Information Covering More Than One Election

Abad 1993: For 1888, when this book was originally published, describes the "Poder Legislativo" (pages 146-147), the "Poder Ejecutivo" (page 147), elections (page 147), and provincial and municipal organization (pages 149-152).

Agosto 2001: "Desde el inicio de la transición democrática en el año 1978 la distribución del voto posibilitó el bipartidismo polarizado entre el Partido Revolucionario Dominicano y el Partido Reformista Social Cristiano, pero a mediados de la década de 1980, y debido a las grandes deficiencias de los dos gobiernos del PRD (del 1978 al 1986) el Partido de la Liberación Dominicana se posicionó como una alternativa más de poder ampliando el espectro partidista. Los tres partidos alcanzaron la Presidencia de la República y han tenido representación en el ámbito parlamentario y local. Existe además una variedad de pequeños partidos, algunos de los cuales, en alianza con los mayoritarios, obtuvieron representación congresional y municipal. En la actualidad el PRD, el PLD y el PRSC suman más del noventa por ciento de las preferencias del electorado" (page 617). "Las crisis electorales…fueron una constante en el proceso político…Esta situación fue medianamente transformada mediante la Reforma Constitucional de 1994 y las posteriores reformas electorales de 1995, 1997 y 2000" (page 618). Describes the major changes introduced by these reforms (pages 618-620). "Partido Revolucionario Dominicano" (pages 621-649). Includes statistics and results of presidential, legislative, and municipal elections from 1978-2000. "Partido Reformista Social Cristiano" (pages 649-671). Includes statistics and results of presidential, legislative, and municipal elections from 1978-2000. "Partido de la Liberación Dominicana" (pages 672-695). Includes statistics and results of presidential, legislative, and municipal elections from 1978-2000.

Alcántara Sáez 1999: "Evolución porcentual de las elecciones legislativas" (page 422). Covers elections from 1978 to 1998. "Resultado de las elecciones presidenciales" (pages 423-426). Covers elections from 1978 to 1996. "El régimen político" (pages 429-435). "El comportamiento político" (pages 435-441).

Bell 1981: "Political structure" (pages 199-247).

Betances 1995: "The difficulties of state formation during the time period from independence in 1844 until the 1880s can only be understood in the framework of fragmentation of the Dominican economy and the social composition of the dominant blocs. The struggles between the emerging agrarian and commercial bourgeoisie of the Cibao region and the declining 'hateros' (ranchers) and timber exporters of the eastern and southern regions, respectively, precluded the forging of a unified pact of social domination that could serve as the foundation for a national government" (page 9). "Early on in its development, the military apparatus became the strongest branch of the evolving Dominican state. The military leadership of the caudillos obstructed the development of the liberal state and created an enduring legacy of authoritarianism...The army, strictly controlled by caudillos, should not be thought of as a modern regular army. Although it had officers and enlisted men, it was a political and military organization that basically responded to a single chief-Santana" (page 20). "Traditionally [the Partido Azul and Partido Rojo] have been depicted as polar opposites ideologically, with the Azules ostensibly following the liberal ideas of Juan Pablo Duarte and the Trinitarios, and the Rojos emphasizing annexation" (page 57). Discusses the two parties (pages 58-60).

Black 1986: "The structure of government" (pages 75-91). Describes the executive, the legislature, provincial and local government, the electoral system, and the contemporary party system. "The legislature, or Congress, is bicameral, consisting of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Members of both chambers are elected directly for 4-year terms, coinciding with presidential terms" (page 77). "Each of the country's 26 provinces is headed by a governor appointed by the president. There are no provincial legislatures, and provincial governments have little independence from the central government...The provinces are subdivided into 96 municipalities ('municipios'), equivalent to townships or counties, embracing a central town and its outlying villages. Municipal mayors and councillors are elected by direct vote every 4 years" (page 79).

Brea 1999: "Distribución de cargos congresionales, presidenciales y municipales según sexo y año de elección" (page 91). For elections from 1982-1998.

Brea Franco 1984: Describes in detail the electoral system in the Dominican Republic.

