Elections and Events 1952-1979

1952

Butler 1991: "The PARM, established in 1952, traditionally was viewed as being almost an arm of the PRI and subordinated to the federal government" (page 9).

July 6: Federal election (Ruiz Cortines / PRI)

Aguilar Camín 1993: "The official count gave Adolfo Ruiz Cortines 2.7 million votes (74.3 percent) and General Henríquez a little more than half a million; the PAN candidate received 285,000 votes, and Lombardo Toledano, the Popular party candidate, only 72,000" (page 180).

Paoli Bolio 1985:"Este año [1952] registra las últimas elecciones que despertaron considerable interés y participación popular contra el gobierno, promovidas por una organización que gira en torno de una personalidad, sin un partido permanente, sin un programa ni ideología estructurados" (page 149). Gives number of votes and percent of vote won by each party (page 151).

Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales: 1952-1958" (page 295).

Reyna 1985: Describes 1952 election, gives total votes cast, and percent won by each presidential candidate (pages 105-108).

Taplin 1972: Adolfo Ruiz Cortines elected July 6, 1952 (page 65).

1953

Craig and Cornelius 1995: Women are granted the right to vote and to be elected in federal elections in 1953 (page 252).

Grayson 1994: "Women were granted the right to vote in 1953" (page xii).

1954

Gómez Tagle 1993: The Partido Auténtico de la Revolución Mexicana (PARM) is founded in 1954 (page 212). "Obtiene el registro, participa en elecciones federales, algunas veces apoya candidaturas del PRI."

1958

July 6: Federal election (López Mateos / PRI)

Amezcua 1997: "En 1958, el PAN consiguió una victoria insólita en Baja California, cuando su candidato presidencial, Luis H. Álvarez, obtuvo en el estado más votos que su oponente priísta, Adolfo López Mateos" (pages 43-44).

Guillén López 1992a: "En las elecciones presidenciales de 1958, el candidato oficial, Adolfo López Mateos, perdió las elecciones en Baja California ante el panista Efraín González Luna" (page 153).

Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales: 1958-1964" (page 296).

Reyna 1985: Describes 1958 election, gives total votes cast, and percent won by each presidential candidate (pages 108-110).

Taplin 1972: Adolfo López Mateos elected on July 6, 1958 (page 65).

Valles 1991: Discusses the campaign and presidential election of 1958 and gives results (page 63).

December

Aguilar Camín 1993: In San Luis Potosí, "an urban opposition movement that united leftist and rightist elements in the Potosí Civic Union...supported the candidacy of Dr. Salvador Nava...for the post of mayor in 1959...The extent of this opposition and the possibility of violence were so great that central authorities thought it prudent to accept the PRI's defeat in the municipal government" (page 183).

Bezdek 1995: "Because others refused to challenge Santos [PRI governor of state of San Luis Potosí], [Salvador] Nava became a consensus mayoral candidate in 1958 [for the city of San Luis Potosí]. Rejected by the PRI, he ran as an independent, and his movement united all sectors of Potosinan society against the regime, as evidenced by his receiving 94 percent of the vote [in the December 7, 1958 mayoral election]" (page 36).

López Chavarría 1994: "El domingo 7 [de diciembre de 1958] debían ser las elecciones municipales en la capital de San Luis Potosí. El doctor Nava Martínez obtuvo 22 mil 010 votos y el licenciado Gutiérrez Castellanos 11 mil 320, según el anuncio hecho por la Junta Computadora...El caso revistió gran importancia, era el primer ayuntamiento que formalmente lograba salir de la órbita del sistema partidario constreñido a la docotomía PRI-PAN" (page 150).

1959

Rodríguez and Ward 1994: "(T)he state and local elections of August 1959 marked the [PAN's] first real foray into electoral competition [in Baja California] and set the tone for its experiences over the next thirty years. The PAN made a very strong showing in the elections (many observers felt that it won the governorship), but the PRI stole the elections through massive fraud and carried out violent attacks against the PANistas" (page 27).

1960

Gómez Tagle 1993: The Partido Popular Socialista (PPS) is founded in 1960 (page 211). "Obtiene el registro y desde entonces participa en todas las elecciones federales, pero muchas veces apoya candidaturas del PRI."

1961

Aguilar Camín 1993: In San Luis Potosí in 1961, when "Nava tried to push his movement into the state government, the central government's attitude was totally negative. Without regard to the political price, it decided to confront the opposition in an open, definitive way, in order not to lose its monopoly over state governorships, which were non-negotiable pieces in the power structure. As others before him, Nava could do nothing when the federal government declared the victory of the PRI candidate, except to accuse the PRI of fraud" (page 183).

