Elections and Events 1870-1889

1870

February

Bell 1981: "The time was ripe for a plebiscite, and in February 1870 the Dominicans voted overwhelmingly in favour of annexation by the United States. Nothing came of it simply because the Congress in Washington refused by a narrow majority to ratify the treaty" (pages 56-57).

Tansill 1967: Báez "wished to have American war-ships in Dominican waters before the plebiscite was taken, and he strongly preferred to have the United States Senate consent to the ratification of the annexation treaty before any final action should be taken by the Dominican Government...(A) decree was issued on February 16, 1870 providing for the holding of a plebiscite on February 19 with reference to annexation to the United States...(I)t was apparent that the vote on the question of annexation to the United States was overwhelmingly favorable" (page 397). Includes excerpts from letters of U.S. officials reporting on the election and its results (pages 397-398).

Welles 1928: Baez proclaimed "on February 16th that the plebiscite was to be held on February 19th" (page 384). Out "of a total of some 16,000 votes cast, only eleven were announced as having been cast in opposition to the project, and these were recognized as having been cast at the President's instance by his agents in order to prevent the proceedings from appearing too farcical" (page 386).

March

Welles 1928: "On March 16th, the Senado Consultor adopted a resolution declaring that 'The people of the Dominican Republic have demonstrated their desire to be united to the United States of America" (page 386).

1871

Schoenrich 1918: "By a resolution of Congress, approved January 12, 1871, the President of the United States was authorized to send a commission of inquiry to Santo Domingo...The commission's report was transmitted to Congress, and President Grant made another earnest plea for the annexation of Santo Domingo. Congress took no further action, however" (page 64).

1872

January

Welles 1928: On January 27, 1872, Baez expresses "his determination to decree the holding of elections for a Constitutional Convention to revise the Constitution of 1868" (page 404).

August-September

Welles 1928: The "Constitutional Convention assembled in August, 1872, and revised the qualifications of the electorate [gives details]...(T)he Convention concluded its labours on September 14, 1872, having first granted the President a term of six years' duration, with almost dictatorial powers, and having created the Vice Presidency, stipulating that elections for the President and the Vice President be held three years apart" (page 405).

December

Schoenrich 1918: "When it became apparent that nothing would come of the annexation plans, the Baez administration, on December 28, 1872, rented the Samana peninsula to an American corporation, the 'Samana Bay Company,' for ninety-nine years" (page 65).

1873

Atkins 1998: "In 1873 President Báez faced growing discontent in the Cibao, where leaders of the 'Partido Rojo' had decided he no longer effectively represented their interests. Generals Cabral, Pimentel, and Luperón continued to lead the opposition 'Partido Azul'" (page 27).

January

Welles 1928: "(O)n January 4th, the Dominican people were called to a plebiscite to pass upon the contract...By the use of the same coercive methods which had proved so satisfactory three years before, the concession was approved in the popular vote by a majority even greater than that cast in favour of the annexation project" (pages 407-308).

February

Bell 1981: "A rigged plebiscite approved the [Samana] contract almost unanimously in February 1873" (page 57).

Welles 1928: "On February 22, 1873, President Baez officially announced that the votes cast in the plebiscite had resulted 20,496 in favour of the contract and only 19 opposed thereto" (pages 407-308).

November

Abad 1993: "Los propósitos de Baez, resuelto á llevar á término la anexión y á hacerse reelejir por otros seis años, determinaron la revolución de 25 de Noviembre de 1873, iniciada en Puerto Plata" (page 142).

Welles 1928: "On November 25, 1873...General González proclaimed himself leader of the revolution" (page 410).

December

Abad 1993: "(E)l 31 de Diciembre inmediato se veía el Presidente obligado á capitular" (page 142).

Bell 1981: "A revolution by both parties toppled [Báez] in December" (page 57).

1874

Schoenrich 1918: "A new generation, grown up since the independence of the country and which had come to look upon civil disorder as a normal condition, now came into power, and the question of foreign annexation ceased to be an issue. A period of constant revolutionary ferment and frequent changes of the constitution followed, with a wearisome succession of military presidents" (page 65).