Brea Franco 1986: "A nivel local existen los municipios gobernados por un ayuntamiento con un síndico como funcionario ejecutivo y un número de regidores proporcional a la población con funciones deliberantes. El síndico es elegido por mayoría relativa y los regidores con la fórmula proporcional ya mencionada" (page 238). Describes problems with the process used to assign seats in congress (pages 239-240). "Organización constitucional" (page 246). "El pasado electoral (1961-1985)" (pages 246-247). "Número de cargos" (page 254). For years 1978-1990. "Población total, electores potenciales y censo electoral" (pages 254-255). For years 1978-1986. "Mesas electorales por zonas y electores promedio por mesa" (pages 255). For years 1978-1986. "Provincias con mayor concentración de electores" (page 255). "Sufragantes, votos válidos, nulos y no votantes" (page 258). For years 1978-1986.

Campillo Pérez 1986: "Sistemas electorales" (pages 331-349). "La ciudadanía y el sufragio" (pages 350-363). "Las autoridades electorales" (pages 364-384). "La democracia representativa" (pages 385-417). "Historia estadistica" (pages 419-533). This section has detailed statistics for most elections.

Campillo Pérez 1986a: This is a brief history of electoral legislation in the Dominican Republic. "(D)urante la 'Era de Trujillo', la Junta Central Electoral era un organismo de 'mentirillas'…que en el fondo venía a constituir el departamento electoral del Partido Dominicano, entidad política que correspondía al sistema del partido único. De ese modo la Junta daba el toque legalista indispensable a aquellas votaciones carentes de voluntad popular que se efectuaron durante tan largo período" (page 46).

Carey 1997: Gives information on executive election, presidential term, assembly terms, election timing, and referendum (pages 449-450).

Castillo 1982: Discusses and compares the elections of 1978 and 1982.

Cedeño 1991: Has a section on each of the major parties (pages 135-198). "La evolución del voto en la República Dominicana" (pages 199-212). Covers elections from 1962 to 1990. "Cartografía electoral" (pages 213-238).

Collado 1992: "Comportamiento electoral 1962-1982" (page 11). "Votación urbana-rural PRSC-PRD-PLD 1978-1982" (page 19).

Collado 1994: "Mesas y delegados electorales paso a paso" (pages 34-36). Detailed description of electoral process.

Collado 1999: "Constituciones aprobadas, 1844-1994" (page 36). "Congresos o asambleas modificadoras de la constitución" (page 39). "Número de diputados constituyentes y circunscripciones utilizadas" (page 41). "Las constituyentes y sus calendarios" (page 43).

Contreras 1986: Includes detailed statistics on all aspects of elections from 1962-1982.

Cordero 1996: "In the Dominican Republic, women's presence in parliament has not yet reached a critical mass. In 1978, women represented 11.8 percent; 6.1 percent in 1982; 6.6 percent in 1986; and 9.3 percent in 1990 and 1994. The situation is even more dramatic at the local level, where there are few female city officials and equally few councilwomen…In addition, women are considered primarily responsible for their political marginalization. The empirical data seem to corroborate this view, thereby legitimizing the exclusion; women show greater electoral abstinence, less participation in formal political organizations, absence from public debates, and so on. In order to dispute this view, one must point to the social inequities of gender in favouring male primacy in public spaces" (page 32).

Country profile. Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico 1995-96: "Under the constitution of November 28, 1966, executive power is vested in the president, who is elected by direct vote for a four-year term...The legislature consists of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies, elected for four years. The Senate has 30 members, one for each of the 29 provinces and the 'Distrito Nacional,' covering the Santo Domingo area. The Chamber of Deputies has one member for every 50,000 inhabitants (and fraction over 25,000) in each province and the 'Distrito Nacional'...Presidential and legislative elections take place on a fixed date, May 16, with the inauguration of the new president and Congress following on August 16. The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies normally sit for two 90-day sessions starting on February 27 and August 16. Elected councils carry out local government functions in the 'Distrito Nacional' and municipalities. Each province has a civil governor, appointed by the president" (page 7).

Country profile. Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico 2001: "Legislative election results, 1994 and 1998" (page 9).

Díaz Santana 1983: "Dominican governments from the death of Trujillo 1961 to the revolution of 1965" (pages 13-14). "Dominican governments from 25 April 1965 to 1 July 1966" (pages 16-17). "Parties, number of votes and percentages of votes in the elections of 1966-1978" (pages 31-33).

