Elections and Events 1924-1944

1924

January

Welles 1928: "The new electoral period commenced on January 15, 1924, and with its commencement, the political leaders, who had during the preceding electoral period found it easy to create delays by recourse to technical provisions of the Electoral Code, found their match in the members of the new Central Electoral Board" (pages 891-892).

March: general election (Vásquez / ANP)

Calder 1984: "The election of 15 March 1924 was without incident, and the Alianza party won a smashing victory, gaining not only the presidency for Horacio Vásquez but also, by a wide margin, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Why did Vásquez and the Alianza emerge victorious? First, as a traditional caudillo politician of national stature, Vásquez headed a large and well-organized political machine which owed its loyalty to him personally and which worked hard in his favor. In addition, through his alliance with Velásquez..., Vásquez picked up the support of the second-largest political organization in the country" (page 235).

Campillo Pérez 1986: "Las elecciones después de superarse numerosos inconvenientes fueron fijadas para el Sábado 15 de Marzo de 1924. En esa oportunidad se celebrarían las Asambleas Primarias para elegir: a) Regidores y Síndicos Municipales; b) Consejeros Provinciales; c) miembros a la Asamblea Constituyente que revisaría la Constitución; d) miembros de los Colegios Electorales que elegirían posteriormente los Diputados y Senadores así como el Presidente de la República y el Vicepresidente, si la nueva reforma constitucional consignaba la restauración de este alto cargo" (pages 168-169). Describes the election and gives the results of each race (pages 169-175, pages 465-469).

Grullón 1999: "Una alianza entre el Partido Nacional y el Partido Progresista, llamada la Alianza Nacional Progresista, nominó a Horacio Vásquez como candidato a la presidencia...Otra alianza, entre el Partido Liberal y la Coalición Patriótica de Ciudadanos, nominó a Francisco J. Peynado como candidato presidencial por la Coalición Patriótica de Ciudadanos" (page 41). Gives results of each race (page 42). "La Alianza Nacional Progresista, con su candidato Horacio Vásquez, obtuvo 72,094 votos, que le dió derecho a 201 electores. La Coalición Patriótica de Ciudadanos, con su candidato Francisco J. Peynado, obtuvo 31,187 votos, para un total de 91 electores."

Haggerty 1991: "In the presidential election of March 15, 1924, Horacio Vásquez Lajara handily defeated Francisco J. Peynado. Vásquez's Alliance Party (Partido Alianza) also won a comfortable majority in both houses of Congress" (page 27).

Hartlyn 1998: "Under U.S. oversight, the old caudillo figure Horacio Vásquez won the March 1924 elections...Vásquez governed ineffectively and corruptly, dramatically expanding public employment and ultimately seeking unconstitutionally to prolong his term-he now did so in a country in which the United States had helped establish a relatively effective national military institution where one had previously not existed and in which traditional powerholders were weak" (page 38). "President Vásquez, elected for a four-year term in 1924, modified the constitution four times, arranging for his term in office to be extended an additional two years" (page 39).

Healy 1988: "Both presidential candidates in the 1924 Dominican election promised to maintain the nonpartisan character of the National Police, but the American departure in that year left no way to ensure that such promises were kept. The successful candidate, political veteran Horacio Vásquez, attempted to secure the organization's loyalty, but found in time that the man whom he had placed in command of it sought power for himself" (page 226).

Munro 1974: "Out of more than 100,000 votes, a far larger number than in any previous election, Vásquez received more than 71,000. Velásquez was elected to the vice presidency, though this office would not exist until a constitutional amendment created it. Contrary to expectations, the alliance obtained large majorities in both houses of Congress" (page 64).

Ramírez Morillo 1997: "La consulta electoral se celebró el 15 de marzo de 1924, en horas de 6:00 A.M. a 6:00 P.M., y ejercieron el voto 103,281 electores, el 70.15% de los inscritos" (page 41). "Horacio Vásquez fue candidato de una coalición que triunfó abrumadoramente en 10 provincias, empatando en una y sólo perdió en una" (page 42).

Rutinel Domínguez 2000: "Alianza Nacional Progresista: Coalición de los partidos horacista y velasquista, con fines a participar en las elecciones programadas para el 15 de marzo de 1924" (page 25).

Welles 1928: Describes candidates (pages 882-883, 892-894). "The day of the elections, March 15th, finally arrived" (pages 894-895). It "was found that the total number of votes cast was in the neighbourhood of 110,000, almost fifty per cent in excess of the votes cast in any previous election. The Alianza party elected 25 out of 31 members of the House of Deputies, and 10 out of 12 members of the National Senate" (page 895).

Wiarda 1992: "New elections were held in 1924, and aging General Vásquez, leader of the old Horacista faction, was elected president. Two months later, the U.S. flag was replaced by the Dominican tricolor, and that same year, the marines also left…The marines…left behind a national guard that would henceforth be the final arbiters of Dominican national politics and a young, streetwise lieutenant named Rafael Trujillo" (page 34).

June

Atkins 1998: "A special assembly then met and drafted a new constitution, completing its work in June" (page 58).