January

Abad 1993: "El general Don Ignacio Ma. González se hizo cargo de la interinidad que sobrevino; rescindió el contrato de arrendamiento de Samaná, por falta de pago en una anualidad, y convocó una Asamblea Nacional" (page 142).

Atkins 1998: "González tenuously held power for only two years (from 2 January 1874 to 21 February 1876), unable to reconcile the diverse party interests" (page 27).

Welles 1928: "(O)n January 2, 1874, Baez resigned his office to the Congress assembled in the capital, and fled from the country" (page 410).

February: election (González)

Campillo Pérez 1986: Describes the election won by General Ignacio María González (pages 87-88). Gives the results of the election (pages 434-436).

March

Abad 1993: González "convocó una Asamblea Nacional, que hizo la Constitución de 24 de Marzo de 1874, con arreglo á la cual, se elijió el cargo Presidencial, que recayó en el mismo general González" (page 142).

April

Abad 1993: González "se hizo cargo del gobierno el 6 de Abril y convocó una Convención Nacional para reformar la Constitución" (page 143).

Welles 1928: "By dint of tactics which were not altogether to his credit, González finally succeeded in ensuring his own election, after a Constitutional Convention had once more revised the national charter of liberties, and he was consequently inaugurated Constitutional President of the Republic on April 6, 1874" (page 412).

1875

March

Abad 1993: "El nuevo Código fundamental fué sancionado el 9 de Marzo de 1875" (page 143).

Schoenrich 1918: "As the constitution did not suit [González], he called a new national convention and had another constitution promulgated on March 9, 1875. This was too much even for Santo Domingo, and his enemies formed a powerful league in Santiago with a view to having him impeached, but the Congress rejected the charges" (page 66).

1876

February

Abad 1993: "Una nueva guerra civil amenazaba ensangrentar los campos de la República; pero la renuncia de González la evitó. El poder quedó en manos del Consejo de Ministros" (page 143).

Atkins 1998: "The six years following the overthrow of González in February 1876 were characterized by constant plotting among generals and important civilian figures, numerous revolutions, elections, and interrupted presidencies" (page 27).

Rutinel Domínguez 2000: "Acuerdo del Carmelo 1876: Pacto firmado el 1ero. de febrero de 1876 entre líderes del Partido Azul y el Presidente Ignacio María González y sus seguidores…dejando el Poder Ejecutivo en manos de un Consejo de Secretarios de Estado que lo entregarían, a su vez, a los jefes de revolución, quienes organizarían elecciones para elegir un nuevo presidente" (page 11).

Welles 1928: In February González, "realizing that he lacked the means wherewith to withstand the opposition to his Administration which had now become almost universal, determined to heed the advice tendered him by representatives of both the 'Blue' and the 'Red' factions, and resigned his office" (page 417).

March: election (Espaillat)

Campillo Pérez 1986: Describes the elections, which take place March 24-26, 1876 (pages 92-93). Gives the results of the election (pages 436-439).

Haggerty 1991: "After a period of infighting among the Blues, backing from Luperón helped Ulises Francisco Espaillat Quiñones to win election as president on March 24, 1876" (page 18).

Hartlyn 1998: "The first individual who was not a general to reach the presidency, although not by truly open elections, was Ulises Francisco Espaillat in 1876; his promising civilian, liberal government, however, lasted less than six months" (page 36).

Welles 1928: "The result of the elections of March, l876, proved that the general longing for a reform government had not spent itself as the result of the ill success of the González Administration...By an overwhelming majority, Don Ulises Francisco Espaillat was elected President" (pages 418-419).

May

Atkins 1998: Ulises Francisco Espaillat is president from May 29 to October 1876 (page 27).

Bell 1981: In May 1876 "both González and Báez launched revolutions" (page 57).

Schoenrich 1918: Espaillat "entered upon office on April [May?] 29, 1876" (page 66).

Welles 1928: "Don Ulises Francisco Espaillat…took office in the capital on May 29, 1876" (pages 418-419).

July

Welles 1928: "The President had hardly been in office two months before the intrigues of General Baez...and the propaganda of General González...proved effective in creating the outbreak of revolutionary movements along the Haitian frontier" (page 422).