Díaz Santana 1996: "Una historia de farsas electorales" (pages 49-71). "La primera constitución estableció un sistema de elección indirecta que prevaleció hasta 1858, cuando en la 'Constitución de Moca' se consagró el voto directo, que tendría una efímera vigencia. Ambos sistemas fueron alternados hasta la revisión de 1924, que estableció el voto directo y desde entonces ha predominado en nuestra Carta Magna. Quince de las elecciones fueron por voto indirecto, y desde 1924, se han celebrado 25 por voto directo. El voto verdaderamente universal no tuvo vigencia hasta las elecciones de 1942, casi en el centenario de la República, tras la reforma constitucional que reconoció el derecho de las ciudadanas al sufragio" (page 51).

Hartlyn 1995: "Resultados oficiales de las elecciones presidenciales, 1978-1994" (page 179).

Jiménez Polanco 1999: "Procesos electorales 1962-1998: candidaturas nacionales y representación congresional según partido y año de elecciones" (pages 259-282). "Composición social y de género de la Cámara de Diputados y el Senado: 1986-1990, 1990-1994, 1994-1998, 1998-2002" (pages 283-295). "Estudio organizativo de los partidos dominantes" (pages 297-480).

Espinal 1990: "Resultados electorales, 1978-1990" (page 294). Gives percent of vote won by three parties and "otros."

Espinal 1992: "Las bases normativas del sistema electoral dominicano derivan fundamentalmente de la Ley Electoral No. 5884 del 5 de mayo de 1962 y de la Ley de Registro Electoral No. 55 del 17 de noviembre de 1970 que modificó la Ley No. 205 del 2 de abril de 1964. Desde su elaboración estas leyes se han modificado poco" (page 189). Gives details on electoral system throughout essay. Includes a number of statistical tables on elections (pages 201-206).

Espinal 1999: "Official results for elections, 1978-1998 (various years)" (page 484). "Throughout the nineteenth century, a weak two-party system prevailed in the style of a conservative-liberal party split. However, these were easily swept away by the Trujillo dictatorship, which established one-party rule from the state. In the post-Trujillo period, a moderate multiparty system has gradually emerged. In the early 1960s, three major political forces defined the political field [UCN, PRD, MR-14J]…Starting in 1966, the party system was redefined. Balaguer returned from exile, where he had founded the Reformist Party" (page 503). "(B)etween 1966 and 1978, the Dominican party system was characterized by two dominant, catchall parties: one with a conservative-authoritarian agenda (the Reformist Party) and the other with a populist-democratic one (the PRD). In 1973 Bosch left the PRD, expressing his discontent with what he viewed as its ineffective liberal-democratic bent, creating the PLD…The new realities of the transition to democracy in 1978 led to further changes in the party system…Thus, by 1986 the Dominican party system was characterized by three major parties, all with the ability to win an election: the PRD, the PLD, and the Reformist Party, now renamed the [PRSC]" (page 504).

Estado de situación de la democracia dominicana (1978-1992) 1995: "La democracia dominican en los últimos quince años" (pages 15-56). "Los partidos políticos y los procesos políticos" (pages 57-95). "Distribución de cargos congresionales, municipales y presidenciales por sexo según año de elecciones: República Dominicana 1970-1978" (page 107). "Distribución de cargos congresionales, municipales y presidenciales por sexo según año de elecciones: República Dominicana 1982-1990" (page 107). "Las elecciones en la encrucijada de la democracia" (pages 145-231). Includes a wide variety of statistics for elections in the period covered.

Galíndez 1973: Describes the electoral system in effect in 1955 and discusses the various elections in the Trujillo era (pages 94-120).

Grullón 1999: "Elecciones celebradas en la República Dominicana años 1962-1998: provincias y municipios, nombres de los candidatos elegidos por el voto universal y directo" (pages 263-622). Very complete information for each race in each election.

Gutiérrez 1972: "The political parties" (pages 44-54).

Haggerty 1991: "In 1697, under the Treaty of Ryswick, Spain ceded the western third of the island to France" (page 7). "Although they shared the island of Hispaniola, the colonies of Saint-Domingue and Santo Domingo followed disparate paths. Cultural differences explained the contrast to some extent, but the primary divergence was economic. Saint-Domingue was the most productive agricultural colony in the Western Hemisphere, and its output contributed heavily to the economy of France. By contrast, Santo Domingo was a small colony with little impact on the economy of Spain" (page 8).

