Elections and Events 1831-1859

1831

Jonas 1974: “Only in 1831 did the Liberals consolidate their military and political power, with Francisco Morazán in Central America and Mariano Gálvez in Guatemala” (page 122).

August: presidential election (Gálvez / Liberal)

Aguado de Seidner 1995: “En agosto de 1831, Mariano Gálvez fue elegido Jefe del Estado de Guatemala. Los liberales iniciaron así un gobierno legalmente constituido” (page 67).

Barrios 2001: “El doctor Mariano Gálvez fue el gobernante liberal que ocupó la presidencia del Estado de Guatemala por mayor tiempo: seis años y varios meses; pero en forma alterna con otros personajes, del 28 de agosto de 1831 al 2 de febrero de 1838” (page 151).

Griffith 1965: “Dr. Mariano Gálvez, elected Chief of State of Guatemala in August 1831, made use of the opportunity afforded by relative internal peace to undertake a complete Liberal reform of his native province…Conspicuous among his plans were projects for rapid settlement of immigrant families in the relatively uninhabited north of Guatemala” (page 5).

Griffith 1995: “El Doctor Mariano Gálvez tomó posesión del cargo de Jefe del Estado de Guatemala el 28 de agosto de 1831….(R)espetó el ritual electoral, pero para asegurar la elección de simpatizantes que impulsaran reforms esenciales, no desdeñó el uso de prácticas para hacer de aquellas periódicas votaciones, no precisamente expresiones intachables de la voluntad popular” (page 75).

Holleran 1949: “In August, 1831 Mariano Gálvez became Chief Executive of the State of Guatemala and governed until Feb. 2, 1838 when he was forced to resign. At first he tried to conciliate both Liberals and Conservatives, but was not successful” (page 119).

Mata Gavidia 1953: “Dr. Mariano Gálvez, electo para Jefe del Estado de Guatemala 1831-1835...llega al gobierno, casi por unanimidad” (pages 346-347).

Metallo 1998: “In Guatemala, the Liberal program reached its apex under the rule of Mariano Gálvez, who served as Chief of State of Guatemala from 1831 to 1838. Expanding on the earlier anti-clerical legislation, Gálvez initiated a series of measures which he issued in an attempt to strip the Catholic Church of all but its spiritual functions” (page 233).

Monterey 1977: Agosto 24, 1831—“La Asamblea Legislativa del Estado de Guatemala, elige como Jefe Supremo del Estado, al Dr. Mariano Gálvez, por no haber obtenido la mayoría de votos los candidatos” (page 215).

Stanley 2000: “Convinced that European immigration could assist in the development of Guatemala’s north coast, President Mariano Gálvez (1831-1838) actively encouraged European colonization” (page 3).

Thesing 1976: “Durante el gobierno de Mariano Gálvez (1831-1836) se introdujeron una serie de reformas, pero no se afectó de ninguna manera la ley electoral” (page 10).

December

Ingersoll 1972: “President Morazán, in a decree of December 20, 1831, designated San Salvador as the federal capital and began his journey to the new seat of government. The government of El Salvador announced he would not be permitted to enter the state. In reply, Morazán [issued] a proclamation stating his motives for moving the capital to San Salvador” (page 12). These included the fact that “the federal legislature was dominated by Guatemalans, both because of proportional representation and because the ‘suplentes’ (substitutes, when the elected legislator could not arrive at the seat of government) of the other states, simply because of convenience and proximity, were Guatemalans. Simply, moving the capital to San Salvador would be a major step in trimming Guatemala’s excessive power. He directed his ideas at El Salvador, because the tiny state had been the most vocal in complaining of Guatemalan abuses and in refusing to accede to federal decrees” (page 13).

1832

Garrard-Burnett 1998: “Among [Gálvez’s] most sweeping anticlerical measures were the economic reforms, enacted in 1832, that abolished the tithe, placed strict limitations on the size and future acquisition of Church landholdings, and expropriated the national diocesan treasury for the national treasury” (page 3).

Woodward 1985: “Gálvez divided the state into four ‘comandancias’ in 1832, with a general over each, and thereafter military government was characteristic” (page 103).

May

Holleran 1949: “On May 2, 1832 the Federal Congress declared that all the inhabitants of the Republic were free to adore God according to their belief, and that the national government would protect the exercise of this liberty. This decree was accepted by the legislatures of the various states of the confederation and prompt execution ordered” (page 120).

Metallo 1998: “In May, 1832, [Gálvez] endorsed an amendment to the federal constitution which allowed ‘freedom of conscience and religious toleration’ to all religious sects in Guatemala” (page 234). “(A)fter the legalization of Protestantism in 1832, a settlement of British colonists [was established on] the Belizean border, near the present town of Panzós, in Alta Verapaz” (page 236).

October

Monterey 1977: Octubre 31, 1832—“La Asamblea Federal elige y declara electo Vice-Presidente de la República al ciudadano José Francisco Barrundia, por no haber tenido la mayoría de votos ninguno de los candidatos en las eleciones efectuadas” (pages 225-226).

1833

February

Monterey 1977: Febrero 3, 1833—“El Jefe Supremo del Estado de Guatemala, doctor Mariano Gálvez, en su Mensaje a la Asamblea del Estado, manifiesta que creía necesario que se pidiese al Congreso Federal, que las Supremas Autoridades Federales fijaran su residencia fuera del territorio de Guatemala” (page 231).

April

Monterey 1977: Abril 20, 1833—“La Asamblea Federal decreta reformas a la Constitución Federal, para lo cual propondrá a los Estados de la Federación que se convoque a la Nación a un Congreso a fin de que reforme o varié la Constitución, o que se dicten medidas que salven a la República del peligro en que se encuentra, o que se dé por convocada y se proceda a elecciones para una Asamblea Nacional Constituyente, debiendo ser la elección directa, elegir un diputado por cada quince mil habitantes” (page 236).

October

Monterey 1977: Octubre 1833—“En Guatemala, liberales y conservadores atacan al Jefe Supremo del Estado don Mariano Gálvez, los partidarios del señor Gálvez lo defienden. Hacen ver los inconvenientes de la presencia de las Autoridades Federales y las del Estado en una misma ciudad” (page 240).

1834

Aguado de Seidner 1995: “Los cuatro años del gobierno de Francisco Morazán terminaron en 1834, y después, de acuerdo con la Constitución, se celebraron elecciones para elegir al próximo presidente de la República Federal. José Cecilio del Valle fue candidato frente al propio Morazán, y salió triunfante pese a carecer de un partido que lo apoyara, pero murió antes de poder ocupar su cargo” (page 69).

Calvert 1985: “In 1834 the capital was finally moved from Guatemala to San Salvador. In the elections that year José del Valle, the unsuccessful candidate at both previous federal elections, was chosen, but died before he could take office. Morazán was therefore chosen to serve a second term” (page 63).

Lynch 1992: “Between March and August 1834 the Guatemalan government ceded virtually all its public lands to foreign colonization companies, an area equal to almost three quarters of the total area of the state” (pages 367-368).

January

Monterey 1977: Enero 1834—“El Presidente Federal General Francisco Morazán deposita el Mando en el Senador, General Gregorio Salazar…El Congreso Federal, al verificar el escrutinio, declaró electo al ciudadano Licenciado José Cecilio del Valle, como Presidente Federal” (page 243).

Woodward 1995: “Las elecciones presidenciales federales de 1834 reflejaron una fuerte oposición popular a las reformas liberales” (page 98).

February

Monterey 1977: Febrero 6, 1834—“El Senador encargado del Poder Federal, General José Gregorio Salazar, en unión de sus Ministros y demás funcionarios, Senadores y Diputados Federales, se dirige a Sonsonate, ciudad que había elegido como Capital Federal” (page 243).

March

Monterey 1977: Marzo 2, 1834—“Muere en la ciudad de Guatemala el Lic. José Cecilio del Valle, quien había sido electo Presidente de la República de Centro América” (page 244).

Woodward 1985: “Moderate José del Valle won the presidential election of 1834, but he died before taking office. Had he lived, he might have brought conciliation and harmony to the opposing forces and thereby preserved the Central American union” (pages 95-96).

May

Monterey 1977: Mayo 13, 1834—“Se instala en la ciudad de Sonsonate [El Salvador] el Congreso Federal…Mayo 28, 1834—El General Francisco Morazán en Sonsonate, toma el mando de las fuerzas federales y guatemaltecas y deposita el Mando Supremo de la Federación en el Vice-Jefe ciudadano General José Gregorio Salazar” (page 245).

June

Aguado de Seidner 1995: “El 2 de junio, el Congreso Federal convocó a nuevas elecciones, que fueron ganadas por Francisco Morazán” (page 71).

