Elections and Events 1985-1987

1985

Cornelius 1986: "As of June 1985, the PRI controlled 96 percent of the country’s municipal governments, the governorships of all 31 states plus the Federal District,...75 percent of the seats in the federal Chamber of Deputies, and 100 percent of the seats in the Senate" (page 115).

González Madrid 1995: The Partido Verde Ecologista Mexicano (PVEM) is founded in 1985 (page 219).

July: Federal elections

Aziz Nassif 1987: "Differences between real and official vote in Chihuahua by district, 1985" (page 194).

Baer 1990: "Distribution of party vote by state, 1985, chamber of deputies" (pages 44-45). "Mexico: abstention by state, 1985 (in percents)" (page 48). Gives ten highest abstention rates and ten lowest abstention rates.

Barquín 1986: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales, 1985" (page 350). Gives votes for each party for deputies; number of deputies (divided into two categories) elected by each party; null votes; number of abstentions; total votes; and total of registered voters.

Castellanos Hernández 1996: "Elecciones de diputados de mayoría relativa, 1985" (pages 263-270). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Diputados de mayoría relativa, 1985. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 372-416). Gives for each district in each state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Diputados de representación proporcional, 1985" (pages 423-426). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Democracy in Mexico 1988: "Seats assigned to opposition parties in 1985 elections of federal deputies" (page 30). Gives seats assigned by relative majority and proportional representation. "Percentage of votes won by the PAN in the 1985 elections of federal deputies." Gives eight states where PAN won more than 25% of the vote.

Gamboa Villafranca 1987: Extensive study of 1985 federal elections with numerous statistical tables based on election results.

González Valderrama 1987: For "the elections of July 7, 1985, 400 federal deputyships, 111 relative-majority seats in state legislatures, 87 local governments, and seven governorships were at stake" (page 265).

Guillén López 1987: "District-by-district voting for the PRI and the PAN and rates of abstention in the 1985 elections for federal deputies in Chihuahua" (page 248).

López Moreno 1987: "Votación general" (pages 180-182). Gives number of votes and percent of vote at national level for each party in elections for the chamber of deputies in 1985. "Diputados de mayoría relativa: número de votos y porcentajes por entidad federativa (1985)" (page 197). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party at the state level. "Votación para el PRI y para el PAN en el Distrito Federal" (pages 206-205). Gives by district in the D.F. the number of votes and percent of vote for PAN and PRI in the 1985 federal election.

Mizrahi 1995: "In the midterm elections of 1985 [in Chihuahua], the PAN won four out of the ten electoral districts, despite a massive resort to fraud" (page 87).

Newman Valenzuela 1987: "Resultados electorales. Comicios federales. 1985" (page 214). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party for deputies; number of deputies (divided into "mayoría relativa" and "de partido") elected by each party; null votes; total vote; abstentions; and registered voters.

Local elections

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "[En 1985] se disputarían, el primer domingo de julio, siete gubernaturas (Campeche, Colima, Guanajuato, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Nuevo León y Sonora), 87 municipalidades (en Sonora y Querétaro) y las legislaciones locales de Colima, Chiapas, Guanajuato, Nuevo León, Querétaro y Sonora" (page 127).

Nuevo León

Guadarrama S. 1987: "A few days after the elections of July 1985, the president of Nuevo León’s State Electoral Commission announced the victory of the PRI’s candidate for governor, Jorge Treviño Martínez. Official totals gave him 508,912 votes, against 183,374 for his closest contender, PAN candidate Fernando Canales Clariond" (page 97).

Nuncio 1992: "Votación para gobernador, 1985 [en Nuevo León]" (page 211). Gives party, candidate, number of votes, and percent of total votes.

Querétaro

Daville Landero 1994: Discusses the gubernatorial election in Querétaro in 1985 and gives the percent of the vote won by each party (pages 17-18).

Morales Garza 1993: "Elecciones para gobernador 1985. Querétaro" (page 158). Gives by district registered voters, total votes, number and percent of abstentions, and number of votes and percent of vote for PRI.

Sonora

Cornelius 1986: "In the state of Sonora [in 1985], the PRI claimed to have won not only the governorship (by a 3 to 1 margin) but all of the 69 municipal races and 100 percent of the seats in the state legislature" (page 131). Gives votes by district as reported by the PRI. "PAN leaders were stunned, and even some higher-level PRI officials expressed shock and disbelief when asked by foreign reporters about these results. What had occurred, especially in Sonora, was one of the dirtiest elections in recent Mexican history. Both the PRI and the PAN had used every possible means, legal and illegal, to try to control the electoral process" (pages 131-132)."The highly visible presence of more than 20,000 soldiers in the state of Sonora, for example, was cited by PAN leaders and some Mexican social scientists as one of the factors that depressed voter turnout in the elections" (page 133).