Hartlyn 1998: "The only organization that retained any degree of autonomy within the country [during the Trujillo regime] was the Catholic Church; yet, until the very end of his rule, it remained abjectly loyal to him. This was a church that had been decimated by the Haitian occupation of the nineteenth century, and by 1930 its existence was still relatively precarious. Trujillo favored the church tremendously...Ricardo Pittini, the archbishop of Santo Domingo and leader of the church from 1933 until 1960, was an open admirer of Trujillo and provided unequivocal support for his regime. An open break between Trujillo and the church came only in early 1960...At its apogee, the PD had branches throughout the country, helping to keep Trujillo appraised of local realities, needs, and potential threats to his rule...Although the PD played no role in either political recruitment or policy formulation, in certain periods of the Trujillo era it did help to legitimize his rule. Trujillo made voting mandatory, and not having one's identification card stamped to show one had voted could be risky. Universal male suffrage had legally existed in the Dominican Republic since 1865, with some exceptions regarding property (but never literacy) under some of the constitutions in force during the nineteenth century; Trujillo then expanded suffrage to women in 1942, after permitting them a symbolic vote in two elections in the 1930s" (page 50). "Senate reelection rates by party, 1970-1998" (page 153). "Chamber reelection rates for the same province by party, 1970-1998" (pages 154-155). "Parties, state institutions, and elections, 1978-1994" (pages 219-257). "Official results for presidential elections, 1978-1994" (page 231). "Election results by level of urbanization, 1962-1994" (pages 281-284).

Hillman 1992: "Dominican elections, 1962-1990" (page 112). For presidential elections gives the year, the number of registered voters, percent of eligible voters participating, number of valid votes, winner/party and percent of votes, main opposition/party and percent of vote, and percent of votes for others.

ICSPS 1963: Gives the method of electing the president, a description of the national legislature, and the method of electing the national legislature (page 13).

ICSPS 1966: "During the nineteenth century, there were no political parties of any description in the Dominican Republic-least of all Dominican counterparts of the Liberal and Conservative parties so characteristic of other Latin American countries during this period. The only political groups were the personal followings of rival caudillos, who dominated Dominican politics from the establishment of the Republic in 1844 to the assassination of President Ulises Heureaux in 1899. After the death of Heureaux, three personalist groups emerged: the 'Jimenistas,' followers of Juan Isidro Jimenes; the 'Horacistas,' supporters of General Horacio Vásquez; and the 'Velasquistas,' followers of Federico Velásquez. During the American occupation (1916-1924), these groups took the names of political parties. The Horacistas became the National Party (PN) and the Velasquistas became the Progressive Party (PP). After the death of Jimenes, his followers split into factions, the largest of which was known as the Liberal Party (PL)...(S)everal parties were organized outside the Republic by exile groups during the Trujillo regime. They include the Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD), the Dominican Revolutionary Vanguard (VRD), and the National Party (PN)" (page 21). "Major parties" (pages 21-30). "Prominent political personalities" (pages 31-36). "Election laws" (page 46-50). "Proportional representation" (page 51). "Structure of government" (pages 52-55).

Kantor 1969: "From 1844 to 1930 the Dominican Republic had fifty 'presidents' (one every 1.7 years), thirty revolutions (one every 2.9 years) and twenty-eight constitutions (about one every three years)" (page 2). "The U.S. occupation lasted from 1916 to 1924. During that period, the congress was suspended, the Supreme Court was stripped of authority, and the executive was the United States military governor, who ruled by decree...The United States did accomplish one thing which drastically changed the working of the political system after the army of occupation left the country. To establish law and order, the United States officials organized a new armed force, the Dominican Constabulary Guard. This was doomed to be an anti-democratic force by its very composition. Despite the chaos in the country before U.S. intervention, the chaos was Dominican and there was practically unanimous opposition to the United States intervention among all educated and politically-active groups" (page 3).

Ley electoral 1987: Well-indexed version of electoral law.