Grullón 1999: "La Alianza Nacional Progresista obtuvo 25 diputados y la Coalición Patriótica de Ciudadanos 8 diputados. En consequencia, la Asamblea Constituyente se reunió el 13 de junio de 1924, revisó la Constitución, estableció la vicepresidencia de la República y el período constitucional que era de seis años en las anteriores constituciones fue reducido a cuatro años" (page 42).

July

Atkins 1998: "Marine units began leaving immediately after the inauguration" (page 58).

Campillo Pérez 1986: "El 7 de Julio de 1924, la Asamblea Nacional proclamó oficialmente electos a Horacio Vásquez como Presidente y a Federico Velásquez como Vicepresidente" (page 175).

Ramírez Morillo 1997: "La actitud del Presidente Vásquez y sus seguidores fue lo que provocó el ascenso al poder de Rafael L. Trujillo, quien instauró una tiranía por 31 años, donde sería un sueño pensar en elecciones libres, pero que también significó la sepultura total del liderazgo caudillista que venía gravitando en el escenario desde la independencia misma de la República" (page 42).

Welles 1928: "On July 12, 1924, General Vasquez was inaugurated President of the Republic" (page 898).

September

Calder 1984: "The United States withdrew its forces from the Dominican Republic in September 1924. The primary cause of the withdrawal was a campaign waged by Dominican nationalists and their allies against the occupation" (page 182).

Herman 1984: "By the time U.S. troops withdrew in 1924, sugar companies owned a quarter of the agricultural area of the Dominican Republic. U.S. companies owned 81% of this total, Dominican companies only 3%" (page 19).

Kantor 1969: "(W)hen the United States troops left the country in 1924, they left behind a well-armed, well-trained force enjoying a monopoly of armaments and headed by a former gangster named Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina" (page 3).

Welles 1928: "The embarkation of the American Forces of Occupation, which had commenced in June, continued rapidly during the following weeks, and the last American marine left the Dominican Republic on September 18th" (pages 898-899).

December

Atkins 1998: "By 1924 the 'Policía Nacional Dominicana,' with its modernized and centralized force and the disarmed Dominican populace, had a monopoly over arms and munitions" (page 59). "In December [1924] President Vásquez promoted [Rafael Trujillo] to lieutenant colonel and assigned him as chief of staff of the National Police" (page 60).

1925

Hartlyn 1998: "Impressed by [Trujillo's] hard work and organizational skills, President Vásquez promoted him quickly to major and then to lieutenant colonel and chief of staff. In June 1925, Trujillo became a colonel and the head of the country's police force" (page 39).

1926

Munro 1974: "The contest between aspirants for the presidency for the next term began almost before Vásquez himself took office. Vice President Veláquez claimed that Vásquez had promised to support him in 1928 in return for the votes which he brought to the 'alianza' ticket in 1924…In 1926 there was a definite break and Velásquez' followers were removed from official positions. Political tension increased further when it became evident that José Dolores Alfonseca, and not Velásquez, would be the official candidate in 1928" (pages 294-295).

May

Campillo Pérez 1986a: "(C)omo la Constitución de ese entonces no disponía nada en particular sobre la composición de la Junta Central Electoral, una ley casi inmediata, la número 399 del 12 de Mayo de 1926, dispuso que la Junta Central Electoral se compondría de cinco jueces y sus respectivos sustitutos elegidos por el Senado por votación secreta. Es a partir de entonces cuando se le atribuye al Senado de la República el nombramiento de los miembros de la Junta Central Electoral" (page 45).

December

Moya Pons 1995: Provincial elections are held in December 1926 (page 344).

1927

April 1

Moya Pons 1995: On April 1, 1927 "elections had been held to elect deputies to the constituent assembly" (page 348).

April 7

Moya Pons 1995: "On April 7, 1927 several senators presented a bill to modify the constitution so as to extend the presidential term to August 16, 1930. This bill promptly passed in the Senate" (page 348).

May

Munro 1974: "To dispose of any doubts about the legality of the proposed extension, the Dominican Congress in May 1927 authorized the holding of a constituent assembly. Vice President Velásquez and his followers objected, and boycotted the election, but many more votes were cast, or at least counted, than in the hotly contested presidential election of 1924" (page 296).

June

Díaz Santana 1996: "Vásquez no podría resistir la tentación del continuismo y auspiciaría una nueva reforma constitucional para prolongar su período, de 1928 hasta 1930, con el argumento de que había sido electo bajo la Constitución de 1908 que fijaba en seis años el período gubernamental, aunque en 1924 otra reforma lo había reducido a cuatro" (page 53).

Moya Pons 1995: The constituent assembly "met on June 9 and by the 17th had prepared a new constitution extending the terms of the president and vice-president as well as of the Deputies who were slated to end their terms in August 1928" (page 348).

Munro 1974: "The assembly, which met in June, adopted a new constitution which extended the terms of the president and vice president to six years. The vice president, however, was to be considered as resigning if he did not take a new oath of office. This eliminated Velásquez, who could hardly take the oath when he denied the validity of the whole procedure" (page 296).

