Elections and Events 1988-1989

1988

Gorvin 1989: The FDN is "a coalition of left-wing parties [including PPS and PSM] and a left-wing faction of the PRI which was formed to contest the July 1988 presidential and congressional elections" (page 227).

Grayson 1997: "The 66-member Representative Assembly of the Federal District (ARDF) began functioning as a city council with limited authority [in 1988]" (page 11). "Results of 1988 ARDF election" (page 59). Gives seats won by each party.

Reyes del Campillo Lona 1996: Discusses the formation of FDN from PPS, PFCRN, PARM, and PMS (pages 79-80).

July 6: Federal election (Salinas de Gortari / PRI)

Aguilar 1994: "Elecciones presidenciales, 1988 (porcentajes)" (page 255). Gives percent of vote for PAN, PRI, FDN, and "otros" for each state. "Distribución urbano-rural de los distritos y perfil de voto en 1988 (porcentajes)" (page 268).

Amezcua 1997: "Cifras de la elección presidencial de 1988 en los estados donde perdió CSG" (page 30). "En las elecciones federales de [6 de julio de 1988], el PRI perdió en Michoacán 12 de las 13 diputaciones, las dos senadurías, y Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas obtuvo 64% de los sufragios contra 23% de Carlos Salinas" (page 33). Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas wins the presidential election in Baja California by 2,210 votes (page 39).

Aziz Nassif 1990: "Resultados de la elección presidencial de 1988" (page 139). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each candidate. "Resultados electorales por estado" (page 140).

Barberán 1988: Detailed state by state analysis contesting the official results of the election.

Butler 1991a: "Mexican presidential vote, 1988" (page 31). Gives for each state the percent of the vote for PRI, FDN, and PAN.

Butler 1991b: "Presidential vote: Mexican borderlands, 1988" (page 55). Gives the percent of the vote for PRI, FDN, and PAN and the percent of voter participation in the states of Baja California, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Sonora, and Tamaulipas. "A comparison of official Mexican election results with PAN surveys, 1988 presidential election" (page 56). Gives the percent of the vote for PRI, PAN, and FDN as given in the official results, PAN survey results, and PAN district surveys for the states of Baja California, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Sonora, and Tamaulipas.

Calderón Alsati 1996: "Resultados oficiales de la votación presidencial de 1988" (pages 16-17). Gives the number of votes for each candidate in each state. "Curiosamente, era en Chiapas donde Salinas había obtenido en 1988 el porcentaje más alto de votos de todo el país (89.9%, lo que le dio poco más del 6% de su votación nacional). Más extraño aún resultó el hecho de que el levantamiento insurgente [de 1994] se haya dado exactamente en municipios de los distritos electorales en los que el PRI había obtenido las votaciones más altas de todo el estado (y el país)" (pages 74-75). Gives districts in Chiapas with highest percent of vote for PRI in 1988.

Camp 1991: "1988 Mexican presidential elections: percentage of vote for major parties, by state" (page 109).

Castellanos Hernández 1996: "Elecciones presidenciales, 1988" (pages 219-226). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones de diputados de mayoría relativa, 1988" (pages 271-278). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Diputados de representación proporcional, 1988" (pages 427-430). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones de senadores, 1988" (pages 453-460). Gives by state the registered voters, total votes, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

Comisión Federal Electoral 1989: "Cifras, Comisión Federal Electoral, elecciones de diputados, mayoría relativa, 1988" (page 461). Gives votes for each party in each state. "Porcentaje de votos por entidad, FDN en coalición" (page 462). "Padrón electoral federal 1988, y curules por estado" (page 466). "Aplicación de la propuesta con los datos de la elección de diputados federales de mayoría en 1988" (page 467). "Elecciones federales de miércoles 6 de julio de 1988: resultado de la votación para presidente de la república" (page 580). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each candidate.