Johnson 1971: "The UNS, the PAN, and an amorphous public spirited citizenry joined forces to combat the repressive tactics of Gonzalo N. Santos...From the protest movements rose the figure of Dr. Salvador Nava whose name has become synonymous with restorationist civic protest in Mexico...(I)n 1961 Dr. Nava and his Civic Union lost the gubernatorial contest to Professor Manuel López Dávila in San Luis Potosí" (page 131). Reproduces the petition of complaint about the election that was sent to the Mexican Supreme Court asking that the results be declared null and void (page 132).

Federal election

Castellanos Hernández 1996: "Elecciones de diputados de mayoría relativa, 1961" (pages 231-234). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Gómez Tagle 1990: "Diputados de mayoría relativa, 1961" (pages 120-123).

1963

Electoral reform in Mexico 1993: "In 1963, the opposition gained greater access to the Chamber of Deputies. Any minority party winning 2.5 percent of the national vote would automatically win five seats in the Chamber plus an additional seat for every half percentage point up to a maximum of 20 seats" (page 12).

Vázquez-Gómez 1997: The "Tratado de Tlatelolco" is published on February 29, 1963, during the presidency of Adolfo López Mateos and advocates the denuclearization of the American continent (page 153).

1964

July: Federal election (Díaz Ordaz / PRI, PPS, PARM)

Aguilar Camín 1993: "The official candidate, Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, secretary of government, received 89 percent of the vote and the PAN candidate only 11 percent" (page 181).

Barquín 1986: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales, 1964" (page 343). Gives votes for each party for president, senators, and deputies; number of senators and deputies (divided into two categories) elected by each party; null votes; number of abstentions; total votes; and total of registered voters.

Castellanos Hernández 1996: "Elecciones presidenciales, 1964" (pages 203-206). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones de diputados de mayoría relativa, 1964" (pages 235-238). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones de senadores, 1964" (pages 433-436). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Gómez Tagle 1990: "Diputados de mayoría relativa, 1964" (pages 124-127). "Senadores, 1964" (pages 128-131). "Presidente, 1964" (pages 132-135).

Newman Valenzuela 1987: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales. 1964" (page 200). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party for president, senators, and deputies; number of senators and deputies (divided into "mayoría relativa" and "de partido") elected by each party; null votes, total vote; abstentions; and registered voters.

Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales: 1964-1970" (page 297).

Ramos Oranday 1985: "Elecciones presidenciales. Niveles de abstencionismo por entidades federativas, 1964" (page 176).

Reyna 1985: Describes 1964 election, gives total votes cast, and percent won by each presidential candidate (pages 110-113).

Taplin 1972: Gustavo Díaz Ordaz elected July 5, 1963 (page 65).

1965

Nuevo León

Johnson 1971: "On the outskirts of the large Monterrey urban complex the municipality of Garza García fell from the revolutionary coalition and came under a PAN administration in 1965...An overwhelming public turnout on behalf of the PAN in the municipal elections plus these strong group ties of the PAN organization made it impossible for the state's PRI dominated officialdom to intervene" (page 133).

1967

July: Federal election

Barquín 1986: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales, 1967" (page 344). Gives votes for each party for federal deputies; number of deputies (divided into two categories) elected by each party; null votes; number of abstentions; total votes; and total of registered voters.

Castellanos Hernández 1996: "Elecciones de diputados de mayoría relativa, 1967" (pages 239-242). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Gómez Tagle 1990: "Diputados de mayoría relativa, 1967" (pages 136-139).

Newman Valenzuela 1987: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales. 1967" (page 202). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party for deputies; number (divided into "mayoría relativa" and "de partido") elected by each party; null votes, total vote; abstentions; and registered voters.

Local election

Sonora

Johnson 1971: In the election of July 2, 1967 in Sonora the PAN won the municipal election in Hermosillo, the state capital (page 134).

November

Yucatán

Johnson 1971: In Yucatán, "in November 1967 a slate of PAN candidates captured the municipal government of Mérida" (page 141).

Poot Capetillo 1994: PAN wins its first electoral victory in Mérida, Yucatán in November 1967. Gives votes for PAN and PRI mayoral candidates (page 185).

1968

July

Baja California

Guillén López 1992a: En 1968 [en Baja California Norte], en las elecciones municipales de Tijuana y Mexicali, el PAN logró derrotar en las urnas al PRI, pero las votaciones fueron anuladas" (page 153).

Johnson 1971: "When the votes were counted following the June 2nd [1968] election it appeared that PAN had won the race for mayor in Tijuana and possibly also in Mexicali....On June 20, the Secretary of the Interior, Luis Echeverría, declared that 'irregularities' had occurred in Baja California's June 2 elections and the state legislature had been directed by Mexico City to nullify the results and to plan for new elections" (page 139).

