Elections and Events 1980-1984

1980

Local elections (month unknown)

Aguascalientes

Alonso 1985: "Resultado de las elecciones en el estado de Aguascalientes: ayuntamientos, 1980" (page 183). Gives number of votes by municipality for each party. "Resultado de las elecciones en el estado de Aguascalientes para diputados al congreso local, 1980" (page 186). Gives votes for each party by district.

Reyes Rodríguez 1993: "Elecciones gobernador 1980" (page 122). Gives number of votes for each party in the election in Aguascalientes. "Diputados locales 1980." Gives by district the number of votes for each party.

Oaxaca

Clarke 1996: In Juchitán, Oaxaca "COCEI formed an alliance with the [PSUM]...to secure a place on the ballot. COCEI’s poll at the 1980 election was sufficiently close to that of the PRI for it to cry ‘fraud’ and embark upon mass mobilisation in support of its claim to victory" (page 279). "COCEI was eventually confirmed in government through a further close-run election which it won by the narrowest of margins in early 1981. The success of COCEI’s strategy of mass mobilisation, which involved the ‘capture’ of the ‘palacio municipal’ and extended to occupations in Mexico City and Oaxaca City, was to become the model for opposition groups in other disputed elections throughout the 1980s" (page 280).

Martínez Vásquez 1985: "Municipios con conflictos electorales 1980 [Oaxaca]" (page 208). "Municipios en donde triunfaron los partidos de oposición: 1980" (pages 210-211).

Rubin 1987: "After the 1977 political reform put democratization on the national agenda and legalized leftist parties, the COCEI...formed an alliance with the PCM and thereby gained an official place on the municipal ballot in 1980. This alliance provided a national forum from which to denounce electoral fraud following the 1980 elections. In the face of national publicity as well as direct-action mobilizations that included the occupation of two foreign embassies in Mexico City the Mexican government acknowledged the fraud and annulled the elections" (page 140).

Yescas 1995: The opposition won 17 municipalities in the 1980 election in Oaxaca (page 361).

Sinaloa

Martínez del Villar 1994: Discusses the gubernatorial election in Sinaloa in 1980 and gives election results for municipalities with strong opposition parties (pages 81-82).

July

Baja California

Messmacher 1985: "Comparativo de votación, en orden decreciente, en la elección de ayuntamientos en Baja California Norte en 1980" (page 264). "Comparativo de votación, en orden decreciente, en la elección de diputados locales de mayoría relativa en Baja California Norte en 1980" (page 267).

Chihuahua

Aziz Nassif 1985: "Resultados de las elecciones de julio de 1980 (número de votos)" (page 116). Gives by municipality the number of votes for each party in Chihuahua.

Michoacán

Rivera Velázquez 1995: Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano is elected governor of Michoacán in 1980 (page 209).

November

Baja California Sur

Guillén Vicente 1990: In the local elections of 1980 in Baja California Sur, PAN wins one state deputy in proportional representation (page 89). The 1980 local elections were for governor, state deputies, and municipalities (page 107). "Elección para gobernador constitucional de Baja California Sur (9 de noviembre de 1980)" (pages 153-154). Gives by district the number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

1981

Middlebrook 1986: "The Partido Social Demócrata...(PSD), appeared in 1981, primarily representing middle-class professionals who had previously participated in other civic and political organizations...The formation of the PSUM...in November 1981 was the most significant development in this area following the passage of the political reform law...(T)he creation of the PSUM was the first major step toward uniting long-established leftist groups such as the PCM with the opposition forces that emerged after the 1968 student movement" (page 91).

Local elections (month unknown)

Nayarit

Pacheco Ladrón de Guevara 1991: Describes the 1981 gubernatorial election in Nayarit and gives results (pages 66-68).

Oaxaca

Rubin 1987: "In the 1980s the COCEI formed an alliance with the Mexican Communist party that enabled it to participate officially in municipal elections and win office in 1981, making Juchitán [Oaxaca] the first and only city in Mexico with a leftist government" (page 127). "In special elections held three months [after the Mexican government annulled the 1980 elections], the COCEI was declared the winner with 51% of the vote" (page 140).