Cornelius 1996: "In the July 6, 1988, national elections, the PRI had suffered unprecedented reverses in both the presidential and congressional races. For the first time in history, a Mexican president had been elected with less than half of the votes cast--48.7 percent, and probably much less, if the vote count had been honest...If the 695,042 ‘spoiled’ ballots and 14,333 votes cast for nonregistered presidential candidates in the 1988 election are excluded from the percentage base, Salinas’s share rises to a bare majority (50.74 percent)" (page 5).

Country profile. Mexico 1990-91: "Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas was presented as a presidential candidate by the PRI dissidents and he managed to attract the support of most of the left for his Frente Democrático Nacional (FDN). Heberto Castillo, of the left wing coalition party Partido Mexicano Socialista, had withdrawn his candidacy, calling on his supporters to vote for Cárdenas instead. The weakened and divided PRI was forced to recognise a dramatic collapse in its popular support [gives percents of vote won by three major candidates]. The PRI also acknowledged that the FDN had won four seats in the Senate (the first time that opposition representatives have been accepted into this chamber). Furthermore, the official results gave the PAN 32 of the 300 directly elected seats in the Chamber of Deputies and the FDN" (page 5).

Craig and Cornelius 1995: "By 1988...the PRI was weakened by nearly a decade of economic crisis and by its ties to the government’s unpopular ‘neoliberal’ economic policies. The party’s leadership was unable to contain intraelite tensions within its institutional boundaries" (pages 249-250).

Elecciones a debate, 1988 1994: "Proceso electoral federal 1988 presidente de la república. Cómputo distrital -- votación efectiva" (pages 204-228). Gives the number of votes and percent of vote for five candidates at the state level and for eight parties at the district level.

Elecciones 1988. Qué pasó 1988: "Votación presidencial por regiones geográficas" (page 24). Lists percent of vote won by top three presidential candidates in 1988 by region. "Proceso electoral federal 1988. Presidente de la republica. Cómputo distrital -- votación efectiva" (pages 52-53). Lists number of votes and percent of state vote for top three candidates in each state and the Distrito Federal.

Electoral reform in Mexico 1993: "In the end, the PRI’s candidate was declared the winner with 50.74 percent of the vote, the PRI’s worst showing ever in a presidential election and a 20-point erosion in its share of the vote as compared to 1982. The PRI also won only 260 of the 500 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, falling far short of the two-thirds majority needed to reform the constitution on its own and compelling the PRI to negotiate with the opposition to get its constitutional reform initiatives approved" (page 13).

Gándara Terrazas 1991: "Throughout the nation’s 300 electoral districts, 54,646 polling booths were installed for the election of president, senators, and federal deputies" (page 207). "Out of three-hundred electoral districts, 15% did not have enough ballots. In 20%, the presence of opposition representatives was not allowed. In 10%, ballot boxes were stuffed before the election. In 19%, ballot boxes were robbed before votes were counted. In 10%, bags of votes were introduced during the election. In 30%, voters were permitted to vote without their registration cards, and in 26%, it was discovered that the same groups of voters controlled by the PRI voted several times" (page 208). Author, as federal deputy, describes the Electoral College that ratified the election of the deputies and the president. "We were furnished with information from only 29,999 voting booths for the presidential election. We were denied access to information from the other 24,647 booths, and the government never has revealed it."

Garavito Elías 1994: "Votación para presidente por entidad federativa, 1988" (page 22).

Gómez Tagle 1993: "Elección presidencial 1988. Guerrero. Comparación de datos según CFE y FDN" (page 123).

Gómez Tagle 1994: "In July 1988, the PRI lost all of Michoacán. The Frente Democrático Nacional (FDN) won ten federal districts and the other three districts were taken by PAN" (page 78). "In Guerrero the elections of July 1988 were marked by widespread fraud in which ballots were burned and dumped in rubbish tips, ballot boxes were stolen and votes were counted by PRI officials rather than the state’s electoral authorities. Despite their protests the opposition won only two of the ten districts" (page 80).