Monterey 1977: Junio 2, 1834—“En Sonsonate el Congreso Federal convoca a nuevas elecciones de Presidente Federal por la muerte del Licenciado José Cecilio del Valle; elige como Vice Presidente Federal al Senador, Ciudadano José Gregorio Salazar, por falta de mayoría de votos” (page 245).

July

Monterey 1977: Julio 16, 1834—“El Presidente Federal General Francisco Morazán deposita el Mando Federal en el Senador, General José Gregorio Salazar, por haber terminado su período administrativo” (page 248).

August

Woodward 1995: “Entre marzo y agosto de 1834, el gobierno de Guatemala cedió casi toda su tierra pública en el nororiente a compañías extranjeras de colonización” (page 98).

1835

February

Monterey 1977: Febrero 2, 1835—“El Congreso Federal declara reelecto popularmente al General Francisco Morazán, como Presidente de Centro América, y al General José Gregorio Salazar, como Vice Presidente, concluyendo el período el primero de febrero de 1839…Febrero 14, 1835—El Presidente Federal, General Francisco Morazán, presta el juramento de ley y toma posesión de la Presidencia Federal” (page 253).

February 25: presidential election (Gálvez / Liberal)

Griffith 1965: Gálvez “was re-elected in February 1835 and after three times rejecting the proffer of the Assembly finally accepted the office” (page 99).

Mata Gavidia 1953: “Segundo período por elección unánime. Rechazó por tres veces la reelección, hasta que convencido de la sincera insistencia del Cuerpo Legislativo, aceptó el cargo de Jefe del Estado de Guatemala durante un segundo período” (page 349).

Monterey 1977: Febrero 25, 1835—“Fué reelecto como Jefe Supremo del Estado de Guatemala, el ciudadano Mariano Gálvez” (page 254).

1836

September

Barrios 2001: “La Asamblea Nacional decretó también, el 28 de septiembre de 1836, la forma de organizar y reglamentar las municipalidades” (page 152). “Número de funcionarios de las municipalidades, según el número de habitantes, 1836” (page 153).

Kitchen 1955: “In September, 1836, the legislative assembly, in conformity with a plan put forward by the president of Guatemala, decreed a comprehensive reorganization of the municipal structure” (page 33). Describes the reorganization, including changes to election guidelines. “Title II of the law described the power and duties of the governor, an appointed official who represented the central government and was the chief executive and justice of the peace in each town” (page 35). “Governors were appointed by departmental chiefs from a list of three names (a ‘terna’) presented by the local council, and served for four years” (page 36). “The law of 1836…decreed the same form of government for all municipalities, be they ‘ladino’ or Indian” (page 39).

1837

Grandin 2000: “Incessant insurrections by conservative elites…gave way in 1837 to a popular rebellion of peasants and Indians reacting against unaccustomed state intervention, taxation, and land expropriation. The uprising started in eastern Guatemala and was headed by an illiterate Mestizo swineherd named José Rafael Carrera. Guatemala City quickly fell under siege” (pages 18-19).

Ingersoll 1972: “The War of the Mountain began in the Mita district of the ‘Oriente’ in 1837 as a widespread uprising of the illiterate Indian and ‘ladino’ peasants against the socio-economic reforms of the Liberal government of Dr. Mariano Gálvez, governor of Guatemala from 1831 to 1838. It degenerated into widespread civil war as the result of the breakdown of law and order during a country-wide cholera epidemic” (page vii).

Lynch 1992: “In 1837 the legislature strayed into the area of morals if not of faith, authorizing civil marriage and legalizing divorce. Guatemala was not a secular society and legislation could not make it so. The rural clergy were an integral part of peasant communities…The rural clergy joined the cause of the Church to that of the peasant and from pulpit and confessional denounced the liberal government. The land policy of Gálvez encouraged the private acquisition of public land and even the purchase of Indian community land; this led to further land concentration, which was compounded by encouragement of foreign colonization” (page 367).

Reeves 2006: “The factors and perceived injustices that precipitated such a widely dispersed eruption of largely spontaneous and uncoordinated uprisings were legion, yet nearly all of them could be traced, in one way or another, back to the Liberal factions that had dominated Guatemala City and Guatemala’s incipient postcolonial state since the late 1820s” (page 2).

Woodward 1985: “Carrera’s revolt was not merely another quarrel between Liberals and Conservatives for control of the government; rather, it was a popular rebellion engendered by a growing sense of grievance against the governments of Morazán and Gálvez, and it was aggravated by a catastrophic cholera epidemic” (pages 98-99). Describes the rise of Carrera (pages 104-105).

January

Barrios 2001: “El Código de Livingston, que fue promulgado el 1 de enero de 1837, afectaba intereses creados de las instituciones coloniales y éstas se movilizaron para promover manifestaciones públicas y levantamientos contra el gobierno de Gálvez” (page 154).

Reeves 2006: “Under the activist administration of Mariano Gálvez…the state implemented a series of dramatic reforms culminating with the notorious Livingston Codes. Few aspects of Guatemalan society were left untouched by Gálvez’s ambitious reform project. The Livingston Codes, for example, overhauled the entire judicial system, in the process completely redefining community-state relations. Local political autonomy was greatly diminished, and special legal channels that had privileged indigenous access to the courts were abolished” (page 2).

Woodward 1985: “Probably no part of the Liberal program proved quite so objectionable to so many as the effort to revise the judicial system of the country…(T)he Liberals—chiefly through the endeavors of José Francisco Barrundia—adopted the Livingston Codes for Guatemala…Ruthless enforcement measures seemed to belie the Liberal claims about liberty and freedom” (page 103).

Woodward 1995: “El nuevo sistema judicial provocó una mayor oposición al gobierno liberal. Persuadidos de que el sistema hispánico de fueros privados y tribunales múltiples era injusto y anticuado, los liberales adoptaron el sistema penal de Edward Livingston, que entró en vigor el 1o de enero de 1837…El grueso de la población identificó aquel código más con el dominio contralizado desde la ciudad de Guatemala, con influencia extranjera y con el anticlericalismo, que con la justicia social” (page 99).

February

Grandin 2000: “The 1837 epidemic was the first major crisis in which Guatemala’s new political elites had to deal directly with the population, without the mediation of the Crown or the church, or the distraction of civil war. During this period of intense political uncertainty, as liberals pursued their factional efforts to build an independent, legitimate nation, elite attitudes and responses to the epidemic emerged from the racial and political logic of colonialism” (pag 85).

Lynch 1992: “An epidemic of cholera struck Guatemala in February 1837 and was reported by foreign observers as a major calamity…(T)he epidemic attacked especially the Indian masses in the highland zones of Guatemala…(T)he local priests declared that this was a divine punishment on Guatemala, and spread the rumour that government officials were poisoning the common people as part of a policy of exterminating the native inhabitants in preparation for repopulating the country with foreign heretics” (page 370).

March

Lynch 1992: “(A) great Indian rising suddenly made [Carrera] a guerrilla leader and brought him to the attention of the politicians…The background [to the revolt] was the liberal project of Mariano Gálvez to liquidate the colonial regime, forcibly to assimilate the Indians, and to impose a programme of modernization on Guatemala…[Gálvez’s] policy was acceptable to many of the creole elite, but these were a small minority in a population of 450,000 Indians, 100,000 whites, and 150,000 ladinos…(T)he prime victims of liberal policy were the traditional rural sectors, Indian communities working family and communal lands, and peons seasonally employed on plantations. They found ready allies in the Church. Liberal policy towards the Church could be explained as a desire to create a secular state rather than attack religion, but they tended to ignore explanations while they hastened to restrict privileges and exert close control” (pages 366-367).

Mahoney 2001: “The 1837-39 peasant revolt headed by Rafael Carrera defeated the liberal Gálvez administration and enabled the previously repressed conservative elite of Guatemala City to regain political control of the capital” (pages 83-84).

Woodward 1990: “The rural uprisings beginning in 1837 would ultimately bring a crisis between legislature and executive that would bring down the Gálvez government in 1838 and usher in three decades during which the state was dominated by the conservative elite of Guatemala City...It was a powerful popular reaction against the Liberal reforms that resulted in the final collapse of the Central American federation and in the domination of Guatemala by the caudillo Carrera for most of the period from 1839 to his death in 1865. While Carrera’s government justly has been given credit for defending Indian interests during the mid-nineteenth century, it should be understood at the outset that the principal beneficiaries of Carrera’s revolt of 1837 were the aristocratic, conservative elite of Guatemala City" (page 61).