July

México (state)

Arreola Ayala 1985a: The July 1981 election in México (state) is for governor and 28 state deputies (page 17). "Resultados de las elecciones de julio de 1981 en el estado de México" (page 18). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Arreola Ayala 1995: Discusses and gives results of the gubernatorial election in México (state) on July 6, 1981 (pages 303-306).

November

México (state)

Arreola Ayala 1985a: The November 1981 election México (state) is for 121 municipal councils (page 19). "Votación total municipal, 1981" (page 23). Gives total number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Resultados electorales para la asignación de regidores de representación proporcional. Elección de municipios" (page 24). Gives results by municipality.

Yucatán

Huchim Koyoc 1995: Gives the results of the local elections in Yucatán in 1981 (page 394).

December

Coahuila

Cepeda Flores 1994: "En 1981 [en Coahuila], la izquierda obrera de Monclova logra imponer a uno de sus líderes y en alianza con el PAN repiten el triunfo en las elecciones municipales" (page 174).

1982

Butler 1991: "In 1982, the government recognized a series of local-level (‘municipio’) elections in which the opposition parties won in major cities in the Pacific North, North, and Center regions. This included the five state capitals of Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí, and Hermosillo (Sonora), and the major border city of Ciudad Juárez in the state of Chihuahua. All but one of these elections were won by...PAN. In Ensenada, Baja California, the PST won the election" (page 5).

Gómez Tagle 1993: "Elecciones de ayuntamientos, 1982" (pages 205-206). Gives for each state the number of municipalities, the registered voters, the total valid votes, percent of registered voters who voted, and the percent of vote for PAN, PRI, PPS, PARM, PDM, PCM/PSUM, PST, and PRT.

Local elections (month unknown)

Nuevo León

Middlebrook 1986: "There is convincing evidence that the PAN was the victim of significant electoral fraud in Nuevo León [in 1982]" (page 100).

Nuncio 1992: Discusses the 1982 elections in the state of Nuevo León. "Votación asimétrica de los partidos PPS, PARM, PST y PDM para diputados locales, 1982" (page 208). Gives the votes for each party in districts V, IX, XII, and XVIII.

January

Middlebrook 1986: "In January 1982...the López Portillo administration modified the original reform law so as to raise the barriers to electoral participation and prevent the formation of a large number of small political parties" (page 91).

February

Aguilar Camín 1993: "In February 1982...the government of Mexico was forced, belatedly, to devalue the currency by 70 percent" (page 212).

July: General election (de la Madrid Hurtado / PRI, PPS, PARM)

Alonso 1993: Gives results of the federal election in Jalisco in 1982 (pages 53-54).

Barquín 1986: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales, 1982" (page 349). Gives votes for each party for president, senators, and deputies; number of senators and deputies (divided into two categories) elected by each party; null votes; number of abstentions; total votes; and total of registered voters.

Castellanos Hernández 1996: "Elecciones presidenciales, 1982" (pages 215-218). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones de diputados de mayoría relativa, 1982" (pages 259-262). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Diputados de mayoría relativa, 1982. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 326-371). Gives for each district in each state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones de senadores, 1982" (pages 445-452). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Comisión Federal Electoral 1989: "Elecciones federales de julio de 1982. Resultado de la votación para presidente de la república" (page 580). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each candidate.

Gómez Tagle 1993: "Elecciones de senadores. Competencia electoral. Votos del segundo partido respecto del partido mayoritario 1982" (page 198). Gives for each state the votes won by PRI, the leading opposition party in that state, and the percent the second party’s vote constitutes of PRI’s vote.

Granados Chapa 1985: Federal election is held on July 4, 1982 with 31,500,000 registered voters; seven presidential candidates; 432 candidates for the senate; 2,348 candidates for the house; and 50,438 voting locations (page 199). "Votación de los partidos socialistas, 1982" (page 206). Gives number of votes and percent of votes for president, senators, and deputies.