Guadarrama 1987: "(T)he results of the 1985 elections for governor, federal deputies, and ‘municipio’ presidents [in Sonora] indicate a regression to the pre-1979 situation of almost complete domination by the official party" (page 43). "Proportional-representation victories on municipal councils by party, 1985" (page 67). "Validation of municipal elections, 1985" (page 68). "Challenges to municipal electoral results, 1985" (pages 69-70).

Guadarrama S. 1987: "In Sonora [in July 1985], electoral officials declared the PRI’s Rodolfo Félix Valdés governor-elect for the 1985-1991 term; they announced his vote total as 28,986, against 11,718 for PAN candidate Adalberto Rosas" (pages 97-98). Gives total votes cast, and votes for PRI and PAN.

September

Keesing’s record of world events November 1986: "According to a report issued by...ECLA on Nov. 21, 1985, the earthquakes which struck Mexico in September 1985 caused physical damage...estimated at $3,700 million...[and] more than 7,000 people were killed...Mexican officials...were, by January 1986, privately admitting that 20,000-30,000 people had died as a result of the earthquakes" (page 34732).

La Botz 1995: "The earthquake of September 19, 1985 was the greatest natural disaster in the history of Mexico City...The earthquake gave birth to a new phenomenon, which Monsiváis called ‘civil society’...The notion of voluntary activity, civic associations, ordinary people doing for themselves without party leadership was a practical and theoretical novelty" (page 66).

October

Veracruz

Amezcua Cardiel 1994: In the 1985 local elections in Veracruz, the PPS wins three municipalities, PAN one, and PARM one (page 230).

November

Nuevo León

Keesing’s record of world events November 1986: "In municipal elections on Nov. 10, 1985, in Nuevo León state, the...PRI won all of the 51 mayorships contested, with the...PAN alleging fraud in eight of the 16 areas where it had entered candidates" (page 34730).

Tlaxcala

Los procesos electorales en el estado de Tlaxcala, 1986-1991 1992: The November 24, 1985 election in Tlaxcala is for municipal councils (page 25). Gives results.

December

Guanajuato

Valencia García 1994: In the December 1985 municipal elections in Guanajuato, PRI wins 67.7% of the vote, PAN wins 19%, and PDM 10.5% (page 87). PAN and PST each win a municipality and several other elections are contested.

Jalisco

Alonso 1993: Describes the 1985 local elections for municipal councils and state deputies in Jalisco and discusses results (pages 59-63).

San Luis Potosí

Bezdek 1995: Pizzuto runs in San Luis Potosí mayoral election as choice of FCP (page 40). "The official PRI and PAN results of the 1985 mayoral election by percentage range" (page 41). Gives number of precincts and number/percent of votes for PAN and PRI in the December 1, 1985 election. "(T)here was no attempt to conceal the blatant fraud."

1986

April

México (state)

Arreola Ayala 1995: The governor of the state of México resigns on April 21, 1986 to join the president’s cabinet (page 307).

July

Aguilar Camín 1993: "The local elections in several northern states with a strong opposition, especially in Chihuahua in 1986, were characterized by the open and massive use of federal government resources to support the official candidates by widespread suspicion of electoral fraud" (page 240).

Keesing’s record of world events November 1986: "The PRI claimed a ‘clear and precise’ victory in elections held on July 6, 1986, for state governors, state legislators and mayors in Chihuahua, Durango, Michoacán and Zacatecas states, and for state legislators and mayors only in Baja California Norte and Campeche states. Widespread charges of electoral fraud were made by the PAN as well as by independent and international observers" (page 34730).

Baja California

Ruiz Vargas 1987: PAN’s Ernesto Ruffo Appel wins the municipal election in Ensenada in 1986 (page 21).

Chihuahua

Grayson 1992: "Baeza captured the disputed 1986 gubernatorial race with 58.75 percent of the ballots cast to 34.54 percent for PAN’s Francisco Barrio Terrazas" (page 7).