October

Abad 1993: "La caída de [Espaillat] fué debida á una revolución promovida por González…y apoyada por algunas autoridades en la Capital. González fué nombrado Presidente" (page 143).

Atkins 1998: General González is president from October 5 to December 27, 1876 (page 28).

Bell 1981: Espaillat is forced to abdicate in October (page 57).

Schoenrich 1918: On "October 5, 1876, Espaillat was ousted" (page 66).

Welles 1928: "On October 5th, a group of malcontents in the capital seized the seat of Government and proclaimed themselves a national Dictatorship, announcing their intention to maintain their posts until General González could return" (page 425).

November

Schoenrich 1918: "A superior council of government was formed, which appointed General González president in the beginning of November, 1876" (page 66).

December

Abad 1993: "González fué nombrado Presidente; pero apenas tuvo tiempo de formalizar su elección, cuando fué suplantado en el poder por Baez, elevado al Gobierno de la República, por quinta vez, en Diciembre de 1876, por efecto de una revolución triunfante en el Cibao" (page 143).

Atkins 1998: Báez is president from December 27, 1876 to March 2, 1878 (page 28).

Bell 1981: González steps "down in favour of Báez in December. Báez now entered upon his fifth, last, and most despotic administration. To protect himself against revolutionaries operating from Haiti he suspended all constitutional guarantees and imprisoned many prominent citizens of Santo Domingo without trial" (page 57).

Schoenrich 1918: "González had been in power for just one month when he was overthrown, in December, 1876, by a revolution that originated in the Cibao, and General Buenaventura Baez became president for the fifth time. The Republic thus had four presidents in 1876: González twice, Espaillat and Baez" (page 66).

Welles 1928: "Installed as Dictator on December 27, 1876, Baez once more formed a Government in which there figured the familiar names of the same men who had so long been associated with him" (page 426).

1877

March

Welles 1928: "In March...[Baez] was declared elected President of the Republic by a National Convention, selected 'ad hoc'" (page 426). "As was to be anticipated, a general revolution broke out almost immediately" (page 427).

May

Campillo Pérez 1986a: "(L)a reforma constitutional del 10 de Mayo de 1877…obligaba a una votación para Presidente de la República y Miembros del Congreso, en forma directa, oral y pública. Pero tal modalidad subsistió apenas un año, pues la Constitución que la estableció tuvo su nacimiento cuando llegaba a su final el caudillismo de Buenaventura Báez" (page 42).

Schoenrich 1918: "Baez called a constitutional convention and the constitution of May 14, 1877, was promulgated" (page 66).

1878

February

Abad 1993: "Aunque en esta ocasión Baez estableció un régimen distinto al que había informado su gobierno autoritario de los seis años, no logró gobernar en paz, y despues de una lucha sin tregua, tuvo que dejar el poder por efecto de la capitulación de 24 de Febrero de 1877 [should say 1878]" (page 143).

Schoenrich 1918: Baez's "whole term was one prolonged struggle with insurrections, until he was obliged to surrender on February 24, 1878" (page 66).

March

Atkins 1998: There is a provisional government from March 3 to July 1878 (page 28).

Bell 1981: "By 1878 most Dominicans had had enough of Báez. In March a revolution organised by a priest, Padre Fernando Arturo de Meriño, and a black general, Cesário Guillermo, forced him to leave the country-this time for good" (page 57).

Díaz Santana 1996: "En 1878 dos gobiernos se disputaban el control del país, el de Cesáreo Guillermo en la capital y el de Ignacio María González en Santiago. El primero no sólo imponía su autoridad desde la capital, sino que tenía el reconocimiento del Congreso. Una mediación de Gregorio Luperón determinó que fueran convocadas elecciones para mayo de ese año" (page 51).

Welles 1928: "Delaying for a few days the final negotiation of his capitulation with the leaders of the insurgents, the Dictator collected all the customs revenues which he could force local merchants to pay in advance, amounting to some $70,000, and then, on March 2nd, abdicated his authority and set sail once more for Puerto Rico" (page 430).