Liberato 1994: All tables are for elections from 1978-1990. "Resultados elecciones generales 1978/1990" (page 17). "Porcentajes de votos obtenidos por partidos mayoritarios" (page 18). "Matricula de votantes registrados" (page 18). "Partido de la Liberación Dominicana" (pages 18-25). "Votaciones obtenidas por el Partido de la Liberación Dominicana de 1978 a 1990 a nivel municipal y provincial" (pages 26-31). "Votaciones obtenidas por el PLD de 1978 a 1990 a nivel regional" (page 32). "Votaciones obtenidas por el PLD a nivel nacional de 1978 a 1990" (page 32). "Partido Revolucionario Dominicano" (pages 33-39). "Votaciones obtenidas por el Partido Revolucionario Dominicano de 1978 a 1990 a nivel municipal y provincial" (pages 40-45). "Votaciones obtenidas por el PRD de 1978 a 1990 a nivel regional" (page 46). "Votaciones obtenidas por el PRD a nivel nacional de 1978 a 1990" (page 46). "Partido Revolucionario Independiente" (page 47-50). "Votaciones obtenidas por el Partido Revolucionario Independiente de 1986 a 1990 a nivel provincial" (page 50-52). "Votaciones obtenidas por el PRI a nivel regional" (page 52). "Partido Reformista Social Cristiano" (page 53-60). "Votaciones obtenidas por el Partido Reformista Social Cristiano de 1978 a 1990 a nivel municipal y provincial" (pages 60-66). "Votaciones obtenidas por el PRSC de 1978 a 1990 a nivel regional" (page 67). "Votaciones obtenidas por el PRSC a nivel nacional de 1978 a 1990" (page 67). "Partidos minoritarios" (pages 68-71). "Administración municipal de los partidos" (pages 99-114). "Congreso Nacional" (pages 115-129). "Abstención electoral" (pages 131-159). "Comportamiento electoral por jurisdicción" (page 161-315). "Resultados elecciones generales 1978-1990" (pages 319-350).

Lozano 1991: "Relación de votantes y no votantes en las elecciones dominicanas en el periodo 1961-1990" (page 596). "Evolución del voto en las últimas elecciones generales: 1986-1990 (cifras absolutas y relativas)" (page 597). "Representantes congresionales según partidos: 1986 y 1990" (page 599). "Sinopsis sociopolítica de los procesos electorales dominicanos 1961-1990" (pages 601-603).

Majluta 1992: Includes a variety of tables comparing the elections of 1986 and 1990.

Maríñez 1990: "Representación en el congreso" (pages 81-82). Covers 1962-1986. "Polarización electoral" (page 82). Covers 1962-1986.

Maríñez 1994: "El proceso electoral dominicano: dificil camino hacia la democracia" (pages 139-187).

McDonald 1989: "Congressional party representation in the Dominican Republic, 1914 and 1924" (page 330). "Participation levels in the Dominican Republic as a percentage of the national population, 1930-1986" (page 330). "Presidential elections in the Dominican Republic, 1930-1986" (page 331). Gives year, party, candidate, number of votes in 1,000s, and the same for the opposition. "Party representation in the Dominican congress, 1962-1986" (page 332). Gives seats won.

Mitchell 1998: "Votes, by party, in selected elections at the national level and in six 'municipios,' 1962-1994" (pages 120-121). "Percentage of the total vote, by party, in selected elections at the national level and in six 'municipios,' 1962-1994" (pages 122-123). "Under the Dominican constitution and electoral laws from 1962 until 1992-1994, local elections were closely tied to national voting. Balloting for presidential, congressional, and municipal candidates took place simultaneously and on a single ballot, which always emphasized a voter's choice among parties rather than among candidates. In four of the six national elections between 1962 and 1990, it was technically possible to vote for different parties at the national and municipal levels. However, a relatively small number of voters apparently took advantage of that opportunity" (page 124).

Nickson 1995: "The Dominican Republic is a unitary nation divided for administrative purposes into twenty-eight provinces, each of which is headed by a governor who is appointed by the president of the republic. Below the province level, the country is covered by 138 municipalities, including the National District of Santo Domingo…which has municipal status. The dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo (1930-1961) severely restricted municipal autonomy…Local government in the Dominican Republic comprises a unipersonal executive head, or mayor (síndico), and a legislature (consejo municipal)" (page 163). "The mayor and councillors are elected for four-year terms of office and may stand for immediate reelection. Municipal authorities are elected jointly and concurrently with national political authorities. This occurs through a voting system known as the 'boleta tipo arrastre,' whereby a vote for a presidential candidate automatically includes a vote for a slate of candidates for congressional and municipal office. This undemocratic electoral system virtually destroys minority representation in local government because candidates cannot stand for municipal office unless they are included in the slate of a presidential candidate…The principal role of the councillors is to mobilize the local vote for presidential candidates, and for this service they are rewarded with their council seats" (page 164).