April

Alda Mejías 2000: El “25 de abril de 1837 se decretó una nueva ley que establecía el sistema directo para las elecciones locales. El gobernador sería nombrado por el magistrado ejecutor entre los candidatos propuestos por la municipalidad” (page 210).

Barrios 2001: The decree of April 25, 1837 specifies that “el ultimo domingo de noviembre se realizarían las votaciones [y] la votación se haría a viva voz, se escribiría el nombre del votante y de las personas que elegía” (page 153).

June

Ingersoll 1972: “The movement known as the ‘Revolution of Mita’ actually began in June, 1837, when the peasants of Santa Rosa in the Oriente disavowed the government and elected as their leader Teodoro Mejía, the owner of a small farm in the area” (page 114). “Both Dr. Gálvez’s decrees concerning the rebels [June 12] and the convocation of the assembly [June 16], which should have been permitted to work for the salvation of the state threatened by the rebels, served as the opening breach in a bitter feud between the two wings of the Liberal Party – the ‘Ministeriales’ in the Gálvez camp, and the ‘Oposición’ of Barrundia and Morazán – a feud that would be a major cause of the collapse of the Liberal movement in Guatemala” (page 119).

Lynch 1992: “In late June 1837 [Carrera] announced a six-point programme for the revolution” (page 373). Gives the six points.

Monterey 1977: Junio 9, 1837—“En el Estado de Guatemala se insurreccionan contra el Gobierno del Estado casi todos los pueblos, a causa del sistema de jurados, de las leyes y decretos de la Asamblea del Estado y del proceder de los agentes del Gobierno. El caudillo principal de la insurrección era el General Rafael Carrera” (page 266).

Sullivan-Gonzalez 1998: “The 1837 cholera epidemic became the flashpoint for popular demands. Rising from the eastern mountains of Guatemala, rebels from Mataquescuintla led by the former pig-herder Rafael Carrera challenged the legitimacy of the Gálvez state in June 1837” (page 8).

Woodward 1985: Describes Carrera’s manifesto (page 105).

August

Ingersoll 1972: “Even the growing threat of Carrera’s advances did not serve to unite the whites in the capital, and the last few months of the Gálvez government saw a suicidal factionalism as the two [Liberal] groups tore each other apart over a series of seemingly irrelevant issues that dated from the total break between Dr. Gálvez and José Francisco Barrundia in August, 1837” (page 142). “A continuing source of tension between the two Liberal factions in ths period was the two elections, one scheduled for October 29, and one for the end of December, to choose deputies to the assembly to represent Sololá, Totonicapán, Sacatepéquez, Quezaltenango, Verapaz, Chiquimula, and Guatemala” (page 144).

Woodward 1985: “Gálvez, in a misguided search for unity, became more conciliatory toward the Conservatives, only to alienate the more extreme Liberals headed by Barrundia and Pedro Molina” (page 105).

October 29: congressional election

Ingersoll 1972: Discusses results of the election (page 144).

December

Monterey 1977: Diciembre 1837—“El Jefe Supremo del Estado de Guatemala, Licenciado Mariano Gálvez, pide auxilio al Presidente Federal, General Francisco Morazán, para debelar la insurrección de los pueblos de Guatemala. El General Morazán negó el auxilio pedido a pesar de que tenía fuerzas disponibles…Los liberales y conservadores de Guatemala atacan por la prensa al Jefe del Estado Licenciado Mariano Gálvez, aumentando así el malestar y la intranquilidad pública, con lo que contribuían a desprestigiar a la autoridad” (page 267).

Woodward 1985: “In December Gálvez appointed two Conservatives, Juan José Aycinena and Marcial Zebadúa, to his key ministerial posts, further antagonizing the Barrundia faction. Confronted by a spreading peasant revolt and with growing dissension within the Guatemalan state government, Morazán began to harbor doubts about Gálvez, and he failed to send the assistance from the federal capital in San Salvador which might have saved the Guatemalan Governor” (pages 105-106).

December 28: congressional election

Ingersoll 1972: “Political tensions in Guatemala rose to a fever pitch over the elections for members of the assembly for December 28” (page 152). Discusses results (pages 152-153).

1838

Alda Mejías 2000: “Las leyes electorales para la creación de Asambleas Nacionales Constituyentes establecieron desde 1838 el sistema de elección directo” (page 103).

Alexander 1973: “The division of Guatemalan political activists between Liberals and Conservatives took place even before the separation of the Guatemalan province from the Republic of Central America in 1938. During the period of the Central American Republic, led by the Liberal Francisco Morazán, a strong anticlerical, Rafael Carrera...raised the standard of Conservative revolt against the government. With the victory of Carrera the Central American Republic fell apart” (page 53).

Lynch 1992: “(T)he insurrection in the ‘montaña,’ beginning as a local uprising in the eastern part of Guatemala, developed into a general rebellion against the Liberal government. Gálvez replied by taking dictatorial powers and applying repression, reorganizing the militia forces, and imposing trials by military courts” (page 374). “The fate of the federation ran parallel to events in Guatemala…In 1838 Congress tried to restore some life to the patient and resolved to transfer to the federal government control of the customs revenues…The states objected and used the opportunity to leave the union, led by Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Honduras. The Federal Republic was now in its deaths throes, brought down by the separatism of the states and the conservative reaction in Honduras, Nicaragua, and Guatemala” (page 379).

January

Lynch 1992: “As the military situation slipped out of control and his political opponents increased their pressure, Gálvez had to consider resignation. To hasten the day, Carrera released his hordes against the seat of government on 31 January 1838” (page 374). “In his attack on Guatemala City Carrera deliberately used his Indian troops as an instrument of anti-liberal terror, unleashing some 4,000 drunken and excited guerrillas…As he rode through the centre of the city, anxious foreigners were shocked to see that he was accompanied by Barrundia and other members of the opposition” (page 375).

Woodward 1985: “Barrundia determined to form an alliance with Carrera as an opportunistic means of ousting Gálvez” (page 106).

February

Grandin 2000: “(I)n the western highlands, in February 1838, Ladino patricians took advantage of the capital’s troubles to secede from Guatemala and establish the sixth state of the Central American federation—the Estado de los Altos—with the city of Quezaltenango as its capital” (page 19).

Ingersoll 1972: “On February 2, the deputy governor, Pedro José Valenzuela, of the Oposición, assumed the reins of government” (page 157). Valenzuela “promptly pronounced his gratitude to all those who had helped overthrow the tyrant Gálvez…In this halcyon period, the Liberals felt they had triumphed over tyranny, they had gotten good out of bad and had served liberty and their principles by using the forces of disorder and blind ignorance…In the midst of the rejoicing, however, more sober heads wondered what to do about their savior, the illiterate Indian caudillo from Mataquescuintla” (page 160). The “state assembly met on February 6 to rebuild the government” (page 164).

Lynch 1992: “While Carrera negotiated, his Indians rampaged and looted, until, after four days, having extracted money and a political deal from the opposition, the caudillo led them out” (page 375). “The threat to Guatemala City and resignation of Gálvez in favour of Pedro Valenzuela, tool of Barrundia and his faction, brought a new phase to the rebellion, during which the presence and power of Carrera exercised an indirect pressure on the new Liberal government and forced it to restrain its liberalism, at the same time enabling the Conservative party to make a comeback…The liberals were now on the defensive, for Carrera had the power and could raise the stakes” (page 376).

Monterey 1977: Febrero 1, 1838—“El General Rafael Carrera toma la ciudad de Guatemala; las tropas cometen toda clase de depredaciones, asesinan al Vice-Presidente Federal General José Gregorio Salazar, y deponen al Jefe del Estado, Dr. Mariano Gálvez, quien desde el año de 1831 había sido electo por la Asamblea Legislativa del Estado…A consecuencia de los acontecimientos verificados en Guatemala, el Presidente Federal General Francisco Morazán deposita el Mando Supremo en el Senador federal, ciudadano, Manuel Julián Ibarra, y marcha con el ejército federal hacia el Estado de Guatemala” (pages 268-269).

Sullivan-Gonzalez 1998: “When Carrera’s largely mestizo force first occupied Guatemala City in February 1838, the white elite in the city saw only ‘barbarians’ and ‘Indians’ who shouted ‘Long live religion!’ and ‘Death to foreigners!’ Carrera had coalesced the nascent political force of the emerging mestizos with many of his indigenous admirers. Understanding how Carrera nourished and accomplished the multiethnic coalition among Indians and ladinos is crucial to any understanding of the influence of religion upon the development of the Guatemalan nation” (page 4). “Due to the commotion in the capital city, a sixth Central American state—Los Altos, made up of Quezaltenango, Totonicapán, Sololá, and the province of Soconusco in Mexico—declared its independence from Guatemala” (page 8).