April

Schoenrich 1918: "Two governments were now established...An agreement was reached by them on April 13, 1878, and Guillermo became provisional president of the entire country" (page 67).

May: election (González / PA)

Bell 1981: "In the elections that followed the final departure of Báez, Guillermo was chagrined to see González reelected" (page 57).

Campillo Pérez 1986: Describes the elections, which take place May 24-26, 1878 (pages 95-96). Gives the results of the election (pages 439-441).

Díaz Santana 1996: "Campillo Pérez estima que fueron los primeros comicios limpios, porque el electorado tuvo libertad para escoger entre tres candidatos; el gobieron guardó imparcialidad, al extremo de que el presidente, repostulado, quedó en tercer lugar; dos de las tres facciones predominantes presentaron candidaturas, y la tercera se abstuvo, pero no por imposición gubernamental; y la Cámara Legislativa respetó el veredicto popular, proclamando al que más votos recibió, Ignacio María González, a quien se computaron 6,203 de los 12,987 votos emitidos. Pero la legitimidad democrática de aquel gobierno no detendría el predominio militarista ni la anarquía derivada de la ambición desenfrenada" (page 51).

Hartlyn 1998: "The first somewhat free elections in the history of the country were realized in May 1878, following a formal pact between two of the major candidates, pledging to support the rule of law and the result of free elections; however, the agreement was broken only two months into the one-year term of President Ignacio MarRa González when Gregorio Luperón, the losing candidate and other major signatory of the preelectoral pact, successfully carried out a revolt that forced González's resignation and exile" (page 36).

Ramírez Morillo 1997: "Las primeras elecciones libres celebradas en el país, donde al electorado se le permitió votar sin ataduras por el candidato de su preferencia, fueron las de los días 24, 25 y 26 de mayo de 1878. Aunque las mismas tuvieron un aspecto negativo, puesto que el partido rojo se abstuvo de participar" (page 28). Gives results (pages 28-29).

Welles 1928: "A reconciliation was likewise effected between General González and General Luperón, resulting in a joint manifesto addressed by them to the people, urging the support of all classes and of all parties for the candidacy of the Chief of the Santiago Government. Consequently, in the general elections held in May of the same year General González was once more elected President" (page 431).

July

Atkins 1998: González is president from July to September 2, 1878 (page 28).

Welles 1928: "Immediately after his inauguration, which occurred in the first days of the month of July, 1878, General González attempted to secure the continued support of General Luperón by offering him any post in the Government which he might desire. Upon Luperón's refusal to accept office, the President...refused to carry out the promises which he had made previous to his election" (page 431). "Indignant at this disregard of his wishes, General Luperón at once resorted once more to revolution" (page 432).

August

Welles 1928: On "August 3rd [General Luperón] captured the fort in Puerto Plata and took possession of the city. A Provisional Government was once more constituted in Puerto Plata under the control of Luperón's adherents...Steps were then promptly taken by the Provisional Government to march upon the capital, but not swiftly enough to prevent the prior arrival there of General Guillermo, who himself had lost no time in proclaiming a revolution against González after his defeat in the elections" (page 432).

September

Atkins 1998: There is a provisional government from September 2, 1878 to February 26, 1879 (page 28).

Bell 1981: "In September 1878 González went into exile and Guillermo installed himself as president. His dictatorial rule, which did not stop short of assassination, became intolerable to most Dominicans" (page 58).

Schoenrich 1918: "Jacinto de Castro, the president of the supreme court, acted as president until September 29, 1878, when he was succeeded by the council of ministers of which Guillermo was chief" (page 67).

Welles 1928: President González "was forced on September 2nd to abdicate...On September 3rd, General Guillermo entered the city...For the time being, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was permitted to hold office as Provisional President" (pages 432-433).

October

Campillo Pérez 1986: Presidential election scheduled for October 1-3, 1878, is rescheduled for October 16-18 after candidate Cáceres is killed (page 99).

December: presidential election (Guillermo / PA)

Campillo Pérez 1986: The election takes place December 29-31, 1878 (page 99). Gives the results (page 441).

1879

January: election

Welles 1928: As "the result of further elections held on January 26th, 27th, and 28th, General Guillermo forced his own election as Constitutional President" (page 433).