1928

February

Munro 1974: "In February 1928, Vásquez announced that he would continue as president until the end of the six-year term in 1930" (page 296).

May

Grullón 1999: "El 17 de mayo de 1928, la Policía Nacional Dominicana se transformó en el Ejército Nacional. Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina fue designado como su comandante en jefe" (page 43).

Hartlyn 1998: Trujillo "was named brigadier general, a promotion linked to the transformation of the police force into a national army, which took place in May 1928. In less than ten years, Trujillo emerged from being an obscure minor officer in a newly formed constabulary force to being the head of the country's army" (page 39).

August

Moya Pons 1995: On "August 16, 1928 [Velásquez] was replaced [as vice-president] by Dr. José Dolores Alfonseca, who also occupied the powerful position of president of the Junta Superior Directiva of the Partido Nacional" (page 348).

1929

June

Grullón 1999: "El 20 de junio de 1929, proclamaron la reforma constitucional, sin la participación de la oposición. Suprimieron la no reelección y establecieron que el Secretario de Interior y Policía, a falta del presidente y vicepresidente de la República, cubriría la vacante presidencial" (page 45).

Munro 1974: "When a constituent assembly was elected in June 1929, few people bothered to vote and in many places the votes were not even counted. The assembly eliminated the constitutional prohibition against the reelection of a president" (page 297).

October

Díaz Santana 1996: "No satisfecho con haberse prolongado inconstitucionalmente en el poder, Horacio Vásquez, anciano, enfermo y cansado, lanzó de nuevo su candidatura presidencial, en octubre de 1929, para los comicios que debían celebrarse el año siguiente. Fue la coyuntura que necesitaban los emergentes trujillistas para levantar su 'Movimiento Cívico' el 23 de febrero de 1930 y proclamar la destitución del gobierno" (page 53).

Galíndez 1973: "President Horacio Vásquez went to the United States on October 31, 1929, for surgery" (page 11).

Munro 1974: In "October Vásquez publicly announced that he would again be a candidate" (page 297).

1930

Atkins 1986: "American intentions that the Dominican armed service would protect constitutional government were frustrated...when, in the context of the 1930 elections, General Rafael Leonidas Truijillo Molina used his position as head of the army to overthrow the president and maneuver himself into power" (pages 6-7).

Langley 1989: Describes the situation leading to the overthrow of Vásquez (pages 116-117).

Wiarda 1992: "The fragility of democracy in the Dominican Republic was revealed in 1930 when a revolution was launched from Santiago against the Vásquez government. Rather than defending the government,…[Trujillo] instead gave arms to the rebels and assured them he would not block their advance…After Vásquez had been toppled, Trujillo convinced the rebels to lay down their arms…He now 'convinced' [the rebel leader, Rafael Estrella UreZa], to run for the vice presidency" (page 34). "Trujillo's military henchmen used intimidation tactics on the citizenry, and the electoral machinery was taken over by Trujillo" (page 35).

January

Galíndez 1973: "On January 6, 1930, [President Vásquez] returned to the Dominican Republic" (page 11).

February

Atkins 1981: "In February 1930, General Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, head of the army, conspired to overthrow the president. Using military force and duplicity, Trujillo ensured Vásquez' overthrow by a civilian revolutionary group and then maneuvered himself into the presidency" (page 8).

Atkins 1998: "On 23 February 1930, just three months before the elections, an insurgent movement disgruntled with the president's maneuvering was initiated in the northern city of Santiago de los Caballeros. Little more than a week later, the revolutionaries succeeded in overthrowing Vásquez, who was then seventy years old...Rafael Estrella Ureña, the young lawyer who led the uprising, was named to act as provisional president pending the scheduled elections" (page 60).

Munro 1974: "On February 23 armed partisans of Estrella Ureña, seized the fort at the important northern city of Santiago. It was learned later that Trujillo had ordered the garrison not to resist, and had sent arms from the capital to fall into the rebels' hands" (page 298). "Vásquez resigned, after appointing Estrella Ureña minister of the interior so that he took over as provisional president under the constitution" (page 299).

March 2

Galíndez 1973: "On March 2, 1930, Horacio Vásquez resigned as president of the Dominican Republic, and Rafael Estrella Ureña took the oath as provisional president, having been the victorious leader of a revolutionary movement which started in Santiago on February 22...The authors of the opposition affirm without hesitation that Trujillo was in fact the directing brain of the revolution and that his behavior was a model of treason" (pages 10-11).

March 3

Grullón 1999: "El 3 de marzo de 1930, Rafael Estrella Ureña fue investido como Presidente interino de la República. Se comprometió a celebrar elecciones libres" (page 49).

March 17

Campillo Pérez 1986: "El 17 de Marzo de 1930, dos semanas después de la 'revolución' varios partidos hicieron como suya la fórmula Rafael L. Trujillo Molina, Presidente; Rafael Estrella Ureña, Vicepresidente. Suscribían tal nominación los Partidos Republicano, Liberal, Coalición Patriótica de Ciudadanos, Obrero Independiente, Nacionalista y Unión Nacional, este último de reciente creación" (page 184).

