Elections and Events 1850-1869

1850

Tansill 1967: On "February 22, 1850, [the Dominican government] addressed identical notes to the representatives of the United States, France, and England, requesting joint intervention and mediation. The matter thus became an international affair, and for the next two years these three powers exerted pressure upon the Emperor of Haiti in favor of a conciliatory policy towards the Dominican Republic" (page 136).

1851

Welles 1928: In anticipation of an attack from Haiti, in "the spring of 1851, [Báez] called to arms a large number of troops from the eastern Provinces, at whose head General Santana marched to the capital" (page 124).

1852

Welles 1928: "By the year 1852, the constant interference of Santana in the affairs of the Government began to prove almost intolerable to Baez" (page 125).

1853

January 26: election (Santana)

Bell 1981: "In January 1853 Santana was elected to the presidency for his second term" (page 43).

Campillo Pérez 1986: Gives the results of the election (pages 426-427).

Welles 1928: Congress "had assembled January 26, 1853, and had at once elected the 'Liberator' President of the Republic" (page 127).

February

Welles 1928: "On February 15, 1853, General Pedro Santana again took office as President of the Republic" (page 127). "As soon as Santana had firmly established himself in the Presidency and had obtained convincing proofs of the general popularity which, for the time being, he enjoyed throughout the Republic, he determined to eliminate from the political scene the two elements which had caused him disquiet during the preceding four years. The first was the clergy, whose intervention in political matters had increased during the Presidency of Baez; the second was Baez himself" (page 131).

July

Schoenrich 1918: "In July, 1853, Santana issued a proclamation in which he accused Baez of treason and of playing into the hands of the Haitians, and ordered his banishment" (page 51).

1854

February: constitution

Haggerty 1991: "In February 1854, a constituent assembly promulgated a new, liberal constitution that eliminated the dictatorial powers granted by Article 210. With his control over the army restored, Santana readily forced the adoption of a new constitution restoring most of the excised prerogatives of the executive" (pages 14-15).

Hartlyn 1998: "(A)n even more liberal constitution was prepared in 1854. However, it was also almost immediately modified to place all control over the armed forces directly in the hands of the president...The congress was reduced from two chambers to a single seven-member senate that was to meet only three months a year; and the power to suspend civil and political rights was given to the president for use as he deemed necessary" (page 35).

Welles 1928: "The new Constitution, finally approved after acrimonious discussion in the Congress on February 25, 1854, made various fundamental changes in the early Constitution of the Republic. The Consejo Conservador, now termed the 'Senate,' was increased to a membership of ten, two senators representing each province; and the Tribunado, now termed the 'Chamber of Representatives,' was composed of twenty members, each province being accorded a representation of four members. Changes in the judicial system were introduced, and the Vice Presidency was created, the Vice President to be elected for a term of four years, two years after the President's election. Among the transitory provisions was one providing that Santana should hold office for two terms, that is, until 1861. Over the protests of the President, the famous Article 210 of the original Constitution was suppressed, and the discussions to which the suppression gave rise created such friction between the Executive and the Legislative authorities that the President, ten months after the new Constitution had been sanctioned, was led to demand its drastic revision, as the result of which both Legislative Bodies were consolidated into a single chamber termed the 'Permanent Senate,' composed of two representatives from the provinces of Santo Domingo and Santiago, and one from each of the remaining provinces, each Senator to hold office for six years. Civil liberties were harshly restricted, and the Chief Executive not only finally obtained the dictatorial powers which he desired, but likewise obtained the increase in his own tenure of office of two terms of six years each, dating from April 1, 1855" (page 146).

May

Campillo Pérez 1986: "El 29 de Mayo de 1854, el Congreso Nacional despojó las urnas para comprobar: a) que en todos los Colegios Electorales del país había obtenido una abrumadora mayoría, el General Felipe Alfau Bustamante, para la segunda Magistratura del Estado; b) que de un total de 157 electores, 145 se habían expresado en favor de dicho Alfau...Sin embargo Alfau declinó y el Congreso tuvo que aceptarle su decisión" (page 59). Gives the results of the election (page 428).

August

Campillo Pérez 1986: "Convocados los Colegios Electorales para una nueva votación, el escrutinio de las actas fue verificado por el Congreso en sesión del 18 de Agosto de 1854. Concurrieron 111 electores. Manuel de Regla Mota, 'ganó' los comicios por 82 votos" (page 59). Describes the election and other candidates. Gives the results of the election (page 428).