February

Atkins 1998: General Cesáreo Guillermo is president from February 27, 1879 to December 5, 1879 (page 28).

Welles 1928: General Guillermo "was inaugurated on February 27th, 1879. General Luperón, who had not unwisely declared his determined refusal to accept election to the Presidency in view of the fact that General Guillermo had already secured possession of the capital, left the country and embarked for Europe" (page 433).

March

Abad 1993: Guillermo "tomó posesión de la Presidencia, constitucionalmente, el 21 de Marzo de 1879" (page 143).

October

Abad 1993: Guillermo "cayó por efecto de la revolución iniciada en Puerto Plata el 6 de Octubre de 1879, que elevó á la Presidencia interina al general Gregorio Luperón, bajo cuyos auspicios se inauguraron los bienios presidenciales" (page 143).

Haggerty 1991: Luperón "governed from Puerto Plata as provisional president from October 1879 to August 1880" (page 19).

Schoenrich 1918: "On October 6, 1879, a revolution broke out at Puerto Plata and a provisional government was formed under the presidency of General Gregorio Luperon" (page 67).

Welles 1928: "The movement for Guillermo's overthrow was instigated by Luperón, who returned from Europe in the autumn. Proclaiming a new revolution in Puerto Plata on October 6, 1879, Luperón constituted a Provisional Goverment" (page 434).

December

Atkins 1998: General Gregório Luperón is president from December 6, 1879 to September 1, 1880 (page 28).

Betances 1995: "The Partido Rojo...formed around Buenaventura Báez, had already declined significantly when Gregorio Luperón came to power in December 1879. Luperón inaugurated the era of the Partido Azul...by militarily defeating Báez's forces" (page 57).

Schoenrich 1918: "Guillermo resisted two months, but was compelled to surrender on December 6, 1879" (page 67).

Welles 1928: President Guillermo "took refuge on December 6th upon a Spanish man-of-war...The Government of the Republic was now vested in the hands of General Luperón, who insisted upon retaining the seat of his authority at Puerto Plata, delegating General Heureaux as his representative in the capital" (page 435). Luperón "at once announced his determined refusal to accept the Constitutional Presidency of the Republic. A Constitutional Convention was summoned to meet in the capital to amend the Constitution, and the electorate was officially informed that general elections would be held as soon as the Constitution had once more been revised" (page 436).

1880

Hartlyn 1998: "The country was in almost continual civil war until the end of the 1870s. Gradually the key national political struggle...following the founding of the second republic in 1865 came to revolve around the 'Rojos' and the 'Azules,' a division which approximated that between conservatives and liberals elsewhere in the region...The Rojos were a centralized movement, concentrating the more conservative powerholders of the northwest, south, and east, who tended to identify with Buenaventura Baez...In turn, the Azules coalesced primarily from the more liberal, smaller tobacco growers and merchants of the northern Cibao" (page 29).

May 18

Campillo Pérez 1986: New constitution is promulgated May 18, 1880 (page 101).

Hartlyn 1998: "(T)he leader of the Azules, Gregorio Luperón, called for a national convention to enact a new liberal constitution, which it did in 1880" (page 35).

Schoenrich 1918: A "constitutional assembly...in 1880 adopted with amendments the constitution of 1879, and fixed the presidential term at two years" (page 67).

May 29

Welles 1928: "On May 29, 1880, General Luperón addressed a public manifesto to the Dominican people urging upon them the election as their President of Padre Meriño. Granted this immense support, Padre Meriño was elected without opposition...In view of the favour bestowed upon Padre Meriño by the Provisional President, two candidates who had at first presented themselves-General Heureaux and General Francisco Gregorio Billini-withdrew their candidacy prior to the election" (page 440).

June: general election (Meriño / PA)

Campillo Pérez 1986: "(L)as elecciones para Presidente de la República y diputados al Congreso Nacional fueron fijadas para los días 19, 20 y 21 de Junio [1880]" (page 101). Gives the results (pages 101 and 442).

Hartlyn 1998: "The first president to complete a constitutional term in office was the Monsignor Meriño from 1880 to 1882, who did so even while suspending constitutional rights and in spite of armed opposition" (page 36).