Gómez Tagle 1994a: For the presidential election of 1988 gives the number of votes for each of the three candidates and the number and percent of these that were ruled null (page 125).

Grayson 1992: "As the standard-bearer for a left-center National Democratic Front (FDN), Cárdenas captured nearly two-thirds (64.16%) of the votes cast in the state in 1988. His control over local electoral machinery enabled FDN candidates to win 12 of 13 deputy posts and both senate seats that were contested" (pages 11-12).

Grayson 1994: "The 1988 presidential vote: a state-by-state breakdown by party/candidate" (page 30). Gives the percent of the vote in each state for each party and the percent of the vote in each state won by the combined opposition to the PRI. "States where Salinas (PRI) received more than 60 percent of the vote" (page 31). "States where Cárdenas (FDN) received more than 25 percent of the vote" (page 31). "States where Clouthier (PAN) received more than 15 percent of the vote" (page 31).

Klesner 1991: "Regional distribution of 1988 Mexican presidential vote" (page 174). Gives percent of the vote for PRI, FDN, and PAN in the various regions.

Legorreta Díaz 1994: "(P)ara las elecciones federales de 1988, en Chiapas el PRI obtuvo el 90% de la votación" (page 136).

Leyva Solano 1991: Tables give statistics on 1988 federal elections in Michoacán (pages 142-143).

México’s alternative political futures 1989: Contains many articles that discuss the 1988 election.

Morales Garza 1993: "Elecciones presidenciales 1988. Querétaro" (page 159). Gives by district registered voters, total votes, number and percent of abstentions, and number of votes and percent of vote for PRI.

The 1994 Mexican elections: a question of credibility (August 15, 1994) 1994: "PRI candidate Carlos Salinas de Gortari won with a slim majority in an election which Mexican officials have all but admitted was stolen from the leading challenger, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas. On election day, with Cárdenas leading in early returns, officials of the Federal Electoral Commission ‘opted’ to crash the computer system responsible for tallying the votes...The election was declared fraudulent by both Clouthier and Cárdenas...Neither was willing or able to mount sufficient pressure to demand new elections or a recount. A large number of the official ballots were never counted, and were later permitted to be destroyed by decision of the PRI-dominated Congress, with the support of the PAN" (page 12).

Nuncio 1992: "Votación en los estados de la frontera norte en favor de Carlos Salinas de Gortari (PRI), 1988" (page 218).

Pacheco Ladrón de Guevara 1993: "Nayarit. Resultados de las elecciones de diputados federales, por municipio. 1988. (mayoría relativa)" (pages 84-85). Gives registered voters, total votes, number of votes and percent of vote in each municipality for eight parties, and the number and percent of votes that were nullified in each municipality.

Preciado Coronado 1989: Discusses and charts the results of the 1988 federal elections in Jalisco.

Los procesos electorales en el estado de Tlaxcala, 1986-1991 1992: Gives results of 1988 federal election in Tlaxcala by municipality (pages 48-55).

Reynoso 1993: "Elecciones para presidente de la republica, 1988. Resultados por distritos electorales federales (en porcientos)" (page 221). Gives results for seven districts in Sonora only.

Valdés Zurita 1991: "Resultados de la elección de diputados de mayoría relativa: 1988" (pages 96-97). By state. "Resultados de la elección de presidente de la República 1988" (pages 98-99). "Diferencias presidente menos diputados" (page 100-101). "Análisis de las diferencias" (pages 102-103).

Woldenberg 1992: "Resultados electorales del 6 de julio de 1988" (page 125). Gives number of votes and percent of votes for five leading presidential candidates.