Nohlen 1989: Discusses the electoral system of the Dominican Republic.

Nohlen 1993a, 1993b: Electoral information and tables (1993a pages 541-566; 1993b pages 259-287). 2.1) "Evolution of the electorate 1924-1990" gives year, type of elections, population, registered voters (total number and percent of population) and voters (total number, percent of registered voters, and percent of population). 2.2) "Abbreviations of parties and coalitions." 2.3) "Electoral participation of parties and coalitions 1924-1990" gives party, dates of participation, and the numbers of elections in which they participated. 2.4) "Dates of national elections and institutional interruptions 1924-1990" includes presidential, congressional, and Constituent Assembly elections. 2.5) "Elections for Constituent Assembly 1924" has two parts: a) gives total and percent of registered voters, voters, blank, null, and valid votes and b) gives by party number of votes and percent of total vote, seats won and percent of total seats. 2.6) "Congressional elections 1930-1990 (total numbers)" gives by year registered voters, voters, blank, null, and valid votes and total votes received by each party. 2.7) "Congressional elections 1930-1990 (percentages)" gives the percent of registered voters who voted, the percent of blank, null, and valid votes and the percent of votes received by each party. 2.8) "Composition of Congress 1924-1990" for the Chamber of Deputies and Senate gives by year the total seats and the number and percent of seats held by each party. 2.9) "Presidential elections 1930-1990" gives by year a) the registered voters, the percent who voted, blank, null, and valid votes and b) candidates/parties with their total votes and percent of vote. 2.10) "List of national leaders (presidents, juntas, dictators, generals, etc.) 1924-1990" gives names, dates, and observations on how they came to power and details on electoral issues in their regimes.

Ramírez Morillo 1997: "En las elecciones celebradas en la primera y segunda República sólo participaba el Partido de Poder y sólo votaban los elegidos o señalados por el caudillo en el poder. De ahí que hasta mayo de 1878 todas las elecciones fueron farsas, en las cuales el pueblo no tuvo participación decisiva y donde no existían reglas de juego ni procedimientos definidos" (page 27).

Ramírez Morillo 2000: "Distribución de cargos congresionales por sexo, 1970-1998" (pages 77-78). "Cuadro comparativo abstención electoral porcentual, elecciones 1982-2000" (page 78). "Cantidad de votos obtenidos por partidos, elecciones 1990-2000" (page 79). "Cantidad de representantes por partidos en las elecciones 1978-1998" (page 82). "Resultados comparados obtenidos por el PRD elecciones 1996-2000" (page 83). "Resultados comparados obtenidos por el PRSC elecciones 1996-2000" (page 84). "Resultados comparados obtenidos por el PLD elecciones 1996-2000" (page 85).

Ray Guevara 2000: "El sistema electoral vigente" (pages 320-322). "Sistema nacional de los legisladores" (pages 322-326). "Reglamento para la selección de candidatos a cargos legislativos y municipales-Partido Revolucionario Dominicano" (pages 327-329). "Reglamento electoral del Partido Reformista Social Cristiano para las primarias abiertas 1998" (pages 330-333). "Reglamento para la selección de los candidatos congresionales Partido de la Liberación Dominicana" (pages 333-338). "Propuesta de reforma" (pages 338-347).

El régimen de partidos y el sistema electoral en la República Dominicana 1986: Includes a number of essays on political parties in the Dominican Republic and their impact on elections.