October

Aguilar Camín 1993: "In July [1968], a brutal escalation of repression against student demonstrations, which had little or no political content, exacerbated the deep political discontent that these sectors had traditionally had...By September, the conflict had degenerated into the most open, protracted, and widespread agitation in contemporary Mexican history. Large groups demonstrated in the streets, openly attacked the president and his close officials, and the system itself, accusing them of being undemocratic...These events were happening, furthermore, just months before the 1968 Olympic Games in a city occupied by correspondents from all over the world, whom the government wanted to impress with examples of Mexican peace and progress. After a series of demonstrations, repression, and failed attempts at negotiation, and just before the opening of the Games, the president and his political advisers considered this challenge to the principle of authority intolerable, and on October 2, 1968, the army and the police put an end to the protest by means of an indiscriminate massacre of demonstrators at the Plaza of the Three Cultures in Tlatelolco" (pages 186-187).

Middlebrook 1986: "During the early 1970's, liberal elements in Mexico's governing revolutionary coalition became increasingly convinced that the regime suffered from a substantial erosion of its political legitimacy. The 1968 student strike and 'Tlatelolco massacre' (in which police and army troops killed or wounded many protesting students) were watershed events in this regard" (pages 76-77).

1969

Grayson 1994: "The voting age [was] lowered from 21 to 18 in 1969" (page xii).

Levy and Székely 1987: The 1969 electoral reform "lowered the minimum voting age to eighteen years, irrespective of gender and marital status. The new age requirement is particularly relevant in a country where most of the population is young" (page 66).

1970

Federal election (Echeverría Álvarez / PRI, PPS, PARM)

Aguilar Camín 1993: "The PRI candidate, Luis Echeverría, secretary of interior, received 84 percent of the vote and Efraín González Morfín of PAN got 14 percent" (page 181).

Barquín 1986: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales, 1970" (page 345). Gives votes for each party for president, senators, and deputies; number of senators and deputies (divided into two categories) elected by each party; null votes; number of abstentions; total votes; and total of registered voters.

Castellanos Hernández 1996: "Elecciones presidenciales, 1970" (pages 207-210). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones de diputados de mayoría relativa, 1970" (pages 243-246). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones de senadores, 1970" (pages 437-440). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Gómez Tagle 1990: "Diputados de mayoría relativa, 1970" (pages 140-143). "Senadores, 1970" (pages 144-147). "Presidente, 1970" (pages 148-151).

López Villafañe 1986: Gives number of votes and percent of votes cast for each candidate by each party in the 1970 presidential election (page 195).

Newman Valenzuela 1987: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales. 1970" (page 204). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party for president, senators, and deputies; number of senators and deputies (divided into "mayoría relativa" and "de partido") elected by each party; null votes; total vote; abstentions; and registered voters.

Ramírez Rancaño 1977: "Elecciones presidenciales: 1970-1976" (pages 298-299).

Ramos Oranday 1985: "Elecciones presidenciales. Niveles de abstencionismo por entidades federativas, 1970" (page 179).

Reyna 1985: Describes 1970 election, gives total votes cast, and percent won by each presidential candidate (pages 113-115).

Schmidt 1988a: "Diferencia de datos entre ciudadanos empadronados y en edad de votar para elección presidencial en 1970" (page 25). Gives population of voting age and number registered to vote in the states of Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Coahuila.

1971

Gorvin 1989: "The Partido Demócrata Mexicano (is) founded in 1971" (page 227).

June

Aguilar Camín 1993: "The moment of greatest impact in the Democratic Opening was the night of June 10, 1971. On the evening of that day, a paramilitary group secretly organized by a government office put down with clubs and gunshots, machine guns, and high-caliber weapons a student demonstration in Mexico City. President Echeverría promised on television that those responsible would be punished...It was a spectacular moment because it led to the removal of high officials, including the mayor of Mexico City" (page 208).

Middlebrook 1986: "Violent attacks by paramilitary groups on student demonstrators in June 1971 further fueled guerrilla movements in several areas of the country by convincing many leftist groups that peaceful reform efforts were futile" (page 78).

1972

González Madrid 1995: The Partido Demócrata Mexicano (PDM) is founded in 1972 (page 218).

1973

Electoral reform in Mexico 1993: "In 1973, the maximum number of party deputy seats allowed to a minority party was raised to 25" (page 12).

Gorvin 1989: The PST is "a Marxist-Leninist party, which was founded in 1973 and gained legal recognition in 1978" (page 228).