Taplin 1972: Pedro J. Valenzuela takes office February 2, 1838. “The same day, the departments of Sololá, Totonicapán, and Quezaltenango seceded from the state of Guatemala, constituted a sixth state under the federation, [and] named it Los Altos” (page 85).

Woodward 1985: “The Barrundia faction appeared to have triumphed. Gálvez had resigned in favor of Lieutenant Governor Pedro Valenzuela…Carrera, commissioned a lieutenant colonel and given military command of his home district of Mita, was out of the capital, along with his dreaded peasant army. The real situation was otherwise, however, for the coalition which sustained the government was exceedingly fragile and all feared a return of the caudillo. Although Gálvez was out of power, he still had support in the legislature, and in addition to the Barrundia faction, the Conservatives now made an important resurgence, having gained first from their alliance with Gálvez and later from the proclerical attitude of Carrera…(T)hey vacillated between coalition with moderate Liberals and formation of a new Conservative faction. In the meantime, the departments of Los Altos took advantage of the situation, seceded from Guatemala, and declared their allegiance to Morazán” (page 107).

March

Lynch 1992: “Dissatisfied with the government’s progress towards his demands, convinced that he was being manipulated by the liberals, and encouraged by the priests, Carrera renewed the guerrilla war and drew further government repression. Fearing an incipient alliance between the Conservative party and the popular sectors, Barrundia called on his liberal ally Francisco Morazán; the entry into Guatemala of the federal president with 1,000 Salvadorean troops in mid March 1838 presented a new challenge to the caudillo” (page 376).

April

Monterey 1977: Abril 21, 1838—“La Asamblea Legislativa de Guatemala autoriza al General Francisco Morazán, para asumir el Gobierno del Distrito de Guatemala, con el objeto de pacificar el Estado” (page 271).

May

Holleran 1949: “While there were still Liberals in the Assembly, on May 1, 1838, that body passed a decree forbidding the election of any ecclesiastical candidate for a political office” (page 124).

July

Holleran 1949: “On July 26, 1838 a decree granted amnesty to all who had opposed the government since September, 1821” (page 125).

Ingersoll 1972: On “July 24,…as the law provided, the president of the ‘consejo representativo’ took over the governorship on an interim basis. The new governor of Guatemala was Mariano Rivera Paz, a young doctor who had earned a reputation for public service in the cholera epidemic. A moderate Liberal, like Dr. Valenzuela six months earlier, he seemed acceptable to all political factions” (page 179). “On the next day after taking office, Rivera Paz requested the assembly to revoke the decree of 1829 which had driven into exile the leading Conservatives and the church orders…On July 25, the assembly passed a ‘Law of Amnesty’ which declared that all political events and punishments from the declaration of independence to the present would be forgotten and any convicted for political offenses would be restored to their full citizenship rights…On July 25, the assembly…called for an open and direct election for delegates to a constitutional assembly to meet on November 1” (page 180).

Lynch 1992: “In Guatemala City the ‘carreristas’ received ambiguous support from conservatives. These now gained control of the government under the leadership of Mariano Rivera Paz and dismantled the entire liberal programme; but it was a tenuous control and their enemies held the military power” (page 377).

Monterey 1977: Julio 29, 1838—“El Consejero, ciudadano Mariano Rivera Paz, toma el mando del Estado de Guatemala, por renuncia del Jefe, ciudadano Pedro José Valenzuela” (page 273).

Taracena Arriola 2002: “El 25 de julio de 1838, la Asamblea Legislativa del Estado de Guatemala puso en marcha un nuevo procedimiento electoral convocando a ‘los pueblos’ para que eligieran a los diputados que integrarían una Asamblea Constituyente” (volume 1, page 166).

Woodward 1985: “(T)he election of a new Representative Council, clearly reflecting Conservative gains in public opinion and headed by Conservative Mariano Rivera Paz, put Barrundia in an untenable position. Conservative strength was rising, and it was drifting reluctantly toward alliance with the masses” (page 108). “On July 22, 1838, Valenzuela turned over the executive power to the Conservative Rivera Paz. Three days later the legislature decreed a general amnesty for all political acts in the state since 1821, welcomed back exiles, and declared all civil rights and guarantees reestablished. There followed a stream of legislation dismantling the Liberal program and beginning the restoration of the institutions of the colonial era” (page 109).

August

Alda Mejías 2000: Se decretó la “ley electoral del 5 de agosto de 1838 para la Asamblea Nacional de Representantes” (page 210).

Ingersoll 1972: A “legislative decree of August 5 provided for the four departments to elect a total of 51 deputies to the new assembly. Because of the continual unrest in the rural areas, no elections could be held; and in the interim period, the Conservative-oriented consejo representativo held power” (page 195).

Taracena Arriola 2002: “Las elecciones se realizaron de acuerdo a la ley reglamentaria del 8 de agosto de ese año y los registros se abrieron en todas la municipalidades al día siguiente de haberse recibido el decreto. Tuvieron derecho de ser inscritos y de votar ‘todos los ciudadanos en ejercicio de sus derechos.’ Sin embargo, de poco sirvió el resultado electoral, pues la llegada de los conservadores al poder…abrió un nuevo período histórico en el Estado de Guatemala” (volume 1, page 167).

Woodward 1993: “Election of deputies to the Constituent Assembly of Guatemala, 1838" (page 91). Gives department and number of deputies for each. (Source is “Tabla de elecciones de diputados a la Asamblea Constituyente del estado que comprende de veinte y siete distritos electorales, para elegir cincuenta y un representantes, por la base de seis mil habitantes,” “Boletín oficial,” July 26- August 5, 1838.)

September

Ingersoll 1972: Describes continuing battles against Carrera and his forces. “On September 9, Carrera led 2,400 guerrillas to a new encampment at Villa Nueva, the closest he had come to Guatemala City. The capital was frantic with rumors that the Indian army would sack the city…Aided by a heavy fog, which permitted him to approach the rebel camp undiscovered, General Salazar inflicted the worst defeat Carrera suffered in three years of constant campaigning” (pages 186-187). “Guatemala City went wild with rejoicing” (page 188).

October

Ingersoll 1972: “As the euphoria of Villa Nueva slowly dissipated and the young caudillo stubbornly resisted capture, the merchants of Guatemala City offered to raise $150,000 to finance another campaign for General Morazán to defeat the rebels. On October 10, the general turned the presidency of the Central American Republic over to the new vice president, Diego Vijil, and started his march toward Guatemala” (page 189).

December

Lynch 1992: “(O)n 23 December 1838 [Carrera] agreed to recognize the government and suspend hostilities” (page 378).

Monterey 1977: Deciembre 23, 1838—“En Guatemala, en el lugar llamado ‘Rinconcito’, capitula el Coronel Rafael Carrera…Diciembre, 25, 1838—El General Francisco Morazán ratifica el Tratado del ‘Rinconcito.’ Se instala en la villa de Totonicapán el Congreso del Estado de Los Altos, declarando electo Jefe del Estado, al ciudadano Marcelo Molina y como Suplentes, a José María Gálvez y Lic. José Antonio Aguilar” (page 275).

Taplin 1972: “A constituent assembly was installed at Quezaltenango [for Los Altos] on December 25, 1838; Marcelo Molina [was] elected first jefe of state” (page 85).

Taracena Arriola 1997: “Votación para los cargos de la junta directiva de la asamblea constituyente del estado de Los Altos, Totonicapán 25/12/38” (page 198). “Tabla de las curules previstas, de los diputados electos el 25/12/38 y de los incorporados posteriormente a la asamblea constituyente del estado de Los Altos” (pages 199-200).

1839

Griffith 1965: “During the first few months of 1839 Guatemala experienced a significant political re-orientation. Encouraged by a military victory over Carrera at Villa Nueva followed by a treaty of peace with the guerrilla leader and emboldened by the presence of Morazán in Guatemala, the Liberals believed themselves secure enough to ignore the call for a Constituent Assembly issued under pressure of popular discontent the previous July. They therefore convoked the regular Assembly which, acting under the aegis of Morazán, restored Mariano Rivera Paz to his position as President of the Council and in his stead named Carlos Salazar, the Liberal hero of Villa Nueva, as provisional head of the government. Thus provoked, Carrera renewed the civil war” (page 185).