Köppen 1985: "Elecciones para diputados de mayoría relativa. Total nacional, 1982" (page 213).

López Villafañe 1986: "Comisión Federal Electoral: resultados de las elecciones federales de 1982: diputados de representación proporcional" (page 198). Results by party at the national level. Comisión Federal Electoral: resultados de las elecciones federales de 1982: presidente de la república." Results by party at the national level.

Middlebrook 1986: "The abruptness and severity of the 1981-1982 economic crisis eroded the López Portillo administration’s commitment to continuing political liberalization. Indeed, as the economic crisis deepened in 1982, the administration attempted to use the general election to reinforce the government’s position at the expense of opposition parties in order to maintain firm political control" (pages 99-100).

Morales Garza 1993: "Eleciones federales 1982. Presidente de la republica" (page 157). Number of votes and percent of vote for PRI by district in Querétaro.

Newman Valenzuela 1987: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales. 1982" (page 213). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party for president, senators, and deputies; number of senators and deputies (divided into "mayoría relativa" and "de partido") elected by each party; null votes, total vote; abstentions; and registered voters.

Pacheco Ladrón de Guevara 1993: "Nayarit. Resultados de las elecciones de diputados federales, por municipio. 1982. (mayoría relativa)" (pages 82-83). Gives registered voters, total votes, number of votes and percent of vote in each municipality for nine parties, and number and percent of null votes in each municipality.

Ramos Oranday 1985: "Elecciones presidenciales. Niveles de abstencionismo por entidades federativas, 1982" (page 184).

Rubin 1987: "In 1982, the COCEI participated in the election for federal deputy [in Oaxaca], and its candidate won a seat in the national legislature as a member of the PSUM’s proportional representation list" (page 142).

Schmidt 1988a: "Votación favorable a la izquierda en las votaciones presidenciales de 1982 (porcentajes)" (page 30). Gives percent of the vote for five parties in six northern border states.

Local elections

Sonora

Guadarrama 1987: "Sonora’s political crisis of 1976 was deepened in 1982 when the nation’s financial crisis forced the federal government to take steps that affected the national financial bourgeoisie...This last reflection of the crisis was measurable in elections for both federal deputyships and municipal presidencies, of which the PAN won more than a third that year [1982]" (page 47). Gives municipalities won by PAN and votes won by PAN and PRI (page 48). "An analysis of voting for state legislators [between 1979 and 1982 shows] that support for the PAN (as measured by vote totals) increased by 387%, compared with only 21% for the PRI."

Moncada O. 1985: Discusses and gives the results of the July 1982 municipal election in Sonora (page 45).

August

Aguilar Camín 1993: "In August 1982, Mexico reported that it was unable to pay its foreign debt on time. The Federal Reserve of the United States, the Treasury Department, and eleven large international banks extended Mexico an emergency loan of $1,850 million" (page 198).

September

Aguilar Camín 1993: The private banks are nationalized on September 1, 1982 (page 222).

Craig and Cornelius 1995: "President López Portillo’s decision to nationalize the banking system in September 1982 was viewed by elements of the business community as a flagrant abuse of state power that severely threatened private property and the carefully negotiated economic spaces reserved to the private sector. Some businessmen, who had until that time withheld their financial support for the PAN, began to channel money into the opposition party" (page 270).

La Botz 1995: "On September 1, 1982, President José López Portillo, frustrated by the continuing unraveling of the economy and the state’s inability to stem the flow of cash out of the country, nationalized the Mexican banks" (page 61).

October

Veracruz

Amezcua Cardiel 1994: "(L)os partidos de oposición [en Veracruz] empiezan a gobernar tres municipios de los 203 que tenía entonces la entidad: dos el PPS y uno el PAN, en 1982" (page 230).

December

Cornelius 1986: "President Miguel de la Madrid took the political reform process a step further by signaling the government’s willingness to tolerate real electoral competition at the local level. In December 1982 (the month of de la Madrid’s inauguration), dozens of town halls throughout the central region of Mexico were seized by members of opposition parties (mostly PANistas) as a protest against fraudulent vote counts in the 1982 municipal elections. The new administration responded to these challenges in a very low-key, nonrepressive manner...Even more significantly, de la Madrid established a new policy regarding municipal elections: henceforth, municipal-level victories by opposition party candidates would be recognized, wherever they occurred" (pages 123-124).