Grullón 1999: "El 17 de marzo, [varios] partidos...formaron una coalición que se llamó 'Confederación de Partidos'" (page 49).

March 18

Galíndez 1973: "General Trujillo was proclaimed on March 18 as a presidential candidate" (page 11).

April

Galíndez 1973: "The electoral campaign officially began in April. Seven parties were officially recognized: National, Progressive, Patriotic Coalition of Citizens, Liberal, Republican, Nationalist, and Independent Workers" (page 17). "On April 21 [Estrella Ureña] had withdrawn from the presidency in order to devote himself to the election campaign. According to the Constitution, the secretary of interior and police, Lic. Jacinto B. Peynado, trusted man of Trujillo, took over the presidency" (page 18).

Grullón 1999: "El 24 de abril de 1930, Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina aceptó su postulación...Las hordas de Trujillo provocaron el retiro de la Alianza Nacional Progresista, cuyos dirigentes, en su mayoría, tuvieron que esconderse" (page 49).

May 7

Galíndez 1973: "The Central Electoral Board, whose members had been appointed by common agreement of all parties, decided to act: 'The Central Electoral Board requests that the Army be restricted to the barracks and the searching of individuals be ended.' The request was obviously fruitless because on May 2 the resignation of the chairman of the board was announced; on the seventh, it was announced that the entire board had resigned. The government responded by appointing immediately another board, which supervised the elections one week later" (page 17).

Moya Pons 1995: "Confronted with military violence, the Junta Central Electoral resigned on May 7, and it was soon replaced by members favoring the candidacy of Trujillo and Estrella Ureña" (page 355).

May 15

Moya Pons 1995: The "Alianza Nacional Progresista finally announced on May 15, the eve of the election day, that it was withdrawing from the elections since there were no guarantees of a free vote" (page 356).

Munro 1974: "As the election approached, Vásquez' followers joined with the 'progresistas' in nominating Velásquez for president and Angel Morales for vice president…To comply with the law, Trujillo ostensibly went on leave and Estrella turned over the provisional presidency to Jacinto Peynado. It soon became clear that the army would not permit a free election, and before the voting Velásquez and his followers withdrew from the contest" (pages 300-301).

May 16: presidential election (Trujillo)

Atkins 1998: "To the surprise of no one...Trujillo sought (and obtained) the presidency. Trujillo was elected through coercive campaign techniques and fraudulent electoral procedures" (page 62).

Campillo Pérez 1986: "Las 'elecciones libres' a las cuales concurrieron Trujillo y Estrella Ureña, fueron un verdadero acto de imposición. Sin embargo muchos sectores se resistieron a hacerle el juego a esta farsa y prefirieron quedarse en su casa. La abstención se manifestó evidente y un 45.32% de los sufragantes inscritos, no fueron a las urnas" (page 186). Gives the results (pages 186, 471, 473-474).

Galíndez 1973: "Trujillo was not only elected president but he was also able to eliminate all opposition" (page 18). "The new central electoral board certified the results: 412,711 voters were registered, of whom 225,614 voted, which means 55 percent of the total; of those votes, 223,731 were in favor and only 1,883 were against, which means 99 percent to 1 percent...(I)n 1930, at least, it was admitted that 45 percent of the electorate had abstained and 1 percent of the votes were against. This is the last time such an admission occurs in the Dominican Republic" (page 19). The editor notes "the United States minister, Curtis, expressed a much harder opinion of these elections in his report to the Department of State on May 19:...'As the number given greatly exceeds the total number of voters in the country, further comment on the fairness of the elections hardly seems necessary; however, there is every reason to believe that, as anticipated by the Legation, the intimidation of the followers of the opposition had already been so great prior to the day of the elections that none was needed, and it would seem that none was practiced, on the day of the elections, in order to keep them away from the polls'" (page 19). "The results of the 1930 elections were published in the 'Official Gazette,' No. 4257 on June 13" (page 96). Discusses the election (page 97).

Grullón 1999: "La farsa electoral celebrada el 16 de mayo de 1930, arrojó los siguientes 'resultados': 412,931 electores inscritos. Votaron 225,796. Se abstuvieron 187,135 electores. El binomio Trujillo-Estrella Ureña obtuvo 223,926 votos a favor y 1,870 votos en contra" (page 50).

Haggerty 1991: "As events unfolded, it became clear that Trujillo would be the only candidate that the army would permit to participate; army personnel harassed and intimidated electoral officials and eliminated potential opponents. A dazed nation stood by as the new dictator announced his election with 95 percent of the vote" (page 28).

Hartlyn 1998: "Two political groups emerged for the elections, one with Trujillo and Estrella UreZa as presidential and vice presidential candidates respectively. The army was employed almost a as private instrument of repression by Trujillo, leading the JCE to resign some nine days before the elections and the other party to withdraw the day before. Official results gave Trujillo the victory by a 99 percent margin and admitted to a 45 percent abstention rate. Following the election, Trujillo sought to reassure the U.S. legation that he would seek its guidance and counsel" (page 40).