January

Ingersoll 1972: “(O)n January 28, [Morazán] called the state assembly into session” (page 195). “The Conservatives feared that the general intended to depose Rivera Paz…In spite of Conservative foot dragging, the Assembly met in accordance with General Morazán’s call on January 29. In no more than 24 hours, the busy deputies deposed Mariano Rivera Paz and elected in his place General Carlos Salazar,…called for new elections for the assembly, and went out of session on January 31” (page 196). “The Conservatives now abandoned any lingering ideas they may have had of trying to influence General Morazán…Where it had been obvious that the Conservatives had feared and bitterly opposed the rebels in the rural areas in 1837 and 1838, now they turned to the same peasants for support in their political battles against the Liberal government” (page 197).

Jiménez 1981: The “Asamblea del Estado” names Carlos Salazar as president on January 30, 1839 (page 107).

Lynch 1992: “As Morazán and the liberals deposed Rivera Paz and sought to recover their position, Carrera became convinced that there would be no peace, no respite from liberalism, and no place for himself until Morazán was crushed once and for all” (page 378).

Monterey 1977: Enero 29, 1839—“Se instala la Asamblea Legislativa del Estado de Guatemala, convocada por el General Francisco Morazán, como Presidente Federal. La Asamblea Legislativa declara electo Jefe Provisorio del Estado de Guatemala al General Carlos Salazar, en sustitución de don Mariano Rivera Paz…Enero 31, 1839—Termina el segundo período presidencial para el cual fué reelecto el General Francisco Morazán. La Asamblea Legislativa del Estado de Guatemala declara restablecido el régimen constitucional en el Estado y convoca a los pueblos para la elección de los representantes de la Cámara” (page 277).

Woodward 1985: “(E)ncouraged by the apparent collapse of the Carrera movement, the Liberals attempted to recoup their position. On January 30, 1839, Morazán deposed Rivera Paz and in his place put General Salazar, the hero of Villa Nueva” (page 110).

February

Ingersoll 1972: In the “elections scheduled for the second Sunday in February…only the Liberal stronghold of Antigua held the elections as scheduled” (page 197).

Lynch 1992: “In February 1839, on completion of the constitutional term of office by Morazán, Congress dissolved and there was no legal body to nominate his successor. During the rest of the year the various forces lined up for a decisive confrontation between two classic enemies, the liberal general of the federation and the Indian caudillo of Guatemala” (page 379).

Taplin 1972: “All national terms expired February 1, 1839, and the Federation ceased to exist. Forces favoring continuing the union rallied under the leadership of General Morazán. Civil war followed" (page 83).

Vidal 1970: February 2, 1839 was to be the election for president of the Federation, but as all states had withdrawn, the Federation was dissolved (page 215).

March

Ingersoll 1972: “(J)ust as the Liberals had done in January, 1838, the Conservatives now sought Rafael Carrera as their ally. Events in the rural areas played into their hands” (page 198).

Lynch 1992: Carrera “reactivated the revolution, took up arms again, and on 24 March 1839 issued a ‘pronunciamiento’ justifying his action” (page 378).

Monterey 1977: Marzo 1839—“El General Rafael Carrera…se insubordina contra el Jefe del Estado de Guatemala General Carlos Salazar” (page 278).

Thesing 1976: “La separación formal de la Unión de Estados centroamericanos se verificó en Guatemala el 17 de marzo de 1839” (page 10).

April

Grandin 2000: “When in April 1839 Carrera rode victoriously into Guatemala City at the head of a ragtag Indian and Ladino peasant army, the days remaining to the Estado de los Altos were numbered” (page 19).

Griffith 1965: “On April 17 Rivera Paz declared the bonds with the Federation dissolved and formally assumed for Guatemala status as an independent nation” (page 185).

Holleran 1949: “On April 17, 1839 the State of Guatemala left the Confederation and declared complete independence” (page 125).

Ingersoll 1972: “The Liberal leaders…fled to the Liberal stronghold of Quezaltenango” (page 204). “One of the first acts of the new governor, Mariano Rivera Paz, was to issue an executive decree on April 17 declaring Guatemala to be ‘free, sovereign, and independent,’ an act of secession from the Central American Republic which the assembly ratified on June 14” (page 207).

Lynch 1992: “On 13 April 1839, in the early hours of the morning, Carrera rode into Guatemala City for the second time, now at the head of a large and orderly army…He restored Rivera Paz and a Conservative government” (page 378).

Monterey 1977: “El General Rafael Carrera toma la ciudad de Guatemala…; el Jefe del Estado de Guatemala, General Carlos Salazar, sale fugo sin hacer oposición. El General Carrera reinstala al Señor don Mariano Rivera Paz, como Jefe del Estado de Guatemala, a quien el General Francisco Morazán había hecho retirar del mando del Estado. Abril 17, 1839—Guatemala se separa de la Federación de Centro América y asume su soberanía” (page 279).

May

Alda Mejías 2000: “La reorganización de las municipalidades, según la ley de 1839, permitió recuperar la forma de organización indígena. La particularidad de las comunidades indígenas también se reconoció en la forma de elección de los cargos locales y en la posibilidad definitiva de establecer sus propios ayuntamientos al margen de los ladinos” (page 216). “Las elecciones según la costumbre indígena” (pages 216-220).

Griffith 1965: “The Constituent Assembly, convened late in May, ratified [Rivera Paz’s] decree and later conferred upon the chief executive the title of president. It legislated a political redivision of the country that created Izabal and the Petén…as districts presided over by commandants who were made directly dependent on the government and independent of the corregidores who were made the chief adminstrators of the newly-delimited departments” (pages 185-186).

Holleran 1949: “On May 29, 1839 the Second Constitutional Assembly was installed in the capital…The Assembly had a considerable number of ecclesiastics among its members” (page 125).

Ingersoll 1972: “The state constitutional assembly…went into formal session on May 29” (page 208).

Lynch 1992: “In 1839 the assembly restored religious orders and invited the exiled archbishop Ramón Casáus to return to his diocese” (page 384). “But the greatest political change was the incorporation of Indians and ladinos into the government, where they now held offices such as the vice-presidency, ministries, governorships, and high military positions, thus breaking the white monopoly characteristic of the first liberal regime” (page 385).

Mahoney 2001: “Beginning in 1839, conservatives moved ‘to restore Hispanic order’ by dismantling all liberal legislation put into place during the Federation” (page 84).

Reeves 2006: “Carrera instructed his allies to countermand the offending Liberal reforms and to restore the colonial-era laws that had protected the indigenous majority, beginning a thirty-year period of a nearly unbroken Conservative-popular rule” (page 3).

Smith 1990: “Guatemala’s 1839 constitution reflects a changed attitude toward Guatemala’s Indians...(T)he National Assembly decreed a return to the colonial Laws of the Indies concerning the Indians, which established a permanent commission for their protection and development... and reestablished the traditional offices of the Indian villagers” (page 81).

Thesing 1976: “El 29 de mayo de 1839 se establece una nueva constituyente la que, después de 12 años de trabajo, promulga una nueva constitución el 19 de octubre de 1851” (page 10).

Woodward 1985: “The Guatemalan legislature in 1839…decreed an Indian Code…(T)he new code reversed Gálvez’s idea of incorporating the Indian into western civilization…The Conservatives claimed that this meant exploitation, with the danger of rebellion and violence. Instead, they offered paternalism and protection. Such a policy ensured the continuance of a large segment of the Guatemalan population as a separate Indian nation, segregated from the mainstream of the national life” (pages 115-116).

Woodward 1990: “Rivera Paz set the conservative tone for the new government in his first annual report to the Constituent Assembly on May 31, 1839" (page 62). “Thus, the Guatemalan state turned away from the liberalism that had dominated the country since independence in 1821 toward a revival of the social and political security of the Spanish colonial system. This reversal, in large part made possible by the popular uprising supported by large numbers of poor, rural Indians and ladinos, would have a profound effect on many of them and would contribute to the survival of distinct Indian cultures in Guatemala” (page 64).

June

Holleran 1949: “On June 21, 1839 the Assembly issued a decree declaring null and void the decree of June 13, 1830 in regard to Archbishop Casáus y Torres…On the same day another decree revoked the decree of July 28, 1829 suppressing the religious orders” (page 127).

Ingersoll 1972: “(T)he assembly, in a decree of June 1, stipulated Rivera Paz to be and to have been the ‘legitimate and constitutional’ governor of Guatemala. In a further decree of June 3, he was named to a new term as governor with his tenure starting April 13, 1839” (page 208).

Lynch 1992: “In June 1839 Carrera addressed the new legislative assembly and made it clear who held power…Conservatives had to accept that the creole elites, while socially dominant, could not monopolize political power” (page 383).

July: municipal election

Woodward 1985: “Municipal elections in July gave the Conservatives control of the capital” (page 113).

Woodward 1993: Gives winning candidates in municipal election for Guatemala City (pages 106 and 501).