Guillén López 1987: "The elections of July 1986 [in Chihuahua] would include balloting for state governor, the state legislature, and municipal governments. If the political tendencies which had emerged in the 1983 and 1985 elections held firm, a PAN-controlled state government was a very real possibility. The official results, however, were utterly to the contrary; the tendency toward the PAN was completely reversed, as the PAN lost all of its previously-won offices" (page 225).

Keesing’s record of world events November 1986: "Particular attention was focused on Chihuahua state where the PAN, having won seven of the state’s 67 municipal councils, including Ciudad Juárez and Chihuahua City, the state capital, in the 1983 elections, had predicted a clear victory and where the election was widely regarded as a referendum on the performance of the federal government" (page 34730). Gives results of the election.

Mizrahi 1995: "Faced with the growing strength of the PAN in the electoral arena [in Chihuahua], the government fell back upon widespread fraud in 1986, and as a result the PAN ‘lost’ the governorship, all local deputies, and all but one municipality" (page 87).

Rodríguez and Ward 1992: "Mayor Francisco Barrio (Ciudad Juárez) ran unsuccessfully for the governorship [of Chihuahua] in 1986 and is widely believed to have won the vote but ‘lost’ the election" (page 10).

Durango

Grayson 1992: In Durango in July 1986 "CTM leader José Ramírez Gamero, captured 57.89 percent of the votes cast in 1986 to defeat his major competitor, a Panista (33%)" (page 14).

Keesing’s record of world events November 1986: "In Durango state some 1,000 PAN supporters on July 14 occupied the city hall to protest at the announced PRI victory in the state" (page 34730).

Zacatecas

Grayson 1992: Gives the percent of the vote for each party in the gubernatorial election of 1986 in Zacatecas (page 24).

August

Cornelius 1996: "The key to the left’s rejuvenation in 1988 was a split within the PRI leadership--the most serious since the early 1950s. In August 1986 a number of nationally prominent PRI figures, all members of the party’s center-left wing, formed a dissident movement within the PRI known as the Corriente Democrática (CD). They were led by Porfirio Muñoz Ledo...and Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas" (page 72).

La Botz 1995: "The Democratic Current was formally founded by Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas on August 22, 1986 in a meeting before several hundred peasants in Michoacán" (page 89).

Aguascalientes

Grayson 1992: Gives the percent of the vote for each party in the gubernatorial election in Aguascalientes in August 1986 (page 16).

Oaxaca

Clarke 1996: Describes the 1986 election in Oaxaca for governor, state deputies, and municipal governments and gives results (pages 282-288).

Grayson 1992: Gives the percent of the vote for each party in the 1986 gubernatorial election in Oaxaca (page 19).

Yescas 1995: Gives the number of municipal slates run by each opposition party in the 1986 election in Oaxaca (page 361). The opposition won 15 municipal governments (page 362).

September

Veracruz

Grayson 1992: Gives the percent of the vote for each party in the gubernatorial election in Veracruz in 1986 (page 19).

October

Sinaloa

Grayson 1992: Gives the percent of the vote for each party in the gubernatorial election of 1986 in Sinaloa (page 21).

Keesing’s record of world events January 1988: "In elections held in the state of Sinaloa on Oct. 26, 1986, the PRI won the governorship and all of the 18 mayoralties and 23 state legislators’ seats contested, according to official results issued on Nov. 3. The results were bitterly contested by the PAN which claimed that counts and straw-polls at polling stations gave their candidate for the governorship, Sr Clouthier, a three to one lead over the PRI candidate" (page 35634).

Martínez del Villar 1994: Discusses the Sinaloa elections of 1986 for governor, municipal councils, and state deputies and gives the results of the gubernatorial election(pages 83-84).

Rocha Moya 1987: Discusses in detail the elections in Sinaloa on October 26, 1986 for governor, municipal councils, and state deputies.

November

Puebla

Grayson 1992: Gives the percent of the vote for each party in the gubernatorial election of 1986 in Puebla (page 20).

Tlaxcala

Grayson 1992: Gives the percent of the vote for each party in the gubernatorial election of 1986 in Tlaxcala (page 23).

Los procesos electorales en el estado de Tlaxcala, 1986-1991 1992: The November 16, 1986 election in Tlaxcala is for governor and state deputies (page 25). Describes election in detail and gives results by municipality (pages 37-39).

December

Country report. Mexico 1987. 1: "At the end of December the president sent to Congress a constitutional amendment under which the federal district (the area containing Mexico City and, with it, over 20 per cent of the country’s population) will have its own elected, representative body. The assembly will have 66 members, elected for a three year term; 40 are to be directly elected and the other 26 elected by proportional representation. The assembly’s powers appear to be limited to that of representing voters’ opinions as the federal Congress will keep its powers to legislate over matters pertaining to the area as before" (page 6).