Guanajuato

Valencia García 1994: Describes municipal elections in Guanajuato in 1982. The PRI won 69% of the vote but the opposition won two municipalities (page 87).

Jalisco

Alonso 1993: Local elections for governor, municipal councils, and state deputies are held in Jalisco in December 1982. Gives results of each election (pages 56-58).

San Luis Potosí

Bezdek 1995: In 1982 Salvador Nava runs for mayor of San Luis Potosí with the endorsement of FCP, PAN, and PDM. "Initial returns from precincts supervised by the PRI and opposition poll watchers gave him 74 percent of the vote..."(T)he PRI delegate to the state visited Nava to inform him that his margin of victory would have to be lowered to 60 percent" (pages 39-40).

Márquez 1987: "The final vote tally gave Nava a total of 58,575 votes (52,164 from the PAN and 6,411 from the PDM), compared with 20,419 for the PRI candidate, 345 for the PSUM, and 387 for the PST. On December 11, in keeping with the presidential campaign’s promise of ‘less government and more society’ and its rhetorical environment of ‘integral democratization,’ ‘municipal reform,’ etc., the PRI recognized Nava’s victory" (page 118).

Pansters 1996: "With the support of the PAN and the PDM, Nava won the elections in December 1982, although he had to force official recognition, for which he also received the backing of several leftwing parties" (page 255).

1983

Aguilar Camín 1993: In 1983 "there was an intragovernmental struggle between those who maintained the need to respect the electoral victories of the opposition and those who maintained the need, PRIista par excellence, of a directed democracy. In the debate between these two positions, the latter emerged victorious, especially after PAN won in the municipal elections of Chihuahua on July 3, 1983" (page 226).

Clarke 1996: "(T)he ‘reconquest’ of Juchitán [Oaxaca] was...carried out by the state government during the summer of 1983, in the last resort using force provided by the army" (page 281).

Cornelius 1986: "During the first ten months of [de la Madrid’s] administration, the PRI conceded defeat in municipal elections held in seven major cities, including five state capitals and Ciudad Juárez...Virtually no electoral fraud was reported in these key municipal contests of 1983...State and local PRI bosses, enraged by the string of PAN victories in important cities, heavily pressured the administration to truncate this political opening. The administration apparently caved in. Since the municipal elections held in July 1983--in which the PAN rolled up majorities of 7 to 1, by official count, in cities like Chihuahua and Durango--the government has not recognized a single important electoral victory by any opposition party" (page 124).

Crespo 1995: "Así, el tímido intento de apertura política realizado por De la Madrid en 1983 se tradujo en la pérdida de algunas alcaldías importantes en manos del PAN, principalmente en el norte del país. En 1983 el PAN obtuvo triunfos en las capitales de Guanajuato, Chihuahua y Durango, y el Frente Cívico Potosino, de carácter independiente, conquistó la capital de San Luis Potosí" (page 59).

Gómez Tagle 1993: "Elecciones de ayuntamientos, 1983" (pages 207-208). Gives for each state the number of municipalities, the registered voters, the total valid votes, percent of registered voters who voted, and the percent of vote for PAN, PRI, PPS, PDM, PCM/PSUM, PST, and PRT.

Martínez Assad 1985a: "Calendario electoral 1983" (page 376). "Los partidos políticos, su participación y triunfos políticos en 1983" (page 378).

Middlebrook 1986: "In contrast [to the 1982 elections], in the first half of 1983 the de la Madrid administration felt compelled to recognize a series of local-level ('municipio’) opposition victories, marking the first time that the government officially recognized opposition party victories in major cities in the Pacific North, North, and Center regions...All but one of these elections were won by the PAN, and the other (in Guanajuato) was captured by the PDM in coalition with the PAN" (pages 100-101).