Yescas 1995: "1988: elección presidencial: integrantes del padrón electoral y votantes por distrito" (page 379). Gives for each district in Oaxaca the registered voters, voters, and number of votes for PAN, PRI, FDN, PDM, and PRT. "1988: elección para diputados de representación proporcional [should say ‘diputados de mayoría] integrantes del padrón electoral y votantes por distrito" (page 381). Gives for each district in Oaxaca the registered voters, voters, and number of votes for PAN, PRI, FDN, PDM, and PRT. "1988: eleccion para diputados de representación proporcional integrantes del padrón electoral y votantes por distrito" (page 383). Gives for each district in Oaxaca the registered voters, voters, and number of votes for PAN, PRI, FDN, PDM, and PRT.

Local elections

Querétaro

Morales Garza 1993: "Elecciones presidencias municipales. Querétaro 1988" (page 163). Gives by municipality registered votes, total votes, number of votes and percent of vote for PRI, and percent of abstention.

October

Veracruz

Báez Landa 1994: Describes the municipal elections of October 2, 1988 in Veracruz (pages 232-233). Gives percent of registered voters who voted and percent who voted for PRI. "En las elecciones municipales de octubre de 1988, sólo asistió a las urnas el 16% de los electores, elevando el nivel de abstención al 84%" (page 232).

November

Amezcua 1997: The governor of Veracruz resigns November 30, 1988 to join Salinas’s cabinet (page 193).

Craig and Cornelius 1995: "In November 1988, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas and several other leaders of the FDN coalition called for the formation of a new party, the Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD), which was founded in May 1989" (page 277).

Grayson 1992: On November 30, 1988 the governor of Veracruz resigns to become government secretary and the governor of Jalisco resigns to become solicitor general (page 30).

Chiapas

Valdés V. 1997: Gives the results for PAN and other opposition parties in the 1988 municipal elections in Chiapas (pages 97 and 98).

Nuevo León

Rodríguez and Ward 1996: "When...Sócrates Rizzo won the municipal presidency [of Monterrey] in 1988 with 65.3 per cent of the vote, his ‘panista’ opponent...strongly alleged fraud" (page 103).

Tabasco

Curzio Gutiérrez 1994a: Discusses the November 9, 1988 election in Tabasco, "la última elección importante de la administración de De la Madrid" (page 148). Salvador Neme wins the governorship with nearly 80% of the vote (page 149).

Gómez Tagle 1994: The PRI candidate in the November 1988 gubernatorial election in Tabasco was imposed by Salinas against the will of the local PRI party (page 81). "The government ensured that the PRI candidate would win...Yet, as the PRD leader in Tabasco explained, the disillusionment that Neme Castillo generated in the ranks of the PRI also contributed to the growth of the opposition" (pages 81-82).

Tlaxcala

Los procesos electorales en el estado de Tlaxcala, 1986-1991 1992: "Tabulación de votos de la elección para municipes celebrada el: 20 de noviembre de 1988" (pages 67-69). Gives votes for each party in each municipality.

December

Amezcua 1997: On December 4, 1988, the governor of Michoacán requests a leave of absence (page 31). The author sees this as a presidential response to the loss of the state to the PRD in the 1988 election. "Los gobernadores prístas son los principales responsables de la suerte de su partido en sus respectivos estados, por lo cual Martínez Villicaña fue señalado como el culpable de la debacle del PRI en Michoacán" (page 33). The state legislature designates an interim governor (page 36). On December 1, 1988, the legislature of Jalisco appoints an interim governor to replace the elected governor who resigns to join Salinas’s cabinet (pages 205-206).

Grayson 1992: On December 3, 1988 the governor of Michoacán leaves office (page 30).

La Botz 1995: "Salinas’s first official presidential act, on December 2, 1988, was to outline the design and goals of the Programa Nacional de Solidaridad or PRONASOL" (page 105).

Local elections

Valdés 1994: "Local election results, December 1988" (page 67). Gives for state elections held that month the percent of the vote for PRI, PAN, and PRD.