Welles 1928: "Santana, who had attempted to induce General Felipe Alfau to accept the Vice Presidency, was forced, upon Alfau's refusal, to offer it to General Manuel de Regla Mota, who took office at the end of August, 1854" (page 146).

1856

May

Haggerty 1991: "Pressure [over a commercial lease with the United States] built to such an extent that Santana felt compelled to resign on May 26, 1856, in favor of his vice president, Manuel de la Regla Mota" (page 15).

Schoenrich 1918: "The harsh measures of Santana had provoked general dissatisfaction and the friends of Baez seized the opportunity to conspire in his favor. Santana realized that the days of his government were numbered, and resigned the presidency as he had done in 1849, retiring to his farm near Seibo. Manuel de Regla Mota, the vice-president, thereupon on March [May?] 26, 1856, became president" (pages 52-53).

Tansill 1967: In 1856, "the anti-American party in the Dominican Republic, led by the Spanish Consul-General, Segovia, redoubled their efforts to restore their leader, the former President, Buenaventura Baez, to power...President Santana had resigned the executive office and had been succeeded by General Mota, the former Vice-President. It was upon General Mota, therefore, that increasing pressure was brought to bear in favor of the return of Baez" (page 205).

Welles 1928: Santana "determined to abandon the struggle, trusting that his countrymen would soon insist upon his recall to power. By the spring of 1856, he had decided to resort to the same manoeuvre which had been successful once before. Retiring to El Prado, he announced his decision to resign the Presidency, and forced the Senado Consultor, on May 26th, to accept his resignation, leaving the Vice President, General Regla Mota, to assume the Presidency in accordance with the Constitution then in force" (page 168).

June

Campillo Pérez 1986: Describes the election to replace the vice-president and the results (pages 60-61). "(R)esultó electo por unanimidad, Antonio Abad Alfau" (page 61). Gives the results of the election (pages 428-429).

September

Campillo Pérez 1986: "El Vicepresident Alfau...prefirió renunciar abriendo la puerta de ese modo para que la oposición llevara al poder a su candidato Báez...(E)l presidente Mota convocó a los Colegios Electorales para que se reunieran el próximo 22 de Septiembre y procedieran a elegir al Vicepresidente que debía reemplazar a Alfau" (page 62). Describes the controversy surrounding the election and the election of Báez to the vice-presidency (page 64). Gives the results of the election (page 429).

Welles 1928: Regla Mota summons "the Electoral Colleges to meet September 22nd, to fill the vacancy existing in the Vice Presidency" (page 170).

October

Bell 1981: "When Regla Mota's vice-president resigned, Baez took his place, and in October Regla Mota resigned and Baez was back in the presidency for his second term" (page 43).

Haggerty 1991: "Regla Mota's rule lasted almost five months. An empty treasury forced the new president to discharge most of the army. Thus deprived of the Dominican rulers' traditional source of power, his government all but invited the return of Baez. With the support of the Spanish, Baez was named vice president by Regla Mota, who then resigned in Baez's favor...Baez lost little time before denouncing ex-president Santana and expelling him from the country" (page 15).

Tansill 1967: "It was arranged that [Baez] should return as Vice-President, and then President Mota was to resign and thus permit the accession of Baez. This program was duly carried out in October, 1856, and at once the new Administration exhibited the most rancorous hostility towards the United States" (page 206).

Welles 1928: "General Regla Mota, who had long since abandoned hope of withstanding the plans of the Spanish Consul, resigned the Presidency on October 8th, leaving Baez once more in the Presidential chair" (page 173). "At the suggestion of the Spanish Consul, the President lost no time in filling all the public offices with members of his own innumerable family, and failing them, with his supporters, and in forcing the resignation from the Senado Consultor of such Senators as had been identified in the past with the Liberator" (pages 175-176).

December

Bell 1981: In "December Baez had Santana arraigned for having violated the constitution" (page 43).

Campillo Pérez 1986: "El 2 de Diciembre de 1856, el Senado Consultor se decidió a conocer los resultados de las elecciones efectuadas para escoger al sustituto de Báez en la Vicepresidencia" (page 65).

Welles 1928: "Baez came to the conclusion that the institution of the Vice Presidency provided an unnecessary complication, and deliberately ignoring the provision of the Constitution, refused to proclaim General Juan Esteban Aybar, elected to fill the vacancy caused by Baez's own succession to the Presidency, Vice President of the Republic" (pages 175-176).