Ramírez Morillo 1997: "Meriño triunfó en las elecciones celebradas en el 1880, presentándose como candidato del Partido Azul" (page 30).

Schoenrich 1918: "Luperon then held an election and gave the presidency, for the two years beginning September 1, 1880, to one of his supporters, Father Fernando de Meriño, an eloquent priest who had taken an active part in politics since his youth, and who later became archbishop of Santo Domingo. The reverend gentleman suppressed all revolutionary uprisings with uncompromising severity and did not hesitate to execute the conspirators that fell into his hands" (pages 67-68).

September

Atkins 1998: Padre Fernando Arturo de Meriño is president from September 1, 1880 to September 1, 1882 (page 28). Meriño is "a distinguished but authoritarian public figure, Luperón ally, and Báez enemy, who was elected and served his full two-year constitutional term."

Haggerty 1991: Meriño "assumed office in September 1880 after apparently fraudulent general elections. Heureaux served as interior minister under Meriño" (page 19).

Welles 1928: Padre MeriZo "was inaugurated President of the Republic on September 1, 1880" (page 440).

1881

Welles 1928: "Perturbed by the first attempt at revolution which had been perpetrated, and induced thereto by the rumour of the imminent insurrection of Guillermo, and likewise incensed by the antagonism of the Senate,...President MeriZo, on May 30, 1881, issued a decree announcing his assumption of power temporarily as Dictator of the nation" (page 442).

1882

Schoenrich 1918: "During Meriño's administration General Ulises Heureaux served as minister of the interior and began to wield the power which he was to retain for twenty years...Throughout [the] civil wars he remained a sturdy follower of General Luperon, the successor of Santana as leader of the 'Blue' party and an implacable opponent of General Buenaventura Baez, the chief of the 'Reds' and of General Ignacio Maria González, the leader of the 'Greens'" (page 68).

May

Welles 1928: "On May 31, 1882, the President promulgated a decree convoking the elections for the following July 1st, 2nd and 3rd" (page 443).

July: election (Heureaux / PA)

Campillo Pérez 1986: Gives the results of the election (pages 103 and 443-445).

Ramírez Morillo 1997: "Lilis aniquiló a sus opositores tanto dentro como fuera del Partido Azul" (page 31).

Welles 1928: "In accordance with the custom then existing, the voting took place in the various ayuntamientos, the votes cast each day being counted by the members of the ayuntamiento at five o'clock in the afternoon [describes process]...Inasmuch as the candidacies of General Ulises Heureaux as President and of General Casimiro N. de Moya as Vice President were supported both by President MeriZo and by General Luperón and his adherents, the Governmental ticket was naturally elected by a great majority" (page 443).

September

Atkins 1998: "On 1 September 1882 following duly held elections, General Heureaux, then thirty-seven years old, was inaugurated president for a two-year term. He and his vice president, General Casimiro Nemesio de Moya, had been supported by both President Meriño and General Luperón, consequently enjoying considerable popularity and hope for political peace and economic prosperity" (page 29).

Haggerty 1991: "Although MeriZo briefly suspended constitutional procedures in response to unrest fomented by some remaining 'baecistas,' he abided by the two-year term established under Luperón and turned the reins of government over to Heureaux on September 1, 1882" (page 19).

Ramírez Morillo 1997: "Durante la tiranía de Heureaux no hubo elecciones sino farsas electorales para tratar de darle legalidad al régimen" (page 31).

Welles 1928: "On September 1, 1882, the new President and Vice President were inaugurated...Thus, for the first time in the history of the Republic save one, a President was regularly elected and installed in accordance with the Constitution" (page 443).

Wiarda 1992: "The political and economic disruptions occasioned by nearly a hundred years of repeated international traumas, Haitian occupations, and ruinous caudilloism came to an abrupt halt with the coming to power in 1882 of a modernizing dictator, Ulises Heureaux. For the next seventeen years, Heureaux ran a tightly knit regime" (page 30).