Rubin 1987: "In 1983, eight months after the inauguration of President Miguel de la Madrid, the COCEI was thrown out of office, and the army occupied Juchitán [Oaxaca]" (page 127). "In the summer of 1983, an incident of violence, probably provoked by the PRI, gave the state government a pretext for throwing the COCEI out of office and appointing a PRI administrative council to run the city...After new elections gave victory to a young, professional PRI candidate (who officially won 54% of the vote), the army attacked City Hall, removed COCEI supporters, and instituted a period of severe repression, during which arrests and beatings of COCEI supporters were frequent" (page 145).

July

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "En [Campeche, Michoacán y Zacatecas en julio] se disputaron 52 diputaciones locales de mayoría y el PRI ganó de todas, todas" (page 124).

Bailey 1988: "What came to be called ‘direct consultation with the grassroots’ originated in July 1983 from problems with a specific city: Salina Cruz, Oaxaca. There, several factions struggled to control nominations to municipal posts. The recommendation of the PRI’s Director of Assemblies...was to attempt a direct vote of party members, which produced an acceptable candidate" (page 116).

Chihuahua

Aguilar Camín 1993: "PAN won in the municipal elections of Chihuahua on July 3, 1983. This was a landslide victory in the municipalities that concentrated 70 percent of the population of the largest border state with the United States" (page 226). "(I)n the 1983 elections in Chihuahua, the PRI lost eleven municipal presidencies to the PAN, including the capital and Ciudad Juárez, which altogether represented half of the electorate...PRI also lost to the PAN opposition five of the eleven local deputies" (page 240).

Aziz Nassif 1985: All tables are for Chihuahua. "Votación de ayuntamientos en 1983" (page 117). "Votaciones del PRI y del PAN antes de las impugnaciones [1983]" (page 118). "Elecciones de diputados 1983" (page 120). "Municipio de Chihuahua 1983" (page 120). "Resultados definitivos de las elecciones municipales de 1983" (page 126). "Resultados finales de las elecciones municipales de 1983" (page 127).

Aziz Nassif 1987: In the "local elections in 1983 [in Chihuahua] PAN won control of the principal ‘municipios’ of the state...and 5 of the 14 elections for state legislator" (page 183).

Guillén López 1987: "In 1983, electoral results in the state of Chihuahua began to figure in Mexico’s national political discourse. Results from the municipal elections of that year heavily favored the National Action Party (PAN), which succeeded in gaining control of municipal governments in the principal urban areas of the state" (page 225). "‘Municipios’ lost by the PRI in the 1983 municipal elections in Chihuahua" (page 247).

Mizrahi 1995: "The dynamism of the campaigns and the success of the PAN in mobilizing people and encouraging them to vote was reflected in the electoral results of 1983 [in Chihuahua]. The PAN won the seven most important municipalities [listed in notes], comprising 75 percent of the total state population, and also won five of the fourteen local electoral districts. That gave the PAN five deputies in the local congress" (pages 86-87).

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "(E)l golpe fuerte lo recibió el PRI en Chihuahua, pues ahí la oposición obtuvo triunfos en todas las ciudades importantes del estado...En total, 11 de 67 municipios en manos de la oposición y...tres de las catorce diputaciones locales en manos de panistas...En el total municipal el PRI no pudo obtener la mitad de los votos, pues alcanzó 202,775 de un total de 426,440. El PAN quedó en esa ocasión a sólo diez mil votos del PRI, pues reunió 191,570 en todos lo municipios estatales" (page 124).

Durango

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "En Durango, el PAN obtuvo el triunfo en el ayuntamiento de la capital y en dos de las doce diputaciones locales. En el total de los municipios disputados en 1983, el PAN obtuvo 73, 583 votos, aún lejos de los 160,762 del PRI, pero mejorando notablemente con respecto al trienio anterior, cuando en esos mismos municipios había obtenido escasos 13,950 votos" (page 124).