1857

January

Bell 1981: "In January 1857 [Santana] was arrested...and sent into exile" (page 44).

July

Schoenrich 1918: "An ill-considered issue of more paper money, when the rate of exchange with gold was already fifty to one, created indignation in the tobacco region of the Cibao and on July 7, 1857, Santiago declared itself in revolution. The movement rapidly spread, a provisional government was set up in the Cibao, the forces of Baez were repulsed, and soon the president held only Santo Domingo City and Samana" (page 53).

Welles 1928: On "July 7th, the political and military leaders in the Cibao provinces proclaimed themselves in open rebellion against the Government...declaring that Baez had usurped the Presidency, since the Constitution of 1854 had stipulated that a period of six years must elapse before a citizen could be re-elected as President of the Republic...The leaders of the revolt...at once formed a Provisional Government. General Valverde was selected as its President" (page 181). By "the end of July the Provisional Government had gained the support of the entire Republic with the exception of Santo Domingo and Samana" (page 182).

August

Haggerty 1991: "Pardoned by a provisional government established at Santiago de los Caballeros, Santana returned in August 1857 to join the revolution. He raised his own personal army and soon dominated the movement" (page 15).

Welles 1928: "General Santana...finally determined to return to the Republic together with General Regla Mota and the others of his closest followers who had been sharing his exile. Reaching Santiago towards the end of August, he at once petitioned the Provisional Government to appoint him commander-in-chief of the forces which were attempting to overthrow the Government of his detested adversary" (pages 182-183).

December

Welles 1928: "A Constitutional Convention, assembled in Moca on December 7th, had agreed upon a new Constitution, satisfactory to the Cibao in that it declared the future capital of the Republic to be the City of Santiago, which established both universal suffrage and direct elections""(page 184).

1858

February: constitution

Bell 1981: "The liberals' intentions were enshrined in a constitution worked out during the first six weeks of 1858 by a constituent assembly at Moca" (page 44).

Campillo Pérez 1986: Describes the Moca constitution (page 68).

Hartlyn 1998: "In 1858 in Moca, an even more liberal and democratic constitutional text was enacted; yet, as in 1854, this one was never implemented. For the first time in the country's history, though, the constitution called for direct elections for major elected posts; it also prohibited presidential reelection, decentralized authority, and prohibited the death penalty for political crimes" (page 35).

Schoenrich 1918: "The revolutionists called a constitutional convention which met at Moca and in February, 1858, promulgated another constitution, designating Santiago as the capital" (page 53).

Welles 1928: "The Moca Constitution, which was signed February 19, 1858, was drafted along exceedingly liberal lines" (page 184).

March

Welles 1928: "A transitory provision of the Constitution entrusted the selection of the first President and Vice President under the new Constitution to the Constitutional Convention itself, and General Valverde and Don Benigno Francisco de Rojas were confirmed in the offices which they already held, taking the oath of office on the 1st of March, 1858" (pages 184-185).

June

Bell 1981: "Báez held out for eleven months thanks to the loyalty of two units...The siege ended on June 12 [1858], when Baez sailed away into exile for the second time. On the following day the revolutionary forces entered the city with Santana ostentatiously at their head. Until Baez's departure there had been two presidents; now there was only one: Valverde. He, however, did not remain president for long. He had been formally installed after the promulgation of the Moca constitution, which, though in most respects a model formula for democratic and civilian government, embodied the cardinal flaw of replacing Santo Domingo by Santiago as the capital of the republic. This gave Santana a powerful political weapon" (page 45).

Tansill 1967: "Baez had been placed in power largely through the leadership of the Spanish Consul-General, Segovia, and the anti-American party in Santo Domingo drew its inspiration from him. To their dismay, Segovia was recalled by the Spanish Government because his actions had given umbrage to France and England. Deprived of such an artful and aggressive leader, the Baez faction was soon faced with open revolution in Santo Domingo. After a siege of many months Santo Domingo City was starved into submission [and] a capitulation was signed on June 12, 1858. Under its terms President Baez consented to resign his office" (page 207).

August

Bell 1981: "In August Valverde responded to Santana's campaign by sending a contingent to assert his authority in Santo Domingo. Halfway there it was met by Santana's troops, which first defeated and then persuaded the contingent to join them in their march into the Cibao. For Valverde this was the end; he resigned and went into exile" (page 45).