1884

Atkins 1998: "As the 1884 elections approached,...Heureaux maneuvered to break up the unified leadership of his own 'azul' party, the major constraining element on his ambitions, by successfully playing the several strong personalities off against each other. He sought especially to undermine the influence of his long-time patron, General Luperón" (pages 29-30).

Haggerty 1991: "By 1884, no single potential successor, among the various caciques who constituted the republic's ruling group, enjoyed widespread support. Luperón, still the leader of the ruling Blue Party, supported General Segundo Imbert for the post, while Heureaux backed the candidacy of General Francisco Gregorio Billini" (page 19).

Welles 1928: Describes Heureaux's efforts to control the election (pages 451-455).

May

Welles 1928: "Heureaux called a meeting of all the prominent leaders of the party to assemble on May 14th. As a result of the deliberations of this assembly the famous 'Capitulations' of Puerto Plata were agreed upon both by the President and General Luperón, and by the three candidates for the Presidency" (page 453). Gives details of the agreement.

June: election (Billini / PA)

Betances 1995: Partido Azul general "Casimiro Nemecio de Moya claimed that Heureaux had used regional caciques to engineer the fraudulent election of Billini. This accusation created much bitterness among the Azules and eventually led to Billini's resignation in 1885" (page 61).

Campillo Pérez 1986: The election takes place June 28-30, 1884 (pages 107-110). Gives the results of the election (pages 447-450).

Welles 1928: "Heureaux, through his agents, had stuffed the ballot boxes in many of the districts where the election was close. Even so, in the capital, where every measure was resorted to in order to defeat the Imbert ticket, Billini received a sparse majority of 400 votes. In the final returns the Billini ticket was announced as obtaining 35,000 votes, while the Imbert ticket was declared defeated with a total of only 33,000 votes" (page 455).

September

Welles 1928: "Upon the inauguration of General Billini as President on September 1, 1884, the unity of leadership in the 'Blue' party which had persisted without serious impairment during a period of twenty years had been shattered. It now remained for Heureaux to obtain the confidence of the leaders of the various factions into which his party had been split, and then to cause the disappearance from the scene of General Billini, who, he soon found, was not as tractable as he had supposed" (page 455).

1885

May

Atkins 1998: "Heureaux managed [Billini's] removal through a vicious rumor campaign that inspired an insurrection serious enough to cause Billini to resign on 16 May 1885. Billini was replaced by Vice President General Alejandro Woss y Gil, who willingly submitted to Heureaux's will" (page 30).

Welles 1928: "Within six months the President was forced to the realization that he had to make his choice between suppressing the insurrection which had by now become inevitable, and resigning his high office...(O)n May 16, 1885, [he] presented his formal resignation to the Congress which immediately accepted it. He was immediately succeeded in office, in accordance with the Constitution, by the Vice-President, General Woss y Gil" (page 456).

1886

June: election (Heureaux / PA)

Betances 1995: De Moya "gathered political support in La Vega, Santiago, Puerto Plata, and even Santo Domingo, [and] used it to launch his own candidacy in the 1886 presidential elections...The Rojos had disappeared with Báez's death, and Heureaux had little difficulty drawing them into the conservative wing of the Azul party...These elections were the acid test of a Cibao-based challenge to Heureaux's political power and proved both highly competitive and violent...Heureaux claimed victory, but the election results were not immediately published" (page 61).

Campillo Pérez 1986: "Las próximas elecciones fueron fijadas para los días 26, 27 y 28 de Junio de 1886" (page 111). Describes the election (pages 111-115). Gives the results of the election (pages 451-453).

Haggerty 1991: Luperón "supported Heureaux in the 1886 presidential elections... Heureaux relied on his considerable popularity and his demonstrated skill at electoral manipulation to carry the balloting" (page 20).

Welles 1928: The "Presidential elections...were scheduled to take place in the first days of July, 1886" (page 458). Describes the negotiating among candidates before the election. "Notwithstanding, the elections passed off quietly, resulting, as his opponents should have anticipated from past experience, in the election of General Heureaux by a majority of more than 20,000 votes. In the capital the faction of de Moya was so far in the minority that on the first day of the elections, after polling only 500 votes, the leaders of the party protested, and abandoned the contest" (page 459).