August

Griffith 1965: “On August 17 the Assembly reconstituted the Consulado de Comercio, supressed by the Liberals in 1829, and clothed it with its original attributes” (page 186).

Ingersoll 1972: “On August 16, 1839, the assembly…decreed the return to the Laws of the Indies concerning the Indian and the establishment of a Permanent Commission for the Protection and Development of the Indian” (page 274).

September

Taracena Arriola 2002: La “segregación territorial obligó a la nueva Asamblea Constituyente del reducido Estado de Guatemala a redefinir su división departamental por medio de un decreto que lo dividió en siete departamentos y dos distritos dependientes del poder central, el 12 de septiembre de 1839. El Estado de Guatemala estaba ahora integrado por los departamentos de Guatemala, Sacatepéquez, Chimaltenango, Escuintla, Mita, Chiquimula y Verapaz, más los distritos de Petén e Izabal” (volume 1, page 4).

October

Ingersoll 1972: “(A) law of October 2, 1839, provided for the reestablishment of the office of the corregidor as well as the ‘alcaldes’ and ‘gobernadores’ of the Indian villages” (page 274).

Kitchen 1955: Under Carrera, the “reforms of the [municipal] law of 1836 were quickly done away with, supplanted by a hierarchy based on the personal power and will of the national ‘caudillo,’ and having no patience with any concepts of regional or local autonomy…(A) new decree…was issued [October 2, 1839]. Its provisions discarded the scheme for departmental municipal assemblies, and greatly restricted the freedom of action of local councils” (page 38). “The local councils remained much the same in legal form, except that the ‘alcaldes,’ ‘regidores’ and ‘síndicos’ were now elected by the existing ‘municipales’ rather than by the citizens” (page 39).

Taracena Arriola 2002: “La segunda Asamblea Constituyente de Guatemala…estableció una ‘Reglamentación para el ejercicio del gobierno en los departamentos,’ en octubre de 1839, en la cual reaparece la figura del ‘corregidor,’ quien era nombrado por el gobierno” (page 168). “Les tocaba…confirmar las elecciones de los oficios municipales” (volume 1, page 169).

November

Kitchen 1955: “A second decree of 1839 [November 26, 1839] re-established the practice of appointment by the ‘corregidor’ of a ‘ladino’ governor for Indian villages and towns” (page 39).

December

Holleran 1949: “On December 14th of the same year the Church scored a notable victory—the Conservative government ceded to it the business of collecting tithes…Once more we witness the pattern of interblending of Church and State” (page 127).

Ingersoll 1972: “(O)n December 3, 1839…the assembly decreed that hereinafter the governor would bear the title of President of the State of Guatemala” (page 208).

Lynch 1992: “On 5 December 1839 the constituent assembly passed the Law of Guarantees…which in effect made the Indians wards of the state…At the same time the office of ‘corregidor’ was restored, as were the ‘alcaldes’ and governors of Indian villages” (page 386).

1840

Metallo 1998: “Under Rafael Carrera’s rule...the government dismantled all of the old Liberal programs. In their place, Carrera reinstituted many of the institutions of the colonial period...A top priority in Carrera’s program was to restore the Catholic Church to its old position of prominence...In 1840, Carrera annulled every piece of Gálvez’ anti-clerical legislation. He restored to the Church its former lands and monies, and most importantly, he revoked the law of religious toleration” (page 236).

Rodríguez de Ita 2003: “(B)ajo el régimen de Rafael Carrera, uno de los grupos que lo apoyaba se denominó partido clerical. Es de señalarse también que a los seguidores de Carrera se les llamó despectivamente ‘cachurecos,’ denominación que después se siguió aplicando para referirse a todos los conservadores, así como a las personas muy católicas y proclericales” (page 84). “(E)n 1840, al disolverse la Federación Centroamericana, se firmó una Asamblea Nacional Constituyente que prolongó, sin resultados, sus trabajos por varios años” (page 185).

January

Grandin 2000: “In January 1840, Carrera invaded the highland republic. With widespread indigenous support, he easily defeated Los Altos’s defending army…When Carrera entered the city’s plaza, Indians from surrounding regions arrived bearing presents and swearing allegiance. Carrera convened a new municipal council, declared the highlands once again to be part of Guatemala, and then rushed back to Guatemala City” (pages 20-21).

Monterey 1977: Enero 1840—“La Asamblea Constituyente de Los Altos, en Totonicapán, emite la Constitución del Estado de Los Altos” (page 287).

Woodward 1985: Carrera “moved swiftly into Los Altos and crushed the Liberal stronghold in Quezaltenango, an event evidently welcomed by the majority there” (page 110). “(R)esidents of Los Altos were to learn that under Carrera the country would be run largely for the benefit of the economic interests of the capital and the central region of the state” (page 111).

February

Ingersoll 1972: “On February 26, Los Altos was reincorporated into Guatemala” (page 240).

Taracena Arriola 2002: “Cuando en febrero de 1840 se dio la reincorporación del Estado de Los Altos, el Estado de Guatemala, se conformó con once departamentos (los cuatro altenses y los siete guatemaltecos antes mencionados) y dos distritos dependientes del poder central” (volume 1, page 4).

March

Lynch 1992: The battle between Morazán and Carrera “took place on 19 March 1840, when the forces of Carrera, after a bloody campaign, brought Morazán to battle at Guatemala City…Carrera defeated the liberal army, killed prisoners, drove Morazán into exile, and persecuted his supporters” (page 379).

Monterey 1977: Marzo 18, 1840—“El General Francisco Morazán toma la ciudad de Guatemala. Quezaltenango, al saberse que la ciudad de Guatemala había sido tomada por el General Morazán, se insubordina y desarma las tropas del Gobierno de Guatemala; la Municipalidad firma un acta de emancipación que es aplaudida por el vecindario” (page 288). Marzo 19, 1840—“El General Rafael Carrera, con su ejército, recupera la ciudad de Guatemala” (page 289).

Sullivan-Gonzalez 1998: “Morazán’s last military effort to overcome Carrera came in March 1840, when he and his troops made up principally of Salvadorans and Hondurans attacked Carrera’s forces in Guatemala City. With his final defeat in the plaza of Guatemala City, Morazán’s hopes of a Central American federation folded” (page 8).

April

Monterey 1977: Abril 2, 1840—“El General Rafael Carrera entra por segunda vez a la ciudad de Quezaltenango…En Quezaltenango no se le opuso ninguna resistencia; saquea, fusila y comete toda clase de barbaridades; fueron fusilados cuarenta ciudadanos importantes, inclusive el Alcalde Roberto Molina, los miembros municipales y el Secretario” (page 289). Abril 17, 1840—“El Estado de Guatemala se separa de la Federación de Centro América. Era Jefe del Estado, don Mariano Rivera Paz” (page 290).

Sullivan-Gonzalez 1998: “As Morazán fled the country toward El Salvador, Carrera turned on the breakaway state of Los Altos and brutally suppressed the white elite into submission” (pages 8-9).

June

Woodward 1995: “A finales de junio, se convocó a la Asamblea Constituyente, que controlaron los conservadores” (page 104).

August

Lynch 1992: “(I)n August 1840 [Carrera] sought to retire from the office of commander-in-chief and the assembly refused to accept his decision” (page 383).

Woodward 1985: “From 1840 to 1844 Carrera held the military power but not the presidency in Guatemala. Both Liberal and Conservative factions vied for power and Carrera successfully played one off against the other” (page 111).

1841

Taracena Arriola 1997: “Tabla de representantes de Los Altos en la asamblea legislativa de Guatemala para el año de 1841” (page 280).

July

Woodward 1993: Constituent Assembly names president (Rivera Paz) (page 144).

September

Ingersoll 1972: “A further law of September 29, 1841, provided for separate elections in the villages for Indian and ‘ladino’ officials” (page 274).

Taracena Arriola 2002: “(E)l Estado guatemalteco consideró necesario reglamentar la elección de alcaldes en poblaciones donde hubiera ladinos, a través del ‘Decreto de 29 de septiembre de 1841, Regla de la elección de alcaldes en poblaciones donde haya ladinos’” (volume 1, page 172).

December

Ingersoll 1972: President Rivera Paz resigns in December (page 264). “With the assembly dissolved, the ‘consejo provisional,’ on December 14, placed the reluctant Liberal, José Venancio López, in the presidency” (page 264).

Lynch 1992: The conservatives “found that if Carrera became irritated with a government, as he did with that of Rivera Paz in December 1841, he would replace it” (page 383).