Welles 1928: "(F)inally, as the result of increasing desertions from his own forces, General Valverde accepted the inevitable and tendered his resignation as President of the Republic on August 28th. The Constitution of Moca was revoked, and that of 1854 was proclaimed in force, and decrees were issued at the same time providing for the election of a new Senate as well as for the election of the President and Vice President of the Republic" (page 188).

December: congressional election

Bell 1981: "Santana was now in complete control and in December there were fresh elections with predictable results" (page 45).

Campillo Pérez 1986: "Se realizaron elecciones para Diputados y Senadores" (page 68). "Santana convocó a los Colegios Electorales para el 1o. de Diciembre de 1858" (page 69).

1859

January: election (Santana)

Campillo Pérez 1986: "Santana convocó...al Senado Consultor para el día 2 de Enero del año siguiente, a fin de que procedieran a la elección del Presidente y del Vicepresidente de la República" (page 69). Describes the election and the results (page 70). Gives the results of the presidential election (page 427). Gives the results of the vice presidential election (pages 429-430).

Tansill 1967: "Inasmuch as General Santana had been the leader of the opposition against President Baez, it was inevitable that he should succeed to the presidential office. He was formally inaugurated on January 31, 1859, and a friendly attitude towards the United States was again manifest" (page 207).

Welles 1928: "On January 31, 1859, General Santana, who had naturally enough been elected President by a great majority, was inaugurated as President of the Republic for the third time, and his close supporter, General Abad Alfau, was elected to the Vice Presidency" (page 188).

1860

Schoenrich 1918: "From the earliest days of the Dominican Republic the most prominent men had believed that the happiness of the country depended upon securing the protection of a strong power, capable of preserving order, and the years of warfare confirmed them in their opinion" (page 54). "In 1860 Santana addressed himself directly to the Queen of Spain, and proposed a closer union. Bases for annexation were drawn up, founded 'on the free and spontaneous wish of the Dominican people'" (page 56).

1861

March

Abad 1993: "(L)a reincorporación se efectuó el 18 de Marzo de 1861; el primer movimiento revolucionario fué sofocado en el Cibao, y el segundo en San Juan, poco despues; á ambos sigueron varios fusilamientos, uno de los cuales fué el del patricio general Francisco del Rosario Sánchez" (page 139). "El general Santana [es gobernador] desde el 18 de Marzo de 1861 hasta el 20 de Julio de 1862" (page 140).

Grullón 1999: "El 18 de marzo de 1861, el dictador Pedro Santana Familia, anexó la República Dominicana a España, perdiendo los dominicanos la soberanía y la independencia" (page 11).

Schoenrich 1918: "On March 18, 1861, the people of the capital assembled on the main plaza pursuant to a call issued on the day before, General Santana and the members of his government appeared on the gallery of the palace of justice [and] a document was read to the public proclaiming the reincorporation of the country as a part of the Spanish dominions" (page 56). "Santana was appointed governor and captain-general of the colony, with the rank of lieutenant-general in the Spanish army" (page 57).

June

Welles 1928: "Santana announced to the Dominican people in a proclamation published June 22nd, that the Queen of Spain had deigned to consent to the annexation of the Spanish portion of the Island of Santo Domingo, which acquired thereby the status of an integral province of the Spanish Monarchy. So the last step in the program was successfully taken. And the Dominican people, without being afforded the opportunity of passing upon the annexation project through a plebiscite, or by the submission of the project to the Senate or to the courts,...became officially Spanish subjects" (page 230).

Wiarda 1992: Santana "announced that the country would be reincorporated as a Spanish colony. By midsummer 1861, Santo Domingo was full of Spanish soldiers, officials, and priests who reintroduced the Spanish monopoly system of trade and administration" (page 29).

1862

Abad 1993: "El teniente general D. Felipe Ribero y Lemoine [es gobernador] desde el 20 de Julio de 1862 hasta el 22 de Octubre de 1863" (page 140).

Welles 1928: The "Spanish Ministers had commenced to feel that Santana was by no means so indispensable to their purposes as they had at first been led to believe... Consequently, Santana's resignation [as Captain General] was promptly accepted, on March 28th, 1862" (page 245).

1863

February

Haggerty 1991: "The Spaniards quelled more uprisings in 1863, but guerrilla actions continued. In response to the continuing unrest, a state of siege was declared in February 1863" (page 16).