Guanajuato

Valencia García 1994: The December 1988 municipal elections in Guanajuato have an abstention rate of 75.37% of registered voters (page 87). PAN wins in León, PARM and PRCRN win municipalities, and various elections are contested (page 88).

Jalisco

Alonso 1991a: Describes the December 1988 elections for governor, municipalities, and state deputies in Jalisco and gives results (pages 90-105).

Amezcua 1997: The December 4, 1988 elections, with an abstention rate of 70%, give the PRI the governorship, the capital, 120 municipal councils, and 20 local deputies (page 236).

Preciado Coronado 1991: Discusses and charts the results of the December 1988 election in Jalisco for governor, 124 municipal presidents, and state deputies.

San Luis Potosí

Bezdek 1995: In the San Luis Potosí mayoral election in 1988, "with FCP and PAN support, Pizzuto ran again and won, with 55 percent of the vote" (page 42).

1989

January

Amezcua 1997: The governor of Baja California asks for a leave of absence on January 6, 1989 and a substitute governor is appointed by the legislature to complete his term (page 39).

Grayson 1992: On January 5, 1989 the governor of Baja California leaves office because of "flagrant corruption and egregious abuse of power" (page 30).

La Botz 1995: "In a sudden raid on January 10, 1989, police and soldiers...attacked the offices and homes of the leaders of the Petroleum Workers Union and arrested over 30 top officials, including La Quina [union leader]" (page 111).

Woldenberg 1992: "En 1989, 14 estados tuvieron elecciones para elegir gobernador y/o congreso y/o ayuntamientos" (page 130). Gives for each state the percent of the vote received by the PAN, PRI, and PRD.

May

Grayson 1994: "Former PRI officeholders, Cárdenas and Muñoz Ledo, spearheaded the PRD’s creation in 1989 as an effort to institutionalize the substantial support garnered by Cárdenas the year before. Key elements in the newly formed party were the Democratic Current (CD), the Cárdenas- and Muñoz-led PRI breakaway group, and the Mexican Socialist party (PMS)" (page 25).

Valdés 1994: "(T)he Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD) [emerged] in May 1989...Its origins in the 1988 electoral contest also posed the first major challenge for the new ‘cardenista’ movement, that is, whether to form a party or continue as a front...Cárdenas’s proposal [for the formation of a new political party] was not well received by three of the four parties which made up the FDN. PARM, PPS and PFCRN all withdrew their support" (page 62).

July

Keesing’s record of world events July 1989: "In voting on July 2 for state legislators and mayors [only Chihuahua and Durango have simultaneous mayoral elections] in Michoacán, Chihuahua, Campeche and Zacatecas, and on July 12 in Durango, the PRI claimed victory in all five cases" (page 36811).

Sirvent 1990: "En Campeche, Michoacán y Zacatecas se renovó el Congreso Local; en Chihuahua y Durango se renovaron las autoridades en ayuntamientos y el Congreso Local, y en Baja California se eligió a un nuevo Gobernador, cuatro ayuntamientos y el Congreso Local" (page 107). All but Durango elections are on July 2; Durango is July 12.

Valdés 1994: "Local election results, July 1989" (page 68). Gives for state elections held that month the percent of the vote for PRI, PAN, and PRD.

Baja California

Aguilar Camín 1993: In July 1989 "in North Baja California the absolute victory of the center-right opposition--the PAN--opened up the possibility of an alternation of the party in power...With a governor and a local Congress in the hands of the PAN..., the first case of an entity ruled by the opposition developed since the establishment of the state party in 1929" (page 250).

Gómez Tagle 1993: Describes the Baja California election and gives the results (pages 147-148).

Gómez Tagle 1994: In July 1989 in Baja California, the "PAN candidate, Ernesto Ruffo Appel, won 204,507 votes, compared to 163,529 for Margarita Ortega of PRI. PAN also won nine electoral districts for state deputies, while PRI won the other six. The four deputies elected by proportional representation were distributed among PRD, PARM, PFCRN and...PPS" (page 83). Describes PAN’s organizational capacity to minimize fraud. Colosio’s immediate recognition of Ruffo’s victory "left the electoral authorities and the local PRI with their hands tied."