1842

May

Jiménez 1981: López resigns under attack from Carrera on May 13, 1842 (page 115). Congress names Rivera Paz president in May 1842 (page 98).

Monterey 1977: Mayo 16, 1842—“Por tercera vez toma posesión de la Presidencia de la República de Guatemala el ciudadano Mariano Rivera Paz, en sustitución del Licenciado Venancio López” (page 310).

September

Aguado de Seidner 1995: “(A) las seis de la tarde del 15 de septiembre de 1842, Morazán fue fusilado sin juicio previo” (page 73).

1843

Holleran 1949: “On July 4, 1843 the government of Rivera Paz issued a decree permitting the return of the Jesuits” (page 133).

1844

March

Lynch 1992: “Carrera [overthrows] the government in March 1844” (pages 386-387). “In March 1844, during the absence of Carrera in pursuit of banditry in the west of the country, the capital received news of a great assembly of Indians from Mita apparently intent on rebellion. President Rivera Paz urgently recalled Carrera, who confronted the rebels and signed with them the Treaty of Guadalupe…The Treaty stipulated the election of a constituent assembly to write a new constitution” (paes 387-388).

Rodríguez de Ita 2003: “En 1844 la Asamblea fue disuelta y se instauró un Consejo de Gobierno con un representante por departamento que tenía que ser originario de él y electo popularmente” (pages 185-186).

April

Woodward 1995: “A finales de abril se hicieron arreglos para la elección de los representantes ante el nuevo Consejo. Podían votar todos los ciudadanos varones mayores de 18 años, con empleos remunerados o ingresos suficientes, e inclusive los soldados” (page 106).

May

Woodward 1995: “Las elecciones de Guatemala, programadas para el 19 de mayo, no se llevaron a cabo, y una nueva crisis hizo que se pospusieran indefinidamente…Rivera Paz pospuso las elecciones y simplemente designó el nuevo Consejo de Gobierno, encabezado por Carrera” (page 106).

December

Burgess 1926: Council elects president (page 44).

Holleran 1949: “Carrera had manoeuvered the dissolution of the Assembly, and on December 8, 1844 he installed a Council to take its place. Rivera Paz resigned and, at last, on December 11, 1844, Carrera assumed publicly the office he had really controlled since his seizure of Guatemala on April 13, 1839. His new council, including many Liberals, was especially displeasing to the aristocrats and Conservatives, and they plotted his overthrow” (page 135).

Jiménez 1981: Rivera Paz resigns on December 11, 1844 (page 122). With the support of the Conservative Party and the church Carrera is named president.

Lynch 1992: “On 11 December 1844 a frightened assembly, which had already nominated him ‘Benemérito Caudillo y General en Jefe,’ elected him president, anxious that he should fulfil his role not only as protector of the Indians but also as protector of the élites against the Indians” (page 388).

Woodward 1993: Constituent Congress names president (page 174).

Woodward 1995: “Mariano Rivera Paz fue Jefe del Estado hasta diciembre de 1844, un hábil político nacido en Cobán que supo manejar la delicada relación entre Carrera y la élite capitalina” (page 104). Rivera Paz “renunció el 8 de diciembre, ante la incapacidad de formar un nuevo gobierno, y declaró que el país necesitaba un cambio de administración. Se reunió inmediatamente un Consejo Constituyente, que escogió como su presidente al liberal José Venancio López. Este Consejo eligió a Carrera para suceder a Rivera Paz, el 11 de diciembre…Carrera tomó posesión del cargo el 14 de diciembre de 1844” (page 106).

1845

Ingersoll 1972: “The first year of Carrera’s presidency saw the preparation of [a Liberal] constitution. This document, which called for a four-year presidential term with no reelection, displeased the Indian caudillo to the point that it was never ratified” (page 304).

January

Holleran 1949: “Long before taking actual possession of the office of President on January 1, 1845, Rafael Carrera had been determining Church-state relations in Guatemala…A chronological study of the thirty years Carrera was in power indicates that, while in general during this period the Church enjoyed the favor of the government, it was a spasmodic favor, granted and withdrawn according as it coincided with or hindered Carrera’s schemes” (pages 128-129).

February

Woodward 1995: “Casi de inmediato, el 2 de febrero de 1845, los conservadores intentaron dar un golpe de Estado, que fue aplastado” (page 106).

1846

September

Woodward 1995: “(E)l 1o de septiembre de 1846 [Carrera] dejó temporalmente la presidencia…De nuevo se intentó adoptar una Constitución liberal moderada, que incluyera disposiciones contra la reelección presidencial y las reformas municipales que hubieran disminuido el poder de los corregidores e integrado a los indígenas en el sistema de gobierno municipal” (page 107).

November

Woodward 1995: “Cuando los liberales convocaron para elegir un nuevo Congreso encargado de ratificar la Constitución, Carrera volvió a ocupar la presidencia el 17 de noviembre…Carrera consolidó rápidamente su propia posición, disolvió la Asamblea y convocó una nueva controlada por él, la cual rechazó la Constitución y llamó a otra Constituyente” (page 107).

1847

Gaitán A. 1992: “En el año de 1846 [Mariano Rivera Paz] fue electo alcalde primero de la corporación municipal de la ciudad de Guatemala” (page 27).

Ingersoll 1972: “The turbulence of 1847 to 1849, called the revolt of the Lucíos from the name of one of the early martyrs, was a complex process in which the various segments of Guatemala would seek preeminence. While the Liberals and Conservatives would maneuver for control in the capital, the Indian peasants of the Oriente would rise up to seek redress of their wrongs” (page 285).

March

Lynch 1992: “(O)n 21 March 1847, [Carrera] declared Guatemala to be free, sovereign, and independent” (page 390).

October

Sullivan-Gonzalez 1998: “Carrera’s supporters grew weary of the caudillo’s politics, which appeared to favor the city elite, and by October 1847 open rebellion erupted once again in the eastern highlands” (page 9).

1848

January

Holleran 1949: “When all efforts to check the revolution failed, Carrera, fearing his overthrow, called a Constituent Assembly and placed the executive power provisionally in the hands of Vice President Cruz on Jan. 25, 1848. The Conservatives, alarmed, begged Carrera to resume his office. He did so, organizing a new Congress composed mostly of Conservatives, and revoking the decree calling for a Constituent Congress” (page 137).

Ingersoll 1972: “On January 12, 1848, President Carrera convened yet another Constitutional Congress, but the turbulence of the growing rebellion forced its suspension on February 5” (page 305).

Woodward 1995: “Los liberales sigueron exigiendo la elección de la Asamblea Constituyente, la que se había prometido en la declaración de independencia de 1847” (page 110).

May

Ingersoll 1972: “On May 24…Carrera issued Decree Number 35, calling for elections for delegates for yet another Constitutional Congress to convene on August 15” (page 308).

June-July

Ingersoll 1972: “Even the June elections, in which the Liberal delegates appeared to be winning, did nothing to stop the growing revolution” (page 308).

Woodward 1993: Election of Constituent Assembly is won by liberals (page 197-201).

Woodward 1995: “Las elecciones que siguieron, en medio de una guerra civil prolongada, fueron notablemente honradas. Los primeros resultados indicaban una victoria liberal…El gobierno acuso a los liberales de haber manipulado el voto indígena para ganar la elección y negó que ésta reflejara la opinión pública. Sin embargo, se aceptó la victoria liberal y Carrera hizo saber claramente que respetaría los resultados y devolvería el poder a la Asamblea cuando ésta fuera convocada” (page 110).

August

Holleran 1949: “(O)n Aug. 15, 1848, [Carrera] was forced by the growing discontent to call the Assembly, send in his resignation and retire to Chiapas. The new president, Juan Antonio Martínez, kept Carrera’s officers in command. Luis Molina organized a third party, the Moderates, which most of the Liberals joined, leaving their own party itself weak” (pages 136-137).

Ingersoll 1972: “On August 17, the assembly chose as Guatemala’s new president the respected and seventy year old merchant, Juan Antonio Martínez, a moderate Liberal” (page 310).

Rosenthal 1962: Constituent Assembly elects president (page 130).

Sullivan-Gonzalez 1998: “In August 1848 Carrera exiled himself for a year to the indigenous highlands of Mexico in Tuxtla Gutierrez while Guatemala began to disintegrate” (page 9).

Woodward 1993: Representative Assembly chooses president (page 203).

October

Ingersoll 1972: “On October 18, still in the first flush of triumph, the Liberals pushed through the assembly a decree of exile against the departed Indian caudillo, placing him under sentence of death if he should return to the country” (page 311).

November

Holleran 1949: “When Martínez, unable to maintain peace, resigned, José Bernardo Escobar took office, November 28, 1848, only to meet instant opposition from both the Moderate party and the aristocrats and clergy” (page 137).