Hartlyn 1998a: "Trujillo apparently surmised (correctly, as it turned out) that the United States might accept a government he headed if it appeared to come to power through elections, even questionable ones, although an outright coup d'état would be unacceptable. In spite of opposition from the U.S. minister at the time, it is also apparent that Trujillo's takeover of power was viewed favorably by his friends within the U.S. marines" (pages 91-92).

Langley 1989: "When the elections were held, the national guard supervised the balloting, and Trujillo won handily" (page 117).

Moya Pons 1995: "The elections were held as planned..., but with the sole candidacy of Trujillo and Estrella Ureña who supposedly received 45 percent of the votes of the registered voters. Despite the protests of the Alianza Nacional Progresista and of the newspapers, the Junta Central Electoral recognized the validity of the elections on May 24, and proclaimed Trujillo and Estrella Ureña as President and vice-president of the Republic" (page 356).

McDonald 1989: "Trujillo was careful to go through the ritual of holding elections at the constitutionally prescribed intervals, from 1930 to 1942 every four years, and from 1942 to 1957 every five years" (page 325).

Wiarda 1992: Trujillo "won the 1930 presidential election with more votes than there were eligible voters" (page 35).

August

Atkins 1981: "Trujillo established Latin America's most throughgoing dictatorship. He completely dominated national life, controlling government machinery, political processes, the armed forces, economic affairs, education, the Church, and communications media. No opposition was allowed...Dominican armed forces remained the ultimate basis of Trujillo's power. He had a monopoly of military capability, dominating it absolutely and using it to crush any opposition. The army and old elites were mutually hostile and old families continued to have no part in military affairs" (page 9).

Galíndez 1973: "In 1930, when Trujillo rose to power, there were at least seven political parties in the Dominican Republic. Two of them formed the National-Progressive Alliance, backing the candidacy of Federico Velásquez and Angel Morales; the remaining parties united in the Confederation of Parties backing the candidacy of Trujillo and Estrella Ureña. During the pre-electoral months after the coup of February, an eighth party was organized under the name of National Union, formed by members of the ousted Vásquez administration who decided to collaborate with the new regime" (page 143). "All these political parties rapidly disappeared as soon as Trujillo came to power. The first victims were the two parties of the opposition, destroyed between May and August, 1930. But immediately afterward, the parties which backed Trujillo in the elections of May 16, 1930, were also eliminated" (page 144).

Kantor 1969: "The rise of Trujillo marked a change in the composition of the ruling class in the Dominican Republic and the creation of America's first totalitarian state...Trujillo ...set up a system of government encompassing every aspect of life...(I)t was a one-man dictatorship which operated to make Trujillo one of the world's richest men and to prevent development toward a stable political system" (page 3). "Trujillo's dictatorship rested on his control of the three most important centers of power in the country: the armed forces, the government, and the economy. Most important, of course, to Trujillo's maintaining his control of the country were the armed forces, which served as the tool he used to rise to power originally and remained the ultimate source of his authority until his death. The armed forces were the largest of any country in the Caribbean area at the time, but were used only as an army of occupation within the country...No political parties were permitted to function in the country, and there was a constant fluctuation of personnel as Trujillo rotated officials so that no one could build up any kind of independent power base" (page 4).

Moya Pons 1995: "On August 16, 1930, Rafael Trujillo and Rafael Estrella Ureña officially took office as president and vice-president of the Republic to the consternation of the majority of the people" (page 356).

September

Grullón 1999: "El 3 de septiembre de 1930, el ciclón denominado San Zenón azotó la ciudad de Santo Domingo...[Trujillo] aprovechó la tragedia del ciclón y se deshizo del vicepresidente Rafael Estrella Ureña, acusándolo de conspirador" (page 51).

November

Galíndez 1973: "The first news of the new personal party appeared ...on November 20, 1930, in a 'Proclamation by the Provisional Organizing Committee of the Party of President Trujillo'" (page 20).

1931

Valdés 2000: "1931: Nace Acción Feminista Dominicana...Su acción estuvo ligada al apoyo al gobierno dictatorial de Trujillo" (Anexo: La lucha por la ciudadanía femenina: República Dominicana).

August

Alexander 1973: The Partido Dominicano "continued to exist until some months after the assassination of Trujillo in May 1961. During most of this 29-year period, the Partido Dominicano was the only party in the Dominican Republic. All public officials, whether formally 'elected' or appointed, belonged to it" (page 7).

Betances 1995a: Trujillo "remained aware…that a leader cannot rule by force alone and therefore created the Partido Dominicano to 'encourage' the Dominican people to accept and support his regime. The party's main function consisted in securing nation-wide support for his electoral campaigns. It staged elections and ensured that the official candidate (most often Trujillo but sometimes a surrogate) won by a landslide" (pages 6-7).

Black 1986: "The Partido Dominicano (PD), which Trujillo founded in 1931, was the only party allowed to function until 1947...The party was funded, in part, by automatic 10 percent deductions from the salaries of all government employees" (page 26).

