emphasis on the African roots of the Cuban population...as justification for Cuban military involvement in Africa" (page 190).
Pérez 1995: In 1978, "Cuba inaugurates [the] family reunification program, whereby Cuban exiles are permitted to return to the island for brief family visits" (page 423).
Pérez 1995: "At the sixth Non-Aligned Movement summit in Havana [in 1979], Fidel Castro is elected president of the organization" (page 423).
Municipal assembly election
Bengelsdorf 1994: The 1979 electoral process witnessed a 75.4 percent participation in the assemblies nominating candidates for delegates at the municipal level and a 96.9 percent participation in the actual vote (page 113).
Robinson 1987: "In the 1979 general election 24,361 candidates contested 10,656 seats. Voter turnout was reported to have been 96.9 percent" (page 173).
Prevost 2002: "By 1980 party members occupied nearly all of the important positions with the state ministries, the armed forces, and the education system" (page 341).
Stubbs 1994: "A quota system was established for women in political office, and 22.6 percent of the National Assembly was made up of women by 1980, though the figure was considerably lower (11.5 percent) at the municipal level, and the highest levels of government continued to remain a male preserve" (page 196).
Baloyra 1983: "The exodus allowed the regime to rid itself [of] actual or suspected opponents in a massive way" (page 525).
Country profile. Cuba 1990-91: "Cuban-US relations deteriorated again in 1980 in the general atmosphere of increased tension between the USA and the USSR and, in particular, as a result of President Castro's handling of the 'Mariel boatlift'. After restrictions on emigration were temporarily lifted, an exodus of 125,000 refugees took place. Castro exploited the situation by putting common prisoners on the boats" (page 4).
Kirk 1989: "Far from encouraging its flock to flee the Marxist onslaught, the church in 1980 sought to dissuade Catholics from making the ninety-mile crossing to Florida-a remarkably changed scenario from the early 1960s, when church leaders urged Cuban Catholics to flee godless communism and find refuge in exile in a Christian society" (page 149).
Pérez-Stable 1993a: "The year 1980 tested the Cuban government like no other since 1970. In April, 10,000 Cubans flocked to the Peruvian Embassy. Between April and September, 125,000 Cubans left Cuba via the Mariel boatlift" (page 150).
Baloyra 1983: The Second Congress of the PCC met on December 17-20, 1980 (page 523). "Fidel Castro is First Secretary of the PCC and Raúl Castro is Second Secretary. Changes announced at the Second Congress have resulted in increased control of the 'fidelistas' over the nine-member Secretariat and the Politburo, now increased from thirteen to sixteen members. The Central Committee was expanded from 112 to 148 members, and from 12 to 77 alternates" (page 524).
Suchlicki 1997: "The second PCC Congress convened in December 1980 and solidified the main tenets of the 1975 Congress report while presenting new dictums for the 1980s...The 1980 Congress strengthened the PCC structure and function in the political sphere" (page 188).
October: municipal assembly election
Chronicle of parliamentary elections and developments 16 1982: "The election of candidates to the 169 municipal assemblies was held on 11 and 18 October 1981. A total of 6,097,139 registered voters (97.2% of the electorate) went to the polls and elected 9,763 delegates in the first round on 11 October. In the second and final round, the remainder of the 10,736 seats were filled on 18 October 1981, with 1,156,216 voters (93.6% of the electorate) going to the polls" (pages 47-48).
Robinson 1987: "In 1981 a reported 6,097,639 citizens (97 percent of the eligible voters) elected 10,735 delegates (out of 22,726 nominees) to the municipal assemblies" (page 173).
Smith 1996: "In the 1981 elections only 8 percent (843) of the 10,735 delegates elected were women" (page 47).
Baloyra 1983: "The present government, constituted in December1981, has a larger executive committee in its Council of Ministers, up to fourteen from eleven in 1976. Nine are holdovers from 1976, three fill newly-created seats, and two were brought in during the December 1979-January 1980 shake-up which replaced twenty-three ministers and agency heads…Fidel and Raúl Castro remained as President and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers and of the Council of State, respectively. All the members of the Council of Ministers are members of the Central Committee of the PCC and, with one exception, so are the members of the Council of State" (pages 524-525).