August

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "(U)n mes después del campanazo de Chihuahua y Durango se disputaron 12 diputaciones locales de mayoría y 9 ayuntamientos municipales en Aguascalientes, más 18 diputaciones locales en Oaxaca y el PRI, de nuevo, salió invicto" (pages 124-125).

Aguascalientes

Alonso 1985: "Resultado de las elecciones en el estado de Aguascalientes: ayuntamientos, 1983" (page 197). Gives number of votes by municipality for each party. "Resultado de las elecciones en el estado de Aguascalientes de diputados locales de mayoría relativa, 1983" (page 198). Gives number of votes for each party. "Resultado de las elecciones en el estado de Aguascalientes de diputados locales de representación proporcional, 1983" (page 198). Gives number of votes for each party.

September

Baja California

Aguilar Camín 1993: Gubernatorial and municipal elections are held in Baja California Norte on September 4, 1983 (page 226).

Bailey 1988: "Not until Baja California Norte in September 1983 did the PRI halt the opposition. There, amid the typical claims and counter-claims of fraud, the PRI held the state governorship, thus preserving intact its monopoly of governorships since 1929" (page 146).

Granados Chapa 1985a: Discusses the 1983 Baja California election and gives the election results for governor (page 287).

Messmacher 1985: Elections for governor, municipal councils, and state deputies are held in September 1983 in Baja California (page 258). "Comparativo de votación, en orden decreciente, en la elección de ayuntamientos en Baja California Norte en 1983" (page 263). Comparativo de votación, en orden decreciente, en la elección de diputados locales de mayoría relativa en Baja California Norte en 1983" (page 266).

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "(E)n septiembre de 1983, se realizaron comicios...en Baja California (ayuntamientos, cámara local y gobernador)...(E)l candidato priísta a gobernador obtuvo 242,354 votos contra 141,710 del panista; tres de los cuatro ayuntamientos los ganó el PRI y el restante (Ensenada) se lo adjudicó un expriísta apoyado en esta ocasión por el PST; las 13 diputaciones locales quedaron en manos del PRI" (page 125).

Rodríguez and Ward 1994: David Ojeda Ochoa wins the municipality of Ensenada for the PST in 1983 (pages 5, 27, and 36). "However, the PST was a flag of convenience; Ojeda was a disaffected PRIísta who had unsuccessfully sought the local PRI nomination and then ran as a PST candidate."

Veracruz

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "(E)n septiembre de 1983, se realizaron comicios en Veracruz ...(E)l PRI ganó las 16 diputaciones locales de mayoría relativa en disputa, obteniendo una ventaja de 9 a 1 sobre su inmediato perseguidor, el PAN, y recaudó cerca del 70% de los votos totales. En Veracruz la oposición no hacía estragos. El daño corría a cargo del abstencionismo: 62.25% del electorado oficial no acudió a votar" (page 125).

October-November

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: " De los 32 diputados de mayoría disputados en Tlaxcala [en octubre], Sinaloa y Baja California Sur [en noviembre] el PRI sólo perdió uno contra el PAN (el XVI de Sinaloa), pero ganó las 22 municipalidades disputadas en el estado peninsular y en Sinaloa...Ni siquiera Puebla [en noviembre], donde el PAN ha obtenido buenos resultados en otras ocasiones formó parte del avance opositor. Solamente en [tres municipios]... cobró victorias [el PAN]...(E)l PRI ganó las 22 diputaciones del estado y doblegó severamente al PAN en la capital (151,699 votos del PRI contra 68,961 del PAN)" (page 125).

November

Baja California Sur

Guillén Vicente 1990: PAN is not allowed to run municipal slates in Mulejé and La Paz in Baja California Sur in the municipal elections in 1983 and its alleged victory in Comondú is not recognized, though it does win 16,000 votes, 22.3% of the vote, and two seats in the state legislative elections (page 89). "BCS. Elección de diputados de mayoría relativa. 1983" (pages 155-156). Gives for each district the number of votes and percent of vote won by each party.