Conaghan 1994: "Trujillo created an electoral vehicle-the Dominican Party-to be used periodically to legitimate his power. He maintained extensive personal control of both the polity and the economy; elections were only designed to organise the population in support of the dictatorship" (page 331).

Duff 1985: "Rafael Trujillo and the Dominican Party" (pages 48-62).

Galíndez 1973: On "August 16, 1931, on the occasion of the first anniversary of the new government, the new 'Party of General Trujillo' was officially constituted. The confederation of parties which elected Trujillo was broken up permanently during that nine months" (page 20).

Hartlyn 1998a: "In 1931 [Trujillo] took the critical step of creating the Dominican Party, funded by a 10 percent deduction from its members' paychecks, with all decision making concentrated directly in his hands…Other parties were forced to disband" (page 93).

Sagás 2000: "No institution played a larger role in the propaganda efforts of the Trujillo regime than the Partido Dominicano (PD)...As part of its mission, the PD propagated antihaitianismo ideology throughout the country" (page 60).

December

Grullón 1999: "El Congreso Nacional declaró vacante la vicepresidencia de la República el 7 de diciembre de 1931" (page 51).

1932

Galíndez 1973: "On March 11, 1932, the new [Dominican] party was officially registered with the central electoral board" (page 148). "Structure and ideology of the Dominican party" (pages 148-155).

1933

Cordero 1991: "(E)l 15 de julio de 1933, [Trujillo]...hizo promesas venturosas y participó que en las elecciones de mayo de 1934, a manera de ensayo, depositaría su voto la mujer dominicana, en las urnas electorales" (page 115).

Grullón 1999: "Para 1933, ya el gobierno de Trujillo había eliminado fisicamente a sus principales opositores" (page 51).

1934

Hartlyn 1998a: "By 1934 Trujillo had imposed a series of monopolies on salt, meat, and rice and taken other steps that made him the country's richest man, foreshadowing the incredible concentration of wealth that he would build over the next three decades" (page 94).

May 16: election (Trujillo / PD)

Campillo Pérez 1986: "El Partido Dominicano concurrió por primera vez a la 'arena electoral' el 16 de Mayo de 1934, presentando candidaturas para cargos nacionales, provinciales y municipales" (page 198). Describes election and gives results (pages 198-199, 471).

Galíndez 1973: "Of course, there was never a thought of presenting any other slate than that of the Dominican party. A total of 286,937 voters were registered, and according to the official report, 256,423 voted in favor of Trujillo and all the names on the slate, including senators, deputies, governors, mayors, and councilmen. Other elections were simultaneously held for delegates to the constituent assembly called one month earlier to amend the Constitution" (page 27). "The results of the 1934 elections were published in the 'Official Gazette,' No. 4684 of May 29. This time the certificate of the electoral board was much simpler than in 1930 because it did not announce one single vote against; all the votes cast were in favor of the candidates presented by the Dominican party (the only one entered in the elections, and the only one existing in the country)" (page 97). "Moreover, 100 percent of the votes were cast in favor of the whole list of candidates, including president, congressmen, governors, and councilmen" (page 98). "In 1934 the [constituent assembly] elections took place simultaneously with the general elections of that year; the results were published in the 'Official Gazette,' No. 4682 on May 25; these results were 100 percent unanimous and were identical" (page 99).

Hartlyn 1998: "With other parties abolished, Trujillo easily gained reelection in 1934. Officially, his party received 100 percent of all votes cast" (page 43).

Valdés 2000: "1934: Trujillo hace votar a las mujeres por su reelección. Sin embargo, la votación femenina es solo a modo de ensayo, y sus votos no tienen validez" (Anexo: La lucha por la ciudadanía femenina: República Dominicana).

June

Galíndez 1973: "The assembly met on June 5 and ended its work on the ninth. That same day the new constitution of the Dominican Republic was proclaimed, the twenty-third in its history" (pages 27-28).

August

Galíndez 1973: Trujillo is inaugurated on August 16 (page 28).

1936

Atkins 1981: "In 1936 [Trujillo] changed the name of the capital city of Santo Domingo, the oldest city in the Americas, to Ciudad Trujillo" (page 9).

Nickson 1995: "In 1936 Santo Domingo was declared a national district, and its elected municipal authorities were replaced by an administrative committee whose members were appointed by the president" (page 163).

1937

Betances 1995: "Late in September 1937, Trujillo visited the border city of Dajabón and accused Haitian peasants of stealing Dominican cattle. On 1 and 2 October Dominican troops killed more than twelve thousand Haitian peasants. At first Trujillo denied any government participation in the 'incidents' and attempted to cover up the massacre by calling it a 'fight' over livestock between Dominican and Haitian peasants" (page 98).

Haggerty 1991: "In October 1937, Trujillo ordered the massacre of Haitians living in the Dominican Republic in retaliation for the discovery and execution by the Haitian government of his most valued covert agents in that country" (page 30).