August

Grullón 1999: "En el cerro de Capotillo, el 16 de agosto de 1863, el general Santiago Rodríguez, acompañado de José Cabrera y de Benito Monción, proclamó la liberación de la República Dominicana del yugo español, iniciándose asi la Guerra de la Restauración" (page 11).

September

Bell 1981: "On September 14 a provisional government was set up in Santiago with General JosJ Antonio Salcedo as president. Most of its members had been supporters of Valverde in the revolution against Baez in 1857, and it included three 'generals' who had so far distinguished themselves--José Cabrera, Pedro Pimentel, and Benito Monción" (page 51).

Schoenrich 1918: "As soon as the Spanish forces retired from Santiago the revolutionists, on September 14, 1863, proclaimed the restoration of the republic and set up a provisional government under the presidency of General José Antonio Salcedo" (page 60).

October

Abad 1993: "El mariscal de campo D. Carlos de Vargas [es gobernador] desde el 22 de Octubre de 1863 hasta el 31 de Marzo de 1864" (page 140).

1864

March

Abad 1993: "(E)l teniente general D. José de la Gándara [es gobernador] desde el 31 de Marzo de 1864 hasta el 11 de Julio de 1865, en cuyo día las tropas y las autoridades, reunidas en la Capital, se embarcaron para Cuba y Puerto Rico" (page 140).

October

Bell 1981: "Salcedo was overthrown-and later assassinated by...General Gaspar Polanco. Polanco lasted only three months as president, to be succeeded by Benigno Filomeno Rojas" (pages 51-52).

Schoenrich 1918: "The other generals...on October 10, 1864, deposed [Salcedo] and made General Gaspar Polanco president in his stead...Polanco did not enjoy his triumph long. A reaction set in, a revolution was initiated against him, his troops deserted, he was captured and imprisoned" (page 60).

Ventura 1985: Gaspar Polanco is president from October 10, 1864 to January 24, 1865 (page 8).

1865

Betances 1995: "Although Spain withdrew from the Dominican Republic in 1865, the prospects for the development of a social pact of domination had not changed. The essential difference now was that the leaders had a different social background. In the First Republic, the dominant political figures were either landowners or merchants, whereas after the War of Restoration leaders from the lower stratum of society were able to move upward through military service. Gregorio Luperón, the premier nationalist hero of the War of Restoration, was black and of humble origin. Another important nationalist and military leader was Ulises Heureaux, who had been Luperón's lieutenant and had also risen from humble beginnings" (pages 21-22).

Espinal 1999: The "Second Republic (1865-1916) resembled the first in that violence and force prevailed over democratic means to achieve and retain power. Elections were frequently used simply to settle conflicts surrounding the distribution of political power. Gradually, Baecistas (those loyal to Báez) revolved around what came to be known as the Partido Rojo, and the anti-Báez forces, more fragmented, mostly northern interests, formed the Partido Azul…[This division] approximated that between conservatives and liberals elsewhere in the region" (page 474).

Hartlyn 1998: "As a result of the effort to regain independence in 1865, the country was again devastated by war, with vast sectors of the population armed and politically and regionally fragmented. Once the Spanish were vanquished, the numerous military and guerrilla leaders began to fight among themselves…(I)n the period from 1865 to 1879 there were twenty-one different governments and at least fifty military uprisings" (pages 28-29). "From the enactment of a Dominican constitution in 1865, following the forced departure of the Spanish, to the U.S. military intervention in 1916, there were an additional sixteen constitutional changes. Most of these were associated with a change in leadership or with an effort by a leader to provide a legal fig leaf to cover an extension of his term of office" (page 35).

January

Abad 1993: "El…gobierno [de] el general Gaspar Polanco…cayó el 24 de Enero de 1865, á impulsos de otra revolución, de la cual surjió la Junta Superior Gubernativa, presidada por el general D. Benigno Filomeno de Rojas" (page 140).

Schoenrich 1918: "(O)n January 24, 1865, a superior council of government was formed by the insurgents, presided over by General Benigno Filomeno de Rojas" (page 60).

Welles 1928: "In January of 1865, the towns of the frontier provinces proclaimed a state of rebellion against the Government at Santiago. By the end of the same month, the leaders of the new revolution, Generals Pimentel, Monción and Federico GarcRa...had appointed a 'Junta Gubernativa' under the temporary presidency of Don Benigno Filomeno de Rojas" (page 289).

February

Bell 1981: "The Moca constitution of 1858 was revived and then, under a revised version of it, Pimentel was elected president" (page 52).