Chronicle of parliamentary elections and developments 16 1982: Describes the purpose of the elections, the characteristics of parliament, the electoral system, the general considerations and conduct of the election, and statistics. "The unicameral Parliament of Cuba, the National Assembly of People's Power, is composed of 499 Deputies…After municipal assemblies are constituted, the Deputies to the National Assembly are elected on the basis of secret ballots cast by municipal delegates" (page 47). Statistics include the "distribution of Deputies according to professional category," the "distribution of Deputies according to sex," and the "distribution of Deputies according to age group" (page 48).
El proceso electoral en Cuba: 1992-1998 1998: "Segunda legislatura 1981-1986: el 28 de diciembre de 1981 se integró la nueva ANPP con 499 diputados, que eligieron su presidencia y el Consejo de Estado y la designación del Consejo de Ministros" (page 3). Lists officers.
Smith 1996: "The 1981 National Assembly had 113 women (22.6 percent) among its 499 members" (page 48).
Baloyra 1984: "During 1982 the Militias of Territorial Troops (MTT) reached a strength of 500,000, including 40,000 officers. As a result of this about 2 percent of the Cuban population is now integrated in some capacity into the total contingent of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR)…About 25 percent of MTT elements are women" (page 647).
Drachman 2002: "President Ronald Reagan was angered by Castro's aid to communist guerrilla groups in Central America, particularly Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala, and to Soviet-backed groups in Angola and Ethiopia...Consequently, in 1982 Reagan increased U.S. isolation of Cuba. He closed a loophole in the embargo by clamping down on U.S. businesses that were trading indirectly with Cuba through foreign firms" (page 181).
Baloyra 1984: The Second Ordinary Session of the Second National Assembly of the Organs of Popular Power meets on July 1-3, 1982 (page 644). The "499 deputies of the Assembly considered and approved…a new electoral statute…The new electoral statute amends the previous (1976) statute which provided the framework for the general elections of 1976 and 1981, and the local elections of 1979. A new identity card is now required to vote in three different types of elections: 'general elections,' held every five years to select the deputies of the National Assembly of the Organs of Popular Power and all the delegates of the provincial and municipal assemblies; 'partial' elections held every two-and-one-half years to renew the mandate of the delegates; and 'special' elections to cover vacancies occuring during interelectoral periods" (page 646).
Pérez-Stable 1993a: "In 1983, the overthrow of Maurice Bishop and the subsequent U.S. invasion of Grenada were setbacks for Cuban foreign policy" (page 151).
Del Aguila 1986: "The hallmarks of the political process during 1984 were the regularity and orderliness of mass politics, and the degree to which agenda setting is produced by limited intraelite bargaining…Institutions like the National Assembly (NA), or local bodies like the Organs of People's Power (OPP) ratify decisions of higher bodies like the Council of State and the Political Bureau of the Cuban Communist Party (PCC)" (page 672). "Membership in Cuba's mass organizations, 1984" (page 673).
Stubbs 1994: "Women's membership in the party, which had increased from 10 percent in 1967 to 15 percent in 1974, rose to 22 percent in 1984" (page 196).
April: municipal assembly election
Del Aguila 1986: "Delegates to the OPP, local councils that govern each of the 169 municipalities, were elected in April 1984. Ninety-eight percent of the 6,494,888 registered voters participated in these elections; 10,966 delegates were elected from 23,099 nominees. Only 11 percent of the nominees were women. Elections for OPP are not preceded by campaigns on behalf of individual candidates. Rather, candidates base their candidacies on their work record, qualifications, standing in the community, and political attitude. Those elected serve 2½ -year terms, and will subsequently elect representatives to each of the corresponding fourteen provincial assemblies and in 1986, to the National Assembly" (pages 674-675).
McDonald 1989: In 1984 "when 10,963 municipal delegates were elected from a total of 23,099 candidates, about three-quarters of those elected were party (or UJC) members. Of the 1,377 indirectly elected provincial assembly delegates, the percentage of PCC militants was still higher, and virtually all of the National Assembly delegates held PCC cards" (page 30).