Sagás 2000: "In October of 1937, Trujillo ordered the assassination of Haitians residing in the Dominican Republic. Estimates of the number of dead range from 1,000 to 35,000...This repression was Trujillo's draconian way of securing his domains and eliminating what he considered a pernicious influence on the Dominican nation" (page 46). "After the 1937 massacre, the Trujillo regime took steps to thoroughly Dominicanize the border region" (page 57).

1938

February

Galíndez 1973: "The proclamation of the two candidates for the presidential term of 1938-42 was made on February 28 by the national convention of the Dominican party" (page 38).

March

Cordero 1991: "(E)l primero de marzo de 1938...un grupo de mujeres...constituyó el 'Comité Nacional Femenino pro Voto Electoral Trujillista'" (page 116).

May 16: election (Peynado / PD)

Campillo Pérez 1986: Gives the results of the election (page 471).

Galíndez 1973: "Peynado was elected president of the Republic, and Troncoso de la Concha, vice-president. This time it was not Trujillo's play. It seems that the reason that could not be made public was that the United States Department of State had expressed a certain veto towards the man responsible for the massacre of the Haitians...(T)he 'Official Gazette' on June 6 published the results: 319,680 had voted of the 348,010 registered electors; all the candidates received 100 percent of the votes cast" (page 38). "The results of the 1938 elections were printed in the 'Official Gazette,' No. 5180 of June 6...91.85 percent of eligible voters cast their votes" (page 98).

Grullón 1999: "El Partido Dominicano, el único que participó en las elecciones, obtuvo en la farsa electoral 319,680 votos, sin ningún voto en contra" (page 53).

Hartlyn 1998: "Trujillo stepped aside in 1938 and allowed his vice president, Jacinto Peynado, to be elected president. Once again, only one party presented candidates, and it received 100 percent of votes cast" (page 43).

Moya Pons 1995: "Although there were no legal provisions against the indefinite reelection of the president, he stepped out [in 1938] and sponsored the election of Jacinto B. Peynado, the man who until then had been his vice-president" (page 370).

Valdés 2000: "1938: Trujillo nuevamente hace participar a la población femenina en su reelección, a modo de ensayo, para concederles el derecho a sufragio. Se forma para esta ocasión el 'Comité Nacional Femenino Pro Voto Electoral Trujillista'" (Anexo: La lucha por la ciudadanía femenina: República Dominicana).

August

Galíndez 1973: "On August 16, 1938, the new president of the Republic, Lic. Jacinto B. Peynado, took the oath of office. But the Benefactor continued in command" (page 39).

1939

Alexander 1973: "The Partido Revolucionario Dominicano had its origins in the struggle against the 31-year dictatorship of…Trujillo. The founder of the party, Juan Bosch, was one of the early exiles of this regime, leaving the country in 1935. Soon thereafter he took the lead in organizing the PRD, which remained for almost a generation the most important group of émigré Dominicans carrying on the struggle against…the dictatorship" (page 290).

McDonald 1989: "The earliest of the anti-Trujillo exile organizations was the Dominican Revolutionary party (PRD), which was founded in 1939 by Juan Bosch" (page 326).

1940

Galíndez 1973: "The feminist movement was organized as a branch of the Trujillist party at the end of 1940...In 1940, equality of civil rights was granted to women" (page 177).

Valdés 2000: "1940: La votación femenina masiva de 1938 lleva a Trujillo a concederle el voto a la mujer casada" (Anexo: La lucha por la ciudadanía femenina: República Dominicana).

March

Hartlyn 1998: When president "Peynado died in 1940, his term was completed by the vice president, Manuel de Jesús Troncoso de la Concha" (page 43).

Ventura 1985: President Peynado dies on March 7, 1940 (page 61).

August

Galíndez 1973: "The idea [for the Trujillista party] was launched on October 14, 1940...(T)he new party would act within the Dominican party and follow its structure and discipline...Trujillo...was named...as 'Supreme Chief of the Trujillista Party'" (page 145).

1941

June

Campillo Pérez 1986: "El 5 de Junio de 1941, Trujillo dirigió un mensaje a la mujer dominicana, anunciándole sus intenciones de patrocinar el sufragio femenino. Meses antes había obtenido del Congreso la aprobación de una legislación que concedió a la mujer el ejercicio de sus derechos civiles" (page 200).

Galíndez 1973: "At the end of June, a feminist campaign began, which was related to the new constitutional reform already in preparation and to be revealed at the end of the year" (page 49).

September

Galíndez 1973: "In September, 1941, the constitutional reform was revived. A public poll about the possible suppression of the vice-presidency received a large favorable majority" (page 49).

October

Galíndez 1973: "On October 6 Trujillo...addressed a message to several congressmen proposing to them a number of constitutional amendments, among them the granting of equal political rights to women, the suppression of the vice-presidency, [and] the extension of the presidential term...The Senate and the Chamber approved these reforms...On October 24...the president of the Dominican party proposed the presidential candidacy of Trujillo for the next term, beginning in 1942" (page 49).

December

Galíndez 1973: "Elections for members of the Constituent Assembly were held on December 16, 1941. The Assembly met on December 27 and decided at once that it should constitute itself as a general committee" (page 87). "In 1941, the constituent assembly elections were held five months before the regular elections of 1942, and the number of electors was slightly smaller because women did not yet vote. The 'Official Gazette,' No. 5683 on December 20 announced a total of 361,463 votes, all in favor of the Dominican party" (page 99).