Haggerty 1991: "The rebels further formalized their provisional rule by replacing Salcedo...and by then holding a national convention on February 27, 1865, which enacted a new constitution and elected Pedro Antonio Pimentel Chamorro president" (page 17).

March

Abad 1993: "(U)na Convención Nacional, reunida en Marzo, elijió para Presidente interino de la República, al general D. Pedro Antonio Pimentel" (page 140).

Haggerty 1991: "On March 3, 1865, the Queen of Spain approved a decree repealing the annexation of Santo Domingo. The Spanish left political chaos in their wake. A power struggle began between the conservative, cacique-dominated south and the more liberal Cibao, where the prevalence of medium-sized land-holdings contributed to a more egalitarian social structure. The two camps eventually coalesced under the banners of separate political parties. The Cibaeños (residents of the Cibao) adhered to the National Liberal Party (Partido Nacional Liberal), which became known as the Blue Party (Partido Azul). The southerners rallied to the Red Party (Partido Rojo)" (page 17).

Welles 1928: After "the holding of such elections as the times permitted, [the new government] installed on March 25th a Constitutional Government of the Republic, at whose head were General Pedro Antonio Pimentel as President and de Rojas as Vice-President" (page 290).

July

Welles 1928: "On July 11th, the last Spanish forces embarked from the capital" (page 298). With "the departure of the Spanish authorities, there were neither national Executive, Legislative nor Judicial authorities. The authority of the National Convention of Santiago was local in its character, and to it neither the inhabitants of the eastern or southern provinces, nor those of the capital, were responsive. Unfortunately, the Provisional President, General Pimentel, lacked entirely the qualities and the character necessary to maintain order during such troublous times" (pages 299-300).

August

Abad 1993: "(L)os generales Cabral y Manzueta se alzaron contra el gobierno de Pimentel, y habiendo hallado apoyo en el país, quedó derrocado Pimentel, proclamándose á Cabral, Protector de la República" (page 140).

Welles 1928: "The opposition to the Provisional Government became so violent that in the beginning of August armed outbreaks occurred in the capital and in the west, where the military leaders refused further to recognize the Santiago Government, and proclaimed General JosJ María Cabral 'Protector' of the Republic. Pimentel, cowed and unable to withstand this early rejection of his authority, resigned his office on August 13th, leaving the field clear to General Cabral" (page 300).

September

Abad 1993: "El Protectorado convocó una Asamblea Constituyente, y mientras esta trataba de dar una organización definitiva á la nación, el general Pedro Guillermo se alzó en el Este, proclamando á Baez Presidente de la República" (page 140).

Bell 1981: "In September a national constituent assembly met in Santo Domingo, and in the course of its deliberations two political parties emerged, the Blues and the Reds. The Blues were the party of the liberators--Luperón, Cabral, Pimentel-an assortment of nationalists, liberals, and intellectuals, usually at a disadvantage because of internal dissensions and based for the most part in Santiago and the Cibao. The Reds, representing the petite bourgeoisie of Santo Domingo, were more disciplined and acknowledged only one leader: Buenaventura Baez" (page 55).

Campillo Pérez 1986: "La Asamblea Constituyente que se venía proyectando desde los últimos Gobiernos restauradores, pudo reunirse en la ciudad de Santo Domingo el 24 de Septiembre de 1865, para luego votar una de las Constituciones más liberales que ha tenido la República" (pages 75-76).

October

Abad 1993: "(E)l 25 de Octubre de 1865 se formó una Junta que se encargó del gobierno, hasta la llegada de Baez, ausente en Curazao" (page 140).

Tansill 1967: "In the Dominican Republic the office of president was of such uncertain tenure that it was difficult to conclude any negotiations that lasted more than a few months. No sooner did Cabral assume the executive duties than malcontents intrigued against him, and it was not long before the state of affairs compelled him to give way before the most talented adventurer in Dominican politics, Buenaventura Baez" (page 223).

Welles 1928: "At the end of October, General Pimentel, recovered from the panic into which the unpopularity of his own Government had thrown him, and permitted to return to the capital, seized his opportunity and demanded the removal of all those partisans of Cabral who were opposed to Baez's return" (pag 302).

November 14: constitution

Abad 1993: "El Congreso Constituyente hizo un nuevo Código, que sancionó el 14 de Noviembre, el mismo día en que el general Buenaventura Baez, fué electo Presidente de la República" (page 140).