Grayson 1992: Gives the results of the gubernatorial and state deputy elections in Baja California in 1989 (page 17).

Guillén López 1991: Describes 1989 election in Baja California and gives results of the races for governor, municipalities, and state deputies.

Guillén López 1992a: For the gubernatorial election in Baja California in 1989, gives the number of votes won by the PAN, PRI, PRD-PARM, and PPS-PFCRN (page 154).

Guillén López 1995: "In the elections of 1989 [in Baja California], the PAN won the governorship, nine out of fifteen local deputyships, and two out of four municipalities" (page 56). "In the 1989 municipal elections, the PAN defeated the PRI with a percentage of 45.2 to 31.8 in Tijuana" (page 57).

Keesing’s record of world events July 1989: "In elections held on July 2 the...PRI lost the governorship of Baja California Norte to the...PAN, all state governorships having been held up to then by the PRI for the past 60 years. Conceding the victory of the PAN candidate, Ernesto Ruffo Appel, on July 5, the PRI president, Luis Donaldo Colosio, said that the PRI was a modern party which was ready to accept its defeats...The PAN disputed the outcome of simultaneous state legislative and municipal elections in Baja California Norte which gave it control of two mayoralties (including Tijuana) and six of the 18 seats in the legislature" (page 36811).

Negrete Mata 1994: "Resultados de las elecciones para diputados. 1989. Números absolutos y relativos" (pages 64-65). Gives results for Baja California state deputy election at the district level.

Rodríguez and Ward 1994: Describes the election of 1989 in Baja California (pages 36-39). Gives percent of vote won by each party (page 39).

Vicencio 1996: Describes 1989 gubernatorial campaign and election in Baja Californa (pages 113-117). "(T)he governorship, Tijuana, Ensenada and nine deputies [went to] the PAN; Mexicali, Tecate and six deputies to the PRI; and the PARM, PRCRN, PPS and PRD received one deputy each, by proportional representation" (page 117).

Campeche

Grayson 1992: Gives the percent of the vote won by the PRI, PAN, PRD, and "others" in the 1989 state deputy election in Campeche (page 16).

Chihuahua

Grayson 1992: "(T)he PRI captured all of [Chihuahua’s] 67 local governments and 24 of 34 state legislative seats in July 1989" (page 7).

Sirvent 1990: "Chihuahua: elecciones para diputados locales 2 de julio de 1989" (page 114). Gives results by party at the district level.

Michoacán

Aguilar Camín 1993: "In Michoacán [in July 1989], the official figures that handed the victory to the PRI candidates over those of the PRD were not credible and unleashed a legal conflict" (page 249).

Bruhn 1995: In Michoacán "the PRD won half of the contested state legislative seats in July of 1989 (in an election marred by extensive and well-documented charges of fraud)" (page 115).

Gómez Tagle 1993: "En 1989 hubo dos elecciones locales [en Michoacán]: en julio de diputados y en diciembre de ayuntamientos...En julio de 1989 se celebraron elecciones en los 18 distritos, para renovar el Congreso Local. En algunos casos el abstencionismo fue muy alto, hasta del 80%. De los 18 distritos electorales, el PRD ganó cuando menos 11" (page 149). Describes fraud, protests, and negotiated electoral results (pages 149-150).

Gómez Tagle 1994: Describes July 1989 election in Michoacán for state deputies, giving the number of districts contested, the abstention rate, PRD reporting of election results, and the results reported by the PRI. ""PRD, which had been formed in May 1989 and gained its legal registration the following month, was not sufficiently well organised by the time of the July elections...(T)he PRI officials ‘counted the votes’ behind closed doors, nullified voting results from entire areas and modified the results to assure its triumph in a majority of the districts" (pages 78-79). "Variación porcentual de las elecciones de 1988 a 1989 en Michoacán" (page 38).