Prevost 2002: "The highest previous turnout [before 1993] had been for the 1984 municipal election, in which 98.7 percent of registered voters participated" (page 350).
Smith 1996: 11.5 percent of the elected delegates are women (page 47).
Country profile. Cuba 1993-94: "An apparent thaw [in U.S.-Cuban relations] was marked by an agreement in December 1984 on immigration procedures, which allowed on the one hand for the repatriation of 2,700 'undesirables' from among those who went to the USA in 1980 and on the other hand for up to 20,000 entry visas to be granted each year to Cubans wishing to be reunited with relations living in the USA" (page 4).
Andrain 1988: "In 1985 [women] comprised more than two-fifths of the 'militantes' of the Union of Communist Youth, about half the base leaders of the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution, and around one-fifth the total membership of the party, the Central Committee, and the National Assembly. Despite these advances, women still occupy few top leadership roles in government ministries and the Cuban Communist party" (page 130).
Baloyra 1990: "Since late 1985, the provincial leadership of the party has been in almost constant flux. On 12 different occasions, the first secretary of a province was removed" (page B379).
Blasier 1985: "Cuban troops were still in [Angola and Ethiopia] in 1985" (page 278).
Del Aguila 1986: "The changing role of women in a revolutionary state is a matter of political significance, but debates at the Fourth Congress of the Federation of Cuban Women indicate that discrimination against women persists, and that women have made less progress in politics than in other areas of social life…83 percent of all women between the ages of 14 and 65 belong to the FMC, but activists dominate leadership positions and the one and only president the organization has had since 1960 is Vilma Espín, Raúl Castro's wife" (page 674).
Kapcia 1997a: "With the Protestant Churches, co-operation has been much more evident and willing [than with the Catholic Church], in a close and productive relationship, which, given the unusual longstanding level of popular Protestant activism, has been a powerful weapon for the Revolution. The decision in 1985 to create an office of the Central Committee to liaise with the Churches was more a response to this than to any overtures towards the Catholic Church" (page 319).
Country profile. Cuba 1993-94: The U.S.-Cuban immigration agreement of December 1984 "was suspended by Cuba in May 1985 when Washington's anti-Castro Radio Martí went on the air" (page 4).
Kirk 1989: In November 1985, Castro "met leaders of the Protestant church and talked once again with their Catholic counterparts" (page 153).
Kapcia 1997: There was a "steady opening towards Cuba's Christians, especially the Catholic Church, which, after initial conflicts, had begun to come to terms with the Revolution, pressed by both the Vatican and the more radical Latin American Church. This shift reflected partly a catching-up with the other long time more co-operative and sympathetic Churches, but also the Revolution's growing interest in the role of 'Liberation Theology' in Latin America. Openings followed: the 1986 national assembly of Churches, the best-selling publication of Frei Betto's 'Fidel and Religion' and the nomination of a member of the Central Committee to liaise with the churches" (page 189).
Andrain 1988: "Even though blacks are still underrepresented in the top ranks of the army and government, in 1986 they held two seats on the Cuban Communist party Political Bureau and 28 percent of the posts in the party's Central Committee-a proportion equal to their share of the population" (page 129).
Azicri 1990: "Cuba's rectification of errors and negative tendencies campaign should be evaluated for what it really is-the latest phase of a rather complex 30-year-old developmental process in which each successive phase is the product of both the long-term regime's objective of building a socialist society and the conjunction of internal and external problems associated with a particular state in the development process" (page 4).
Azicri 2000: "The national campaign known as the rectification of errors and negative tendencies process (RP) was announced in [February 4-7] 1986 at the Third Congress of the Cuban Communist Party" (page 49). "Due to the national problems confronted at the time, the congress was divided into two separate sessions. The second and closing part was held nine months later, on November 30-December 2. Castro's negative evaluation of most aspects of economic and governmental performance was unexpected. No policy area escaped his critical comments" (page 55).
Domínguez 1993: "The first woman entered the party's Political Bureau in 1986: Vilma Espín, Raúl Castro's wife and president of the Women's Federation" (page 119). "(T)he black share of the 1986 Central Committee was just one-fifty. Only in elections to local municipal assemblies were blacks apparently represented in numbers comparable to their share of the population" (page 120).