Guerrero

Estrada Castañón 1994: Elections in Guerrero on December 7, 1986 are for governor, municipal councils, and state deputies (page 111).

Tamaulipas

Grayson 1992: Gives the percent of the vote for each party in the gubernatorial election of 1986 in Tamaulipas (page 22).

Salinas Domínguez 1987: "Once again in 1986, gubernatorial elections were held in Tamaulipas. However, for more than a century...Tamaulipas has not held elections in the strict sense of fulfilling the requirements of democracy. That is, elections in Tamaulipas have not involved competition between (or among) two (or more) candidates with substantively different platforms in which the ballots cast would determine the outcome...Internal selection by a party has thus in practice taken the place of electoral competition" (page 161).

1987

Camp 1996: "In the reforms in the 1980s, another hundred seats were added; now three hundred deputies represent districts and two hundred represent parties. These party deputies are elected at large, based on the proportion of votes received in five regions containing forty seats. The Senate, which has fewer powers than the Chamber of Deputies, has two senators from each state and the Federal District, a total of sixty-four, and in 1994 added sixty-four proportional representation seats, for a grand total of 128" (page 158).

Electoral reform in Mexico 1993: "In 1987, a new election code raised the number of proportional representation seats to 200; all parties including the majority party would be entitled to share in their distribution" (page 12).

Levy and Székely 1987: The 1987 electoral reform expanded the chamber of deputies to 500 seats with 200 chosen by proportional representation, restricted the majority party to 350 seats total, created an electoral tribunal named by congress, provided for the election every three years of half of the senate, and provided for prompter announcement of electoral results (pages 67-68).

Local elections (month unknown)

Hidalgo

Vargas González 1991: "Elecciones municipales en Hidalgo 1987. Tipo de protesta contra la imposición por municipio" (pages 53-55).

Yucatán

Huchim Koyoc 1995: Gives percent of the vote won by PAN and PRI in the 1987 local elections in Yucatán (page 395).

February

Baja California Sur

Guillén Vicente 1990: Discusses the local elections of February 22, 1987 in Baja California Sur for governor and municipal councils (pages 114-115). "Elección para gobernador constitucional de Baja California Sur (22 de febrero de 1987)" (pages 157-158). Gives by district the number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Keesing’s record of world events January 1988: "On Feb. 22, 1987, Sr Victor Manuel Liceaga Ruibal of the PRI was elected Governor of the state of Baja California Sur; according to PRI officials he received 70 per cent of the votes cast" (page 35634).

March

Gorvin 1989: "The PMS was founded in March 1987 as the result of the unification of most of the country’s left-wing political parties" (page 227).

Keesing’s record of world events January 1988: "The merger of five left-wing political organizations to form the PMS was announced on March 29, 1987...The constituent organizations included Mexico’s two major parties of the left, the...PSUM...and the PMT" (page 35634).

Reyes del Campillo Lona 1996: Discusses the formation of PMS in March 1987 (page 79).

June

Nayarit

Pacheco Ladrón de Guevara 1993: "Nayarit. Resultados de las elecciones para presidentes municipales, 1987" (pages 88-89). For the elections of June 3, 1987 gives for each municipality the registered voters, total votes, number and percent of votes for eight parties, and the number and percent of null votes.

July

México (state)

Amezcua 1997: Beteta wins the 1987 gubernatorial elections in México (state) with 63.7% of the votes (page 46).

Arreola Ayala 1995: Discusses and gives the results of the gubernatorial election in México (state) on July 5, 1987 (pages 314-321).

Keesing’s record of world events January 1988: "In elections held on July 5, 1987, the PRI candidate, Sr Mario Ramón Beteta, former director-general of the national oil company, Pemex, was elected Governor of the state of México; according to the government-dominated electoral commission, he obtained more than 30 per cent of the vote, although opposition parties claimed that his share was only 10-20 per cent" (page 35634).

October

Coahuila

Keesing’s record of world events January 1988: "In elections held in the northern border state of Coahuila in late October, the PRI once again claimed victory for its gubernatorial candidate, the former president of the Chamber of Deputies...and for all its mayoral candidates" (page 35634).

November

México (state)

Amezcua 1997: Municipal elections in México (state) in November 1987 result in PRI winning 118 of 121 municipalities (page 48).