Ingersoll 1972: “ On November 27, President Martínez presented his resignation to the assembly. The next day, the assembly chose as his successor José Bernardo Escobar, a member of the old Oposición who had been instrumental in overthrowing Dr Gálvez in 1838” (page 317).

Woodward 1993: Assembly names its president to replace elected president when he resigns (page 212).

December

Ingersoll 1972: “On December 31, 1848, President José Bernardo Escobar, his hands tied by political factionalism, resigned” (page 319).

1849

January

Holleran 1949: Escobar “resigned and was succeeded on January 1, 1849 by Mariano Paredes, who was to prove but a tool of the Conservatives to bring Carrera back into power” (page 137).

Ingersoll 1972: On January 1, 1849, “General Mariano Paredes, one of Carrera’s former montañeses, became the president of Guatemala under the aegis of the moderate wing of the Liberal group” (page 319).

Taplin 1972: General Mariano Paredes is appointed president January 1, 1849 (page 86).

February

Gaitán A. 1992: “(E)l 26 de febrero de 1849 fue asesinado [el ex-presidente Mariano Rivera Paz] cuando iba a tomar posesión de la gobernación departamental de Jutiapa” (page 29).

April

Holleran 1949: “On April 13, 1849 [Carrera] was once more given control and made Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Guatemala. The aristocracy and clergy proposed to give him prestige and make him appear indispensable” (page 137).

June

Ingersoll 1972: “On June 5, to the fury of the Oposición, President Paredes rescinded the decree of October 13, 1848, exiling the caudillo on pain of death” (page 325). “The Conservatives prepared to welcome home the restorer of law and order” (page 326).

August

Lynch 1992: “In August 1849, as the liberals packed their bags, Carrera was welcomed triumphantly into Guatemala as Commander-in-Chief of the Army with a mission to pacify the rebellious areas” (page 395).

Sullivan-Gonzalez 1998: “Los Altos again briefly attempted to break away, but all such plans were scuttled by the returning Carrera who, backed by a strong indigenous force, reentered the capital and took control in August 1849, this time for good” (page 9).

Woodward 1995: “Paredes permaneció como Presidente, pero Carrera fue ascendido a Teniente General, y se convirtió en Comandante en Jefe de las Fuerzas Armadas el 3 de agosto de 1849…A partir de entonces, los liberales dejaron de desempeñar, por 20 años, un papel prominente en la política guatemalteca, aunque unos cuantos permanecieron en el Congreso y en puestos menores” (page 110).

1851

February

Sullivan-Gonzalez 1998: “By the beginning of 1851, Carrera had soundly defeated the various factions, although some of his disgruntled opponents joined forces with the invading troops of El Salvador and Honduras for a final showdown at La Arada in February 1851. Carrera’s impressive military victory silenced most opposition for the next fifteen years” (page 9).

August

Taplin 1972: The constituent assembly is convened August 16, 1851 (page 86).

Woodward 1993: “Departmental representation in National Assembly” (page 268). Gives departmental and corporation representation. (Source is Gaceta de Guatemala October 31, 1851.)

October

Alda Mejías 2000: En la ley electoral de 1851 los “electores eran los cabezas de familia, que supieran leer y escribir o poseyeran una propiedad raíz superior a los mil pesos o desempeñaran algún cargo concejil” (page 100). “La Asamblea no sólo se compondría de representantes elegidos por el voto de los departamentos, sino también de diputados electos por cinco corporaciones, la Universidad, el Cabildo eclesiástico, la Corte de Justicia, el Consulado de Comercio y la Sociedad Económica, aunque no todos los integrantes de estas corporaciones tenían derecho a voto” (page 101).

Jiménez 1981: Paredes resigns the presidency on October 22, 1851 and the national assembly names Carrera as his replacement (page 123).

Kitchen 1955: “A new constitution for the republic was adopted in 1851. The single article dealing with local government is suggestive of the insignificant role municipal government played under the all-embracing dictatorship” (page 40).

Rodríguez de Ita 2003: En la constitución de 1851 ‘se mantuvieron los principios del sistema electoral establecidos anteriormente, es decir, el indirecto en tercer grado, que favorecía la manipulación y el fraude” (page 186).

Taracena Arriola 2002: “(E)l 19 de octubre de 1851…una Asamblea Constituyente hizo más modificaciones…En cuanto al sistema de elecciones, estaba claro que debía cambiar por completo, excluyendo esta vez del proceso electoral no solamente a los indígenas, sino también a la población no indígena que careciera de bienes en general. Con ello se reforzaba el ejercicio ‘ciudadano activo’ de la elección como un derecho fundamental de la élite criolla y de sus principales aliados ladinos” (volume 1, page 173).

Valdés 2000: “1851: La Constitución de este año estableció que los hombres y las mujeres podían ser reconocidos como ciudadanos si demostraban ser económicamente independientes, condición que de hecho constituyó un obstáculo para la participación política de la mujer” (Anexo: Precursoras del movimiento de mujeres: Guatemala).

Woodward 1993: Constituent Assembly elects president unanimously (page 269).

Woodward 1995: “No sorprendió a nadie que después de promulgarse la nueva Constitución, la Asamblea eligiera a Carrera para un período presidencial de cuatro años” (page 115).

November

Ingersoll 1972: “(O)n November 6, 1851, Rafael Carrera again became the President of Guatemala” (page 331).

1852

Cambranes 1985: “Due to the agricultural conditions prevailing in Guatemala in the middle of the nineteenth-century, the stormy weather which decimated the country in 1852, causing deaths and extensive material damage, was catastrophic” (page 42). “The extent of the damage was such that the Central Government was on the brink of bankruptcy in 1852 and 1853” (page 43). “It was then that…the Conservative Government decided to systematically promote the diversification of crops, coffee in particular” (page 44).

Woodward 1990: “Authority in the countryside rested most heavily with the landowners and with the political bosses, or corregidores, in each department. Also appointed by the caudillo, loyalty to whom was their primary responsibility, these local governors wielded enormous power over their mini-kingdoms” (page 66).

July

Woodward 1993: Assembly elections result in conservative landslide (page 273). (Source is “Gaceta de Guatemala” October 29, 1852, which gives complete list of new representatives.)

October

Contreras R. 1995: “En octubre de 1852 el gobierno de Carrera firmó en Roma un Concordato con la Santa Sede, en el que se establecía que la religión católica seguiría siendo la religión de la República de Guatemala” (page 182).

Holleran 1949: “It was during the Carrera administration, on Oct. 7, 1852, that the first Concordat which the Vatican negotiated with any Latin American republic was approved” (page 140).

1854

Woodward 1993: “Departments that proclaimed Carrera as president for life” (page 274). Gives electoral districts and number of clergymen, military and government officials, municipalities, and signatures, and percent of total estimated population involved. (Source is “Resumen de los departamentos que han celebrado Actas proclamando Presidente perpetuo de la Republica al Excmo. Sr. Capitan General Don Rafael Carrera, con espresion de los prelados eclesiasticos y sacerdotes, empleados y oficiales militares que han concurrido a dichos actos, numero de municipalidades y firmas que los autorizan”, “Gaceta de Guatemala” August 11 1854.)

May

Lynch 1992: “On 23 May 1854 [Carrera] became ‘presidente vitalicio,’ one of the few Spanish Americans to achieve the Bolivarian ideal of a life presidency” (page 396).

November

Jiménez 1981: “El 25 de noviembre de 1854 la Asamblea Nacional sancionó el nombramiento como presidente vitalicio en favor de Rafael Carrera” (page 123).

Rosenthal 1962: Guatemalan assembly decrees Carrera the “supreme and perpetual ruler of Guatemala to his death” (page 131).

1855

Woodward 1985: “By 1855 coffee fincas were springing up around Cobán, Antigua, and Amatitlán…From there, coffee spread southward to the Pacific coastal slopes” (page 150).

1856

Lynch 1992: “(I)n 1856-7 [Carrera] took the lead against the American filibuster, William Walker, sending Guatemala’s army to join Central American resistance” (page 396).

1859

Holden 2004: “The first serious challenge to Carrera’s control of Guatemala emerged in El Salvador, where a liberal ‘golpista’ regime under Gerardo Barrios took power in 1859” (page 51).

March

Jiménez 1981: On March 21, 1859 Carrera signs a decree declaring Guatemala a sovereign nation independent of the Central American federation (page 123).

April

Jiménez 1981: “El 30 de abril de 1859 firmó [Carrera] un tratado con el gobierno británico por medio del cual cedía el territorio de Belice” (page 124).