Latell 1988: "After firing a number of high-level government officials in 1985, [Castro] presided over the Third Congress of Cuba's Communist party the following February, and used it to carry out the most sweeping overhaul of the country's top leadership since the early years of the Revolution" (page B489).
Pérez-Stable 1990: "(R)ectification does not directly address the dilemma of democracy. It calls for strengthening the Communist party-now with more than 500,000 members-and reinforcing its 'contact with the masses'" (page 30).
Roman 1999: "The newest and most decentralized level of government in what constitute the Local Organs of People's Power in Cuba, the 'consejos populares' (people's councils), were conceived at the Third Party Congress of the Communist Party in 1986" (page 215). Traces their development and describes "their current structure, function, and practice" (pages 215-238).
Sznajder 2001: At "the Third Congress of the Cuban Communist Party in 1986 a process of 'rectification of mistakes and negative tendencies' was sanctioned in order to fight against a series of phenomena associated with the operation of the Soviet economic model in Cuba…An attempt was made to return to the ideals of Ernesto Guevara" (page 2).
Valdés 1989: Provides information on the Communist Party in 1986.
Lutjens 1992: "In 1986, what can be considered a third phase in the evolution of Cuban political organization began, although neither the theory of socialist democracy nor the institutional arrangements of the state system have been substantially altered. Characterized by the campaign for rectification of errors and negative tendencies launched in April 1986, this current phase of Cuban politics is one of correcting the mistakes of the recent past specifically and of the overall revolutionary effort generally" (page 61).
October: municipal assembly election
Chronicle of parliamentary elections and developments 21 1987: "In the 1986 elections, delegates to the 169 municipal assemblies of people's power were chosen by popular and secret ballot in 13,256 constituencies in the country…The election of candidates to the 169 municipal assemblies was held on 19 and 26 October 1986. The electorate was 6,865,344 voters. A total of 6,704,479 (97,65%) went to the polls and elected 12,623 delegates in the first round on 19 October. In the second and final round, a turnout of 93,6% chose the remaining 633 delegates" (page 47).
Hernández 1991: "In the election of 1986, a total of 6.7 million people (almost 98 percent of the eligible population) cast their ballots" (page 45).
Keesing's record of world events May 1987: "Secret ballots for the 13,257 delegates to the country's 169 municipal assemblies, involving the participation of over 97 per cent of the electorate, [were] held on Oct. 19. In those districts where no candidate received over 50 per cent of the votes cast run-off elections were held on Oct. 26. Candidates were freely nominated and included those who were not members of the ruling Communist Party...Over 46 per cent of those delegates elected in the last municipal assembly elections in April 1984 were returned to office; a total of 2,266 women were amongst the successful candidates, a increase of 1,005 over the previous period""(page 35117).
Latell 1989: "According to'Granma,' 13,256 delegates to 169 municipal assemblies were popularly elected in 19 October 1986" (page B463).
Rabkin 1991: "Cuban elections at the municipal level offer the voters a choice of more than one candidate for each post. In the 1986 elections, roughly 27,800 candidates contested 13,256 positions, for an average of two candidates for every post" (pages 79-80).
Roman 1987: Describes the elections (pages 96-98). "The results of the municipal elections of October, 1986, in which 13,256 delegates were elected, showed the following: 17.1% are women, an increase of 5.6%; 22.2% are workers, about the same proportion as the last election; 22.1% are thirty years of age and younger, an increase of 3.2%. Overall, 38% of the delegates were reelected. Approximately 54% of the delegates presently serving on municipal assemblies are Communist Party members and 12% are members of the Communist youth" (page 98).
Roman 1999: "On October 19, 1986, 97.7 percent of those eligible voted, electing 12,623 municipal delegates, and where no candidate had received a majority, 93.6 percent voted in the runoff elections a week later, electing the remaining 633 delegates" (pages 122-123).