Federal elections

Barquín 1986: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales, 1973" (page 346). Gives votes for each party for deputies; number of deputies (divided into two categories) elected by each party; null votes; number of abstentions; total votes; and total of registered voters.

Castellanos Hernández 1996: "Elecciones de diputados de mayoría relativa, 1973" (pages 247-250). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Newman Valenzuela 1987: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales. 1973" (page 206). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party for deputies; number of deputies (divided into "mayoría relativa" and "de partido") elected by each party; null votes, total vote; abstentions; and registered voters.

September

La Botz 1995: "On September 17, 1973, Eugenio Garza Sada, was gunned down in the streets of Monterrey by leftist urban guerillas of the '23 of September' Communist League during a failed kidnapping attempt. Garza Sada was the head of the powerful Monterrey Group" (page 59).

1974

Local elections (month unknown)

Aguascalientes

Alonso 1985: "Resultado de las elecciones en el estado de Aguascalientes: ayuntamientos, 1974" (page 181). Gives number of votes by municipality for each party. "Resultado de las elecciones en el estado de Aguascalientes para diputados al congreso local, 1974" (page 184). Gives votes for each party by district.

Oaxaca

Clarke 1996: The Coalición de Obreros Campesinos y Estudiantes del Istmo (COCEI) is founded in 1974. "The success of COCEI as a political force hinged on its appeal to Zapotec and regional identity in contradistinction to the PRI" (page 278).

Yescas 1995: "(E)n las elecciones de 1974 [en Oaxaca], las organizaciones sociales y los partidos de oposición se atribuyeron victorias, nunca reconocidas, en 11 de los 570 municipios oaxaqueños" (page 360).

November

Baja California Sur

Guillén Vicente 1990: "Elección para el H. Congreso Constituyente de Baja California Sur (10 de noviembre de 1974)" (page 151). Gives number of votes and percent of vote in each district for each party.

1975

Local elections (month unknown)

Nayarit

Pacheco Ladrón de Guevara 1991: Describes the gubernatorial election in Nayarit in 1975 and gives results (pages 64-66).

March

Baja California Sur

Guillén Vicente 1990: The first governor and first state legislature of Baja California Sur are elected in March 1975 (page 106). "Elección para gobernador constitucional de Baja California Sur (2 de marzo de 1975)" (page 152). Gives number of votes and percent of vote in each district for each party.

1976

July: General election (López Portillo / PRI, PPS, PARM)

Aguilar Camín 1993: "(T)he PAN [in 1976], suffered an internal crisis, since a majority of its members did not want to continue playing the role of permanent minority...The PAN did not present a candidate. The other two registered parties, the PPS and the PARM, supported the PRI candidate...The only electoral opposition in 1976 was that of Valentín Campa, a candidate for the Mexican Communist party, which was not registered, and, therefore, votes for him were not taken into account. Formally, then, the official candidate was alone, and received 94 percent of the vote, an embarrassingly high percentage, which diminished even more the significance and credibility of the electoral process" (page 181).

Barquín 1986: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales, 1976" (page 347). Gives votes for each party for president, senators, and deputies; number of senators and deputies (divided into two categories) elected by each party; null votes; number of abstentions; total votes; and total of registered voters.

Castellanos Hernández 1996: "Elecciones presidenciales, 1976" (pages 211-214). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones de diputados de mayoría relativa, 1976" (pages 251-254). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones de senadores, 1976" (pages 441-444). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Cornelius 1986: "The PAN's default was caused by a deep internal schism which led to the expulsion of most of the party's moderate-progressive wing" (page 121).

López Villafañe 1986: Gives number of votes and percent of votes cast for each candidate by each party in the 1976 presidential election (page 195).

Newman Valenzuela 1987: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales. 1976" (page 208). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party for president, senators, and deputies; number of senators and deputies (divided into "mayoría relativa" and "de partido") elected by each party; null votes; total vote; abstentions; and registered voters.

Ramos Oranday 1985: "Elecciones presidenciales. Niveles de abstencionismo por entidades federativas, 1976" (page 181).

Reyna 1985: Describes 1976 election (pages 115-117).

1977

Clarke 1996: Governor Zárate Aquino of Oaxaca formally asks for a leave of absence on March 3, 1977, after months of unrest, and is replaced by General Eliseo Jiménez Ruiz, the senator for Oaxaca (pages 274-276).

Electoral reform in Mexico 1993: "In 1977, President López Portillo, embarrassed at having had no opponent in the presidential election of 1976 and seeking to incorporate the left in the political system, expanded the number of minority party seats allocated on the basis of proportional representation to 100 and legalized a host of leftist parties" (page 12).