Campillo Pérez 1986: Describes the new constitution, which is promulgated on November 14, 1865 (page 76).

Tansill 1967: The "Dominican National Assembly, on November 14, 1865, issued a decree which nominated Baez as President of the Republic" (page 224).

Welles 1928: "On the same day upon which the National Assembly after much deliberation had finally agreed upon one of the most liberal constitutions which the Dominican Republic has known, the Assembly found itself forced...to elect [Baez] President of the Republic. Acting under similar coercion the Assembly was later forced to agree to the election of a new Congress, composed of Baez's followers" (page 302).

November 15

Ventura 1985: Pedro Guillermo is president from November 15 to December 8, 1865 (page 11).

December

Haggerty 1991: "The conservative Reds effectively employed their numerical superiority in the capital to force the restoration of Baez, who returned triumphantly from exile and assumed the presidency on December 8, 1865" (page 17).

Welles 1928: "On December 8, 1865, Buenaventura Baez...was inaugurated for the third time as Constitutional President of the Republic" (page 303). On the "same day as that upon which General Baez was inaugurated in the capital, a revolution against his Government broke out in Puerto Plata under the able leadership of General Gregorio Luperón" (page 305).

1866

Welles 1928: "The new elections to the National Congress...united in the Legislative body solely such citizens as were submissive to the wishes of the President" (page 306).

April

Schoenrich 1918: "The constitution being too liberal, [Báez] had it abrogated on April 19, 1866, and Santana's constitution of December 16, 1854, was adopted in its stead" (page 61).

Welles 1928: The "Congress at length set aside the Constitution of 1865 and replaced it with the Constitution of 1854 by which the President was granted almost dictatorial powers" (page 307). "On April 23rd, the principal leaders of the Cibao...declared themselves in open rebellion, and a week later announced their support of a new Triumvirate, composed of Generals Luperón, Federico de Jesús GarcRa and Pimentel" (page 308).

May

Atkins 1998: "Within six months after Báez's inauguration, General Cabral emerged from the rivalry among 'azul' leaders and seized the presidency, where he remained for almost two years (28 May 1866 to 31 January 1868)" (page 22).

Haggerty 1991: "After a successful uprising that forced Baez to flee the country in May 1866, a triumvirate of Cibaeño military leaders, the most prominent of whom was Gregorio Luperón, assumed provisional power" (page 18).

Tansill 1967: "In March 1866, there were numerous indications that the administration of President Baez was not receiving popular support, and on the night of May 28-29 he was forced to vacate the presidential office" (pages 230-231).

Schoenrich 1918: The abrogation of the constitution "was the excuse for an insurrection which broke out in Santiago on May 1, 1866, under the leadership of Pimentel in combination with Cabral" (page 61).

Welles 1928: Baez flees on May 28th, and "the partisans of Baez, or the members of the 'Red' party, as they were now known, were completely defeated, and the 'Blues,' the term applied to all the elements opposed to the return of Baez, were in complete control. Unfortunately, however, for the Republic, once the object which all the groups loosely termed the 'Blues' had in view had been successfully achieved, there was no common policy to bind them together" (page 309).

July

Welles 1928: "For a time, the state of open anarchy which threatened was postponed by the agreement of many of the revolutionary chiefs upon a pact, signed on July 12th in Jacagua, providing that Buenaventura Baez was deposed from the Presidency and should at no time in the future be permitted to return to office; that until the Dominican people in general elections should select a President all candidacies for the Presidency should be ignored, and that until such time as a President might be constitutionally inaugurated, the Government of the Triumvirate should be generally accepted throughout the country" (page 310).

August

Welles 1928: "On August 10th General Luperón and General GarcRa joined the third member of the Triumvirate, General Pimentel, in the capital and immediately decrees were issued providing for the election of a Congress and a President of the Republic...(O)n August 22nd, a decree was issued appointing General Cabral Provisional President" (page 310).

September 23-29: election (Cabral)

Campillo Pérez 1986: "Era la primera vez que podían votar todos los dominicanos mayores de diez y ocho años, sin tener en cuenta sus condiciones económicas o culturales. Era la primera vez que iban a escoger, sin necesidad de intermediarios, el futuro Presidente de la República" (page 79). Gives the results (pages 80, 431).

Schoenrich 1918: "An election was held and Cabral chosen president by a practically unanimous vote" (page 62).