Oaxaca

Martínez Vásquez 1985: Tables are all for the November 20, 1983 municipal election in Oaxaca. "Resultados en los principales municipios" (page 214). "Relacion de municipios que se inconformaron en las elecciones municipales, Oaxaca, 1983" (pages 215-217). "Tomas de palacios y partidos que las llevan a cabo" (page 219). "Elecciones ordinarias anuladas" (page 225). "Municipios donde triunfó la oposición" (page 226). "Resumen de la votación por distrito emitida en las elecciones ordinarias de consejales de ayuntamientos en los 570 municipios del estado de Oaxaca, el 20 de noviembre de 1983" (pages 234-235).

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "En Oaxaca hubo en [1983] 52 casos de elecciones municipales en los cuales oficialmente votó exactamente el 100% de los ciudadanos inscritos en el padrón y todos unánimente por el PRI...(E)n 21 municipios...oficialmente la votación rebasó al padrón incluyendo un caso donde votó casi el doble (193% del padrón); además en 380 ayuntamientos únicamente el PRI obtuvo votos...A pesar de ese celo unanimista (477 municipios), Oaxaca no estuvo exento de competencia y conflicto. La capital fue ganada por el PRI por apenas medio millar de votos más que el PAN, en medio de una abstención pavorosa (70%)" (page 126).

Yescas 1995: Gives number of municipal slates for each opposition party in 1983 municipal election in Oaxaca (page 361).

Sinaloa

Martínez del Villar 1994: Discusses the Sinaloa election of 1983 for municipal councils and state deputies and gives the results (pages 82-82).

December

Tamaulipas

Torres Mejía 1985: On December 4, 1983 elections are held in Tamaulipas for 43 municipal councils and state deputies (page 287). "Porcentajes de votación, comparando a los 7 grandes con los 43 municipios del estado de Tamaulipas" (page 292). "Porcentajes de votación en las elecciones para diputados locales en Tamaulipas" (page 293).

1984

Gómez Tagle 1993: "Elecciones de ayuntamientos, 1984" (page 209). Gives for each state the number of municipalities, the registered voters, the total valid votes, percent of registered voters who voted, and the percent of vote for PAN, PRI, PPS, PARM, PDM, PCM/PSUM, PST, and PRT.

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "Los bastiones prístas efectivamente fueron conservados por el PRI [en 1984]: todas las 105 diputaciones locales de los Estados de México, Yucatán, Nayarit, Hidalgo, Quintana Roo y San Luis Potosí fueron ganadas por el partido del régimen, y de los 335 municipios de los primeros cinco estados arriba mencionados (San Luis Potosí sólo tuvo en ese mes elección de legislatura local), pocos cayeron en poder de la oposición" (page 127).

November

Yucatán

Aguilar Camín 1993: Elections are held in Mérida, Yucatán on Sunday, November 25, 1984 (page 226).

Huchim Koyoc 1995: Gives percent of vote for PRI and PAN in 1984 local election in Yucatán (page 395).

December

Coahuila

Cepeda Flores 1994: "Las elecciones municipales de 1984 [en Coahuila] fueron las más conflictivas de la historia del estado. La clara presencia de la oposición se vio favorecida por el escándalo priista que hizo renunciar al gobernador Flores Tapia, bajo la acusación de enriquecimiento inexplicable, fracturando al partido" (page 175).

Cornelius 1986: "In December 1984 the de la Madrid administration suffered another disaster in the electoral arena. Several apparently very close municipal contests between the PRI and the PAN in...Coahuila were decided, by highly questionable procedures, in favor of the PRI. Militant PAN supporters rioted...and local police responded by firing into a crowd of ‘PANista’ demonstators" (pages 126-127).

González Valderrama 1987: "A Mexican border city in the state of Coahuila, Piedras Negras was the scene of tense municipal elections in December 1984. Discontent with the results of those elections, which favored the PRI, led to a blockade of the international bridge to the city by several ‘panista’ militants on December 28" (page 275).

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "Coahuila...fue el caso crítico que echó a perder la paz del año ‘fácil’. Aunque el PRI ganó en 35 de los 38 municipios, la violencia estalló en Piedras Negras" (page 127).