Levy and Székely 1987: Discusses in detail the 1977 electoral reform (pages 66-67). "(I)ts main thrust was the establishment of a mixed voting system in the Chamber of Deputies, which is more powerful than the Senate."

Middlebrook 1986: "The liberalization process, initiated by a political reform measure enacted in 1977 by the administration of José López Portillo (1976-82), increased the number and ideological diversity of officially registered political parties participating in the electoral process. It also altered the rules governing elections, augmented opposition parties' representation in the federal Chamber of Deputies and in state and local governments, and expanded opposition parties' access to mass communications" (page 74.

Local elections (month unknown)

Aguascalientes

Alonso 1985: "Resultado de las elecciones en el estado de Aguascalientes: ayuntamientos, 1977" (page 182). Gives number of votes by municipality for each party. "Resultado de las elecciones en el estado de Aguascalientes para diputados al congreso local, 1977" (page 185). Gives votes for each party by district.

Oaxaca

Yescas 1995: In the municipal elections of 1977 in Oaxaca the PPS won seven municipalities, the PAN four, and the PARM two (page 360).

November

Baja California Sur

Guillén Vicente 1990: "Baja California Sur. Elección de diputados de mayoría (6 de noviembre de 1977)" (page 153). Gives number of votes and percent of vote in each district for each party.

1978

Aguilar Camín 1993: "(T)he years of López's oil boom, 1978-1982, achieved economic growth rates that surpassed 8 percent, among the highest rates in the world. Emerging from political disarray and an economic downturn, the government of José López Portillo found in oil the Archimedes' lever to overcome the stagnation and renew the economic development process with limitless possibilities" (page 209).

1979

Local elections (month unknown)

Sonora

Guadarrama 1987: "In 1978 the PAN [in Sonora] underwent a significant change with the incorporation into the party's ranks of Cajeme businessmen who had been affected by the Echeverría reforms. With their support, the PAN won the mayoralty of the 'municipio' in 1979" (page 47). Elections in 1979 were for governor, local deputies, and municipalities (page 48).

July: Federal election

Barquín 1986: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales, 1979" (page 348). Gives votes for each party for deputies; number of deputies (divided into two categories) elected by each party; null votes; number of abstentions; total votes; and total of registered voters.

Castellanos Hernández 1996: "Elecciones de diputados de mayoría relativa, 1979" (pages 255-258). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Diputados de mayoría relativa, 1979. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 281-325). Gives for each district in each state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Diputados de representación proporcional, 1979" (pages 419-422). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Martínez Assad 1987: "In the legislative elections of 1979, abstention was particularly pronounced in Sonora (73.84%), Sinaloa (71.53%), and Chihuahua (59.75%). On the other hand, abstention in states with large indigenous populations and characterized by an agrarian way of life was relatively low: only 27.90% of voters failed to cast ballots in Quintana Roo, 34.71% in Campeche, 43.32% in Hidalgo, and 42.17% in Chiapas" (page 36).

Newman Valenzuela 1987: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales. 1979" (page 210). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party for deputies; number of deputies (divided into "mayoría relativa" and "de partido") elected by each party; null votes, total vote; abstentions; and registered voters.

Local elections

Guanajuato

Valencia García 1994: In Guanajuato "en 1979 el PAN obtiene un 12.5% de la votación [para gobernador]" (page 86). "En 1979, aunque la totalidad de los municipios fueron ganados por el PRI, en las sesiones calificadoras del Colegio Electoral fueron impugnados los resultados de seis municipios." Gives percent of total vote for PRI and municipalities where PAN received over 25% of the vote.

Nuevo Leon

Granados Chapa 1985a: "Durante el gobierno de Echeverría, y especialmente después del asesinato del gran patriarca empresarial Eugenio Garza Sada, las tensiones entre el gobierno (el federal y el local) y los grupos empresariales de Monterrey se agudizaron. López Portillo buscó en Martínez Domínguez un candidato que, grato a aquellos intereses, fuera capaz de desagravar la situación. No obstante, la votación en favor de Acción Nacional fue muy abundante" (page 286). Gives votes for each party.

Nuncio 1992: In the elections of July 1979 in Nuevo León, "en la votación para gobernador, el PRI captó 419,141 votos contra 122,789 del PAN y 7,753 del resto de los partidos" (page202). "Votación del PRI para diputados federales en los distritos rurales y urbanos, 1979" (page 203). Gives votes in each district. "Resultados de la votación del PARM para diputados locales, 1979" (page 204). Gives votes in each district. "Resultados de la votación del PPS para diputados locales, 1979" (page 204-205). Gives votes in each district.