Welles 1928: "Now that General Cabral had been returned to power as the result of the rivalry between the three members of the Triumvirate, his election as Constitutional President of the Republic was assured. On September 23rd, Cabral was proclaimed elected by a majority of 4,000 votes over those cast for the other candidates, and as soon as the Constitution of 1865 had, with slight modifications, been once more proclaimed in force, the Provisional President, on September 29, 1866, was inaugurated as Constitutional President of the Republic" (page 311).

1867

October

Schoenrich 1918: A "revolution in favor of Baez...broke out in Monte Cristi on October 7, 1867" (page 62).

1868

January

Abad 1993: "Cabral gobernó…hasta el 31 de Enero de 1868, en que fué derrocado, á consecuencia de un movimiento revolucionario, iniciado en Monte Cristi, el 7 de Octubre de 1867, á favor de Baez…Una Junta de generales reemplazó á Cabral hasta el 4 de Mayo de 1868" (page 141).

Atkins 1998: "A junta of three revolutionary generals governed from 31 January to 2 May 1868" (page 24).

Campillo Pérez 1986: "(E)l 31 de Enero de 1868, [Cabral] capitulaba y abandonaba el país, para darle paso a la insurrección armada que habían promovido los rojos" (page 80).

Tansill 1967: "The Cabral Government had staked everything on the success of [its] mission to the United States, and when the weeks passed without the receipt of any favorable news from Washington with reference to the lease of Samaná Bay, the supporters of the existing administration abandoned all hope of resisting the advance of the revolutionary armies" (page 257).

February

Tansill 1967: "In February, 1868 a Provisional Government was set up in Santo Domingo City, and soon it was rumored that Buenaventura Baez...would be invited to return as President of the Dominican Republic...Baez was now an old hand at this presidential game and he had grown weary of hurried flights from his native land. In order to make his position more secure he thought it would be best to court the friendship of the United States" (page 257).

Welles 1928: "On February 12th, General HungrRa, the head of the Santiago Provisional Government, arrived in Santo Domingo. His cabinet resigned three days later...Thereupon a Triumvirate composed of Generals HungrRa, Gomez and Lucian was installed" (page 341).

March

Welles 1928: "On March 29th, Baez returned once more to Santo Domingo" (page 341).

May

Abad 1993: "(E)l 4 de Mayo de 1868…Baez se hizo cargo de la Presidencia, por la aclamación de los revolucionarios de Monte Cristi. No se ocupó de legalizar su posición, sino que por el contrario la hizo mas autoritaria, logrando, para ello, que la Convención Nacional anulara la Constitución que rejía, y pusiera en ejercicio la de 16 de Diciembre de 1854, ligeramente modificada" (page 141).

Atkins 1998: "Báez remained in office for more than five and a half years, until 31 December 1873" (page 24).

Bell 1981: In "1868 a revolution organised by the Reds brought Baez home again as president for the fourth time. Báez remained in power until December 31, 1873-a period known in Dominican history as 'the six years.' It was a disastrous period because it set the ball rolling toward national bankruptcy, the U.S. receivership, and finally the U.S. occupation" (page 56).

Haggerty 1991: "The 'baecistas were still a potent force in the republic; they forced Cabral out and reinstalled Baez on May 2, 1868" (page 18).

Welles 1928: Baez "was finally inaugurated on May 2d as President of the Republic, an office which, he announced, he had chosen in preference to that of Dictator, offered to him by the National Assembly" (page 341).

December

Tansill 1967: "In Santo Domingo the position of President Baez was constantly being undermined by revolutionary elements, and this fact led him to press more and more strongly for American intervention" (page 271). "In the Dominican Republic there was a strong party of opposition to any plan of annexation to the United States, and this party was vigorously led by General Luperón and by former President Cabral, who, from motives of prudence, directed their campaigns against President Baez from points of vantage outside the Dominican Republic" (page 391).

1869

Tansill 1967: Describes Báez's efforts to have the Dominican Republic annexed to the United States (pages 264-286).

November

Schoenrich 1918: "On November 29, 1869, two treaties were signed in Santo Domingo City by representatives of the American and Dominican governments: by one the Samana peninsula and Samana Bay were leased to the United States for fifty years at an annual rental of $150,000, and by the other the Dominican Republic was annexed to the United States" (page 63).

Tansill 1967: "Not only would Samaná Bay be of great value to the United States as a naval base, but there were adjacent deposits of coal which would greatly add to its general importance" (pages 265-266).