August

Welles 1928: A "revolution was proclaimed by the adherents of the defeated candidate...At the end of August, General Heureaux, once more appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Government forces, succeeded in capturing La Vega [stronghold of General de Moya]" (page 459).

September

Welles 1928: "Since the Congress, because of the revolution, had been unable to assemble in special session to go through the official form of counting the votes cast and proclaiming the validity of the elections, September 1st, the date upon which the new President should have been installed, passed, and no proclamation of the new Administration could constitutionally be made. The Government of General Woss y Gil consequently, in disregard of the Constitution, announced its own continuance in power until an opportunity might be afforded the Congress to proclaim officially the election of Heureaux" (pages 459-460).

November

Welles 1928: "On November 25th, the Congress met to proclaim the President and Vice President elect legitimately elected" (page 460).

1887

January

Welles 1928: On "January 6, 1887, General Heureaux once more was inaugurated, this time to hold office for the remainder of his life" (page 460).

June

Betances 1995: "During the First Republic, presidential elections were indirect. The Partido Azul had opposed the exclusion of the masses from electoral politics, and once in power it had instituted universal suffrage and direct election of the president. Circumstances had changed, however, now that the Partido Azul had split and Heureaux headed its conservative wing. In a well-orchestrated political maneuver, Heureaux had his supporters in Cibao, De Moya's stronghold, call for indirect elections. In June 1887 a petition signed by leading political figures asserted that universal suffrage and direct elections were the cause of civil wars" (page 63).

October

Abad 1993: "La Convención Nacional de 1887, reformó la Constitución política que venía rigiendo desde 1881. Una de las modificaciones acordadas fué la ampliación del período presidencial, que es ahora de cuatro años, en vez de dos" (page 144).

Betances 1995: A "congressional commission noted in October that political instability discredited the republic abroad and recommended the extension of the presidential term from two to four years" (page 63).

November

Betances 1995: "Heureaux did not mention that he was going to run in the 1888 elections when in November 1887 he arranged for Congress to approve the creation of two institutions to organize indirect elections: primary assemblies and an electoral council. The primary assemblies, locally elected bodies, were to choose delegates to represent their districts on the electoral council that would elect the president and the vice president" (pages 63-64).

1888

October

Betances 1995: "One week before the vote, Luperón withdrew from the race" (page 65).

Haggerty 1991: "The elections of 1888...pitted Heureaux against his political mentor...Heureaux's agents attacked Luperón's campaigners and supporters, arresting and incarcerating considerable numbers of them. Recognizing the impossibility of a free election under such circumstances, Luperón withdrew his candidacy, declined the entreaties of those of his followers who urged armed rebellion, and fled into exile in Puerto Rico" (page 20).

November 1-2: election (Heureaux)

Betances 1995: "The general elections were scheduled for 1-2 November 1888...Once Luperón had withdrawn, Heureaux had no opposition, and the campaign ended in victory for Heureaux" (page 65).

Campillo Pérez 1986: "Las 'elecciones' fueron realizadas en un clima de frialdad y de terror. Las Asambleas Primarias eligieron como Electores a los mejores vasallos de Heureaux" (page 119). Gives the results (pages 119-120 and page 454).

Welles 1928: Describes Heureaux's manipulation of the 1888 presidential elections (pages 472-473).

1889

March

Welles 1928: "The new Administration was inaugurated on March 1, 1889, again in the absence of the President-elect, who was engaged in stamping out the last remaining signs of rebellion..., with the Vice President, Don Manuel Maria Gautier, assuming the Presidency temporarily" (page 473).

November

Haggerty 1991: "Constitutional amendments requested by the president and effected by the Congress extended the presidential term from two to four years and eliminated direct elections in favor of the formerly employed electoral college system" (page 20).

Welles 1928: A "Constitutional Convention, in November, 1889, promulgated a new Constitution which fixed the commencement of the next Presidential term as from February 27, 1889, and lengthened the term in accordance with the Dictator's desires. In the same Constitution, the system of direct election which had previously existed was replaced by that of the election of the President by an electoral college, bound in the future to facilitate the indefinite reelection of Heureaux to the Presidency" (page 462).