Schoenrich 1918: "The various Dominican presidents, as soon as securely in power, have generally been careful to follow constitutional forms, in an effort to deceive their followers and themselves into the belief that they were acting in regular course as servants of the people. The successful revolutionist was almost always in haste to 'legalize' his position by an election...Instead of moulding their wishes to conform to the constitution, however, they would mould the constitution to conform to their wishes, and repeatedly the first act of the successful revolutionist has been to promulgate a new constitution in accordance with his ideas. It has thus come to pass that the constitution, far from being revered as the immutable foundation of government, has rather been regarded as the convenient means for the president in office to exercise power. From 1844 to the present time nineteen constitutions have been promulgated in Santo Domingo...This extraordinary number is due in part to the practice of not enacting amendments to an existing constitution, but of promulgating the amended instrument as a new constitution" (page 304). "It has been a custom, sometimes expressly authorized by the constitution, for the president to delegate executive powers and prerogatives to persons selected by him in various parts of the country, especially where revolutionary uprising threatened" (page 309). "The size of the national legislature of Santo Domingo has fluctuated considerably" (page 314). Gives the history (pages 314-316). Describes the provincial and municipal organization in 1918 (pages 316-321).

Valdés 2000: "La participación femenina en elecciones ha aumentado levemente a contar de 1970, alcanzando al 47.8% de los sufragantes en 1986. Sin embargo, un sector significativo se margina de los procesos electorales al no inscribirse en el Registro Electoral. El Poder Legislativo es ejercido por un Congreso compuesto por el Senado y la Cámara de Diputados. La participación femenina en ambas cámaras ha sido irregular, alcanzando los mayores porcentajes entre 1970 y 1978" (Anexo: Participación política de las mujeres en los últimos 20 años: República Dominicana).

Vanhanen 1975, 1979, 1990: Results of presidential elections, 1849-1970 (1975 pages 172-176) 1849-1974 (1979 pages 229-230) 1978-1986 (1990 page 206). Gives year, elected presidential candidate, votes received, percent of the total votes, total votes, and percent of the total population who voted.

Ventura 1985: For the years 1844-1984 lists presidents and their cabinets; vice-presidents; members of juntas and councils; presidents of the senate, lower chamber, and supreme court; and presidents and members of the Junta Central Electoral.

Wiarda 1969: "Governmental structures" (pages 151-177). "Political processes" (pages 178-201).

Wiarda 1975: "A chronology of post-Trujillo governments" (pages 263-264). "The armed forces" (pages 272-348). "The social and economic elites" (pages 349-432). "The church" (pages 433-508). "The labor movement" (pages 509-584). "The peasantry" (pages 585-655). "Students and intellectuals" (pages 656-752). "The executive" (pages 1236-1258). "The legislature" (pages 1258-1270). "Local government" (pages 1258-1295). "Elections" (pages 1295-1305).

Wiarda 1991: "Constitutional development" (pages 130-132). "The executive" (pages 132-133). "The legislative" (pages 133-136). "Local government" (page 139). "The Dominican system of local government...was based on the French system of top-down rule and strong central authority. The country was divided into twenty-nine provinces, plus the National District (Santo Domingo). The provinces, in turn, were subdivided into a total of seventy-seven municipalities (or counties). Each province was administered by a civil governor appointed by the president...The municipalities and the National District were governed by mayors and municipal councils, both popularly elected to four-year terms" (page 139). "The electoral system" (pages 139-141). "Political dynamics" (pages 141-160).

Wiarda 1996: "Since the assassination of the dictator Trujillo in 1961, the Dominican Republic has had ten presidential elections. Of the ten, only four (those of 1962, 1982, 1986, and 1996) are considered to have been fair, competitive, democratic, and honest; the others were marred by fraud, manipulation, or outside interference. Rather than elections providing for stability and democracy, therefore, in the Dominican Republic they have more often than not brought instability, charges and counter-charges of corruption, and crisis" (page 4).

Wiarda 1998: "The Dominican Republic was the first country in the Americas to feel the imprint of Spanish colonialism. All the experiments in colonial administration later used throughout the Americas were first tried out on Hispaniola. The colony had a two-class system reinforced by racial criteria, a church that served as an arm of the state in subduing the indigenous population, [and] a top-down and authoritarian political system reaching from king to captain-general to local 'hacendado'…(A)fter 1550, with the greater attractiveness of the lands, precious metals, and indigenous populations to be enslaved of other colonial territories, Hispaniola was all but abandoned by the Spanish Crown…Because of the rapacious Spanish colonial system, it had absolutely no training in democratic self-government; because of its abandonment by the Crown, it lacked even the institutions of colonial government that might have eased and provided a stable transition to independence" (page 186).

Y nadie sabe quien es su legislador 1986: Includes papers and discussion from a conference on elections in the Dominican Republic in 1986.