November 27: national assembly election
Chronicle of parliamentary elections and developments 21 1987: Describes the purpose of the elections, the characteristics of parliament, the electoral system, the general considerations and conduct of the elections, and gives statistics (pages 47-48). "After municipal assemblies are constituted, the Deputies to the National Assembly are elected on the basis of secret ballots cast by municipal delegates" (page 47). Statistics include the "distribution of deputies according to sex" and the "distribution of deputies according to age group" (page 48).
Latell 1989: On "27 November [delegates to municipal assemblies] cast secret ballots for the 510 national assembly deputies who will serve five-year terms" (page B463).
Roman 1987: "In the recently elected National Assembly, well over half of the deputies are newly elected; 54.4% were also elected as municipal delegates; 34.9% are women; 41.6% are workers directly linked to production and services; and 56.1% are university graduates. Well over 90% are Party members, and the few that are not, I was told, would probably be invited to join" (page 98).
Smith 1996: 33 percent of the delegates to the 1986 National Assembly are women (page 48).
Azicri 1990: The conclusion of the Third Congress of the PCC "was deferred for nine months until the second and final session on November 30-December 2, with 1723 delegates attending...In the political arena, in addition to ideological emphasis and voluntary work, personnel and institutional changes matched economic reforms. Replacements in the Secretariat, the Politburo, and the Central Committee of the PCC had a clear message: everybody was accountable for his actions, especially his performance in whatever responsibility had been entrusted to him" (page 11). "Also, an affirmative action policy was instituted elevating women, blacks, and youth to higher positions in the party hierarchy. For the first time a woman, Vilma Espín, founder and president of the Cuban Federation of Women, and a black man, Esteban Lazo, party secretary of Santiago de Cuba province, became full members of the Politburo" (page 12).
Baloyra 1990: "Castro's dissatisfaction with the cadre has translated into a policy of sanctions, including their removal from responsibilities, and even expulsion from the party altogether. At the December 1986 deferred session of the Third Congress of the PCC,…the Politburo member in charge of party organization…revealed that 2,200 Havana cadre had been sanctioned" (page B379).
Keesing's record of world events May 1987: "The third five-year term of the National Assembly of People's Power (the unicameral Cuban legislature) was inaugurated on Dec. 27, 1986, when the 510 delegates (including 178 women) convened in Havana following their election by municipal assemblies of people's power on Nov. 27…Dr Fidel Castro Ruz, the Cuban President and first secretary of the PCC, was re-elected by the Assembly, on Dec. 28, as President of the 31-member Council of State (the highest representative body, elected from among the Assembly's deputies to represent it between its twice-yearly ordinary sessions)" (page 35117).
Latell 1988: Describes changes to the Politiburo (pages B491-B493). "The Politburo acquired its first woman…Vilma Espin-the wife of Raul Castro since January 1959, a veteran of his guerrilla front, and the head of the Cuban Women's Federation since its inception-was promoted from alternate Politburo membership…The greatest turnover among party leaders occurred in the at-large membership of the Central Committee…Castro placed a high priority on increasing the numbers and roles of women, blacks, and younger officials" (page B493).
El proceso electoral en Cuba: 1992-1998 1998: "Tercera legislatura 1986-1993: los 510 diputados de la ANPP eligieron la Presidencia de la ANPP y el Consejo de Estado" (page 3). Lists officers. "Esta legislatura aprobó la Reforma Constitucional en 1992 y la Ley Electoral de 1992."
Baloyra 1990: "In early 1987, the structure of the grass-roots party nuclei was also altered, centralizing all the political and ideological activities under their secretaries general" (page B379).
Kapcia 1997: "Between 1985 and 1987, over 43 per cent of the 1985-appointed municipal Party Secretaries were removed, over 25 per cent of members formally 'admonished', and 49 per cent of the Central Committee replaced" (page 187).
Rabkin 1991: "The Group of Eight, (formed by Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Mexico) in November 1987 said that Cuba should be invited to rejoin the OAS" (page 202).
Country profile. Cuba 1992-93: In addition to the armed forces, "in 1988 the youth labour army totalled 100,000, the civil defence force 50,000 and the territorial militia 1.3 mn" (page 7).
Del Aguila 1993: The Partido Pro-Derechos Humanos de Cuba is founded in 1988 (page 172).