1942

January

Campillo Pérez 1986: "La reforma constitucional del 10 de Enero de 1942 acogió la sugerencia del Generalísimo y las mujeres quedaron en condiciones de concurrir a las urnas en el próximo proceso…La misma reforma suprimió la Vicepresidencia de la República y extendió el mandato presidencial a cinco años" (page 200).

Galíndez 1973: "The twenty-fourth constitution of the Dominican Republic was proclaimed on January 10, 1942. The vice-presidency of the Republic had disappeared; according to the new constitution, a vacancy in the presidency would be filled by the secretary of war and navy. A decree on January 2, 1942, had appointed Major General Héctor B. Trujillo as secretary of war and navy and commander-in-chief of the national army" (page 50). A "substantial amendment, which had had its beginnings some time before, was the concession of equal political rights to women" (page 88). Governors "are freely appointed and dismissed by the president of the Republic. Before the constitutional reform of 1942, however,...the governors were elected by the respective provinces" (page 96).

Valdés 2000: "1942: Se consagra el derecho a voto de la mujer, mediante una reforma constitucional" (Anexo: La lucha por la ciudadanía femenina: República Dominicana).

February

Galíndez 1973: In February, "the electoral machine began to operate. The new Trujillista party was registered. On the fifteenth, Generalissimo Trujillo was officially proclaimed as the presidential candidate of the Dominican party; at once the Trujillista party made him its candidate" (page 50).

March

Galíndez 1973: "On March 12, 1942, the [Trujillista] party presented a list of candidates identical to that submitted ten days before by the Dominican party" (pages 145-146).

May 15

Galíndez 1973: To allow for Rafael Trujillo to assume the presidency immediately after the election, Héctor Trujillo as "the secretary of war and navy offered his resignation, to be effective on May 15, the day before the elections" (page 51).

May 16: election (Trujillo /PD)

Campillo Pérez 1986: "Trujillo concurrió como 'candidato único' postulado por el Partido Dominicano con la adhesión del nuevo Partido Trujillista, surgido de las aulas universitarias, y que era una seudo-asociación destinada a exaltar una vez más la 'personalidad de Trujillo' entre la gente joven. El balotaje final dio 581,937 votos, aumentando como se esperaba, con el voto femenino" (page 200). "En estas elecciones, fue 'elegida' por primera vez, una mujer para el cargo de Senadora" (page 201).

Galíndez 1973: "The elections took place on May 16; the 'Official Gazette' the next day published the results...Trujillo had been elected president for a third term; and his inauguration, according to the Constitution, was to be on August 16. "In the elections of May, 1942, women voted for the first time; at the same time three congresswomen were elected" (page 177).

Grullón 1999: "Una reforma constitucional eliminó la vicepresidencia de la República e incluyó el voto de la mujer. La farsa electoral del 16 de mayo de 1942 arrojó 581,937 votos en favor del candidato del Partido Dominicano, Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina. Ningún voto en contra" (page 53).

Hartlyn 1998: "Trujillo was elected to a third (five-year) term in 1942 as two parties went to the polls with exactly the same lists, the PD and the Trujillista party" (pages 43-44).

May 17

Galíndez 1973: On "May 17, President Troncoso, using the previous resignation of Héctor B. Trujillo, appointed Generalissimo Trujillo as the new secretary of war and navy" (pages 51-52). "The results of the 1942 elections were published in the 'Official Gazette,' No. 5749 of May 17, the day following the elections...This year, two parties officially went to the polls, although their lists were exactly the same, the Dominican party and the Trujillista party...The total of votes announced for the whole Republic was 581,937; the increase over 1938 was due to the fact that this time women voted" (page 98).

May 18

Galíndez 1973: "'La Nación' on the eighteenth announced that on the same day President Troncoso would resign. That happened in a session of the National Assembly...Trujillo took over; on the same day, his Decree No. 1 reappointed his brother Héctor as secretary of war and navy" (pages 51-52).

Ventura 1985: Trujillo assumes the presidency on May 18 (page 64).

June

Galíndez 1973: "The Trujillista party faded away [after the election]. For a time, its feminine branch remained, but it was attached to the Dominican party in June, 1942" (page 146).

August

Galíndez 1973: "On August 16, 1942, Trujillo again took the oath as president in the presence of many foreign special missions, although he had already held the office for three months" (page 52).

December 16: election

Galíndez 1973: "(T)he partial elections, held on December 16, [1942] gave the traditional 100 percent in favor of the Dominican party" (page 53).

1944

February

Cedeño 1991: The Partido Democrático Revolucionario Dominicano (PDRD) is founded on February 27, 1944 (pages 184-185).

March

Galíndez 1973: "At the beginning of March, the disappearance of the feminine branch of the Trujillista party, until then a part of the Dominican party, was decreed. From then on, there was only one party again, the Dominican party, of which the women's group became merely a section" (page 54).