Domínguez 1993: "Although the number of Cuban troops in Ethiopia was reduced sharply by the mid-1980s, more than 50,000 Cuban troops remained in Angola until the war ended in 1988" (page 115).
Kapcia 1997: "By 1988, 13 out of the 16 Politbureau members were 'Sierra' (guerrilla struggle) veterans" (page 187).
Country profile. Cuba 1993-94: "In May 1988 Cuba's increasing acceptance within the international community was highlighted by its election to a three-year term on the UN Human Rights Commission" (page 5).
Hernández 1991: In "October 1988 5.2 million, or about 77 percent of the population over 16, took part in accountability assemblies, the public meetings held biannually to assess the performance of the local authorities in satisfying the needs of the population" (page 45).
Baloyra 1990: The "successful completion of an agreement, signed in December 1988, between Angola, Cuba, and South Africa, [eased] the way for Namibian independence and elections, and [established] the phased withdrawal of the Cuban military contingent from Angola" (page B377). "Leadership of the Communist Party of Cuba (as of 31 December 1988)" (page B380). "Cuban government (as of 31 December 1988)" (pages B381-B382).
Hernández 1991: "Entering its fourth decade, the revolution exhibits very high levels of popular involvement in its participatory mechanisms. For example, in 1989 the Comités de Defensa de la Revolución…had 6.5 million members, representing 84 percent of the Cuban population over 14 years of age. The Federación de Mujeres Cubanas…attracted 3.1 million, 80 percent of the adult female population. The unions, united in the Central de Trabajadores de Cuba,…had a membership of about 3 million workers, a little more than 99 percent of the national total" (pages 44-45).
Lutjens 1992: In 1989, women made up 27.6 percent of provincial delegates and 33.9 percent of national deputies (page 64).
Suárez Hernández 1991: Describes the ethnic, gender, and age make-up of the National Assembly in 1989 (page 66).
April 30: municipal assembly election
Country report. Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico 1989, 3: "Voting (by secret ballot) took place for 169 municipal assemblies on April 30. The turnout was 98.3 per cent. Of the 14,246 delegates elected, just under half were re-elections. 17 per cent of the delegates elected were women and 23 per cent young people (the minimum age for election is 16). Run off contests were held on May 7 in 431 districts where no candidate received 50 per cent of the vote in the first round. Half of those elected will go forward for two and a half year terms in the National Assembly of People's Power" (page 10).
Roman 1999: "On April 30, 1989, 98.3 percent of the eligible voters went to the polls to vote for municipal assembly delegates, and 13,815 delegates were elected" (page 123).
Smith 1996: "In 1989 the number of women elected in municipal elections declined slightly to 16.8 [percent], with less than 5 percent (8 out of 169) of the presidents of municipal councils that year being women. None of Cuba's fourteen provincial presidents was a woman" (page 47).
Fernández 1996: "The trial and execution of General Arnaldo Ochoa, a veteran of the guerrilla struggle in the Sierra Maestra, the Ethiopian and Angolan wars, and commander of the Cuban contingent in Nicaragua, charged him with drug trafficking, participation in the black market for personal gain, neglect of military duty, and consequently, risking the troops under his command and the survival of the Revolution. However, the unofficial indictment of Ochoa…shed light on what is the subtext of the Ochoa case: the general did not see eye to eye with the 'líder máximo' on two specific issues, the conduct of the Angolan war and the performance of the Cuban economy" (page B353).
Kapcia 1996: "In July 1989, General Ochoa, one of the original rebels, Cuban Commander-in-Chief in Ethiopia (1977-78) and then Angola (1987-88), and one of only five 'Heroes of the Republic,' was arrested and charged with treason and corruption…He was eventually tried with 13 other high-ranking officers, sentenced to death and executed. The fall-out included the arrest, trial and sentencing of the Interior Minister and his deputy and a wave of sackings in the FAR and the Ministry" (page 131).
Pérez-Stable 1997: The "Ochoa-de la Guardia trials shook the armed forces and, particularly, the Interior Ministry, the two institutions at the medulla of the regime. After the military effectively took over the Interior Ministry, extensive turnover of high- and middle-level state-security officers followed" (page 28).