Keesing’s record of world events July 1989: "In voting on July 2 for state legislators and mayors in Michoacán...the...PRD disputed the official results, which gave the PRI 12 and the PRD only six of the 18 seats in the state legislature, and it produced evidence to support its claim to have won in 15 of the 18 electoral districts" (page 36811).

Rivera Velázquez 1994a: Gives the number of votes and percent of vote won by each party in the July 1989 election in Michoacán for state deputies (page 179).

Rivera Velázquez 1994b: Describes the municipal elections of July 1989 in Michoacán for state deputies (page 220). "(L)a decisión del gobierno federal fue no ceder el control del Congreso de Michoacán al PRD y en los comités electorales se impuso el fraude más transparente que se ha conocido en Michoacán, y tal vez en el país. El resultado de esa operación fe la asignación de 12 diputaciones de mayoría al PRI y 6 al PRD."

Woldenberg 1992: "(E)n Michoacán [en 1989], el PRD logró obtener los ayuntamientos de 52 municipios, entre ellos la capital del Estado (Morelia) y las principales ciudades, con lo cual la mayoría de los habitantes de ese Estado quedaron bajo el gobierno de ayuntamientos encabezados por el PRD" (page 131).

August

La Botz 1995: "On August 20, 1989 the president sent 5,000 Mexican Army troops to occupy the mining town of Cananea, Sonora to prevent protests over the privatization of the copper mine" (page 112).

Oaxaca

Yescas 1995: In the 1989 municipal elections in Oaxaca the opposition won 34 municipal governments (page 362).

August-December

Valdés 1994: "Local election results, August-December 1989" (page 69). Gives for state elections held those months the percent of the vote for PRI, PAN, and PRD.

September

Amezcua 1997: The governor of México (state) resigns his position on September 7, 1989 (page 46).

Veracruz

Báez Landa 1994: Describes the September 3, 1989 elections for state deputies in Veracruz (pages 233-234). Gives the percent of registered voters who voted, the number of registered voters who abstained, total votes cast, and percent for PRI and PRD.

October

Sinaloa

Martínez del Villar 1994: Discusses the 1989 Sinaloa elections for municipal councils and state deputies and gives the results (pages 87-88).

Vega Ayala 1994: Describes the October 15, 1989 municipal election in Mazatlán, Sinaloa. Gives number of registered voters (page 180), number who voted, and votes for PRI and PAN (page 181).

November

Tamaulipas

Alvarado Mendoza 1992: The municipal and state congressional elections in Tamaulipas are held on November 28, 1989 and the results are made known on December 11. Gives numbers of municipalities and seats won by each party (pages 54-55).

Alvarado 1994: Discusses the November 1989 elections in Tamaulipas and gives results (pages 174-179).

Alvarado 1997a: Discusses the November 26, 1989 election in Tamaulipas and gives results (pages 319-323).

Tlaxcala

Los procesos electorales en el estado de Tlaxcala, 1986-1991 1992: "Tabulación de votos de la elección para diputados locales...celebrada el: 19 de noviembre de 1989" (pages 76-79). Gives results by municipality and district.

December

Guerrero

Estrada Castañón 1994: Describes and gives the results of the elections for municipal councils and state deputies in Guerrero on December 3, 1989 (pages 114-115, 145).

Gómez Tagle 1993: Describes the December 3, 1989 municipal elections in Guerrero, the fraud, the violent protests, and aftermath (pages 152-154). "Elecciones municipales de 1989 en Guerrero. Municipios ganados por partido. Primeros resultados [y] despues del conflicto" (page 185).

Gómez Tagle 1994: In the municipal elections held in Guerrerro on December 3, 1989, PRD victories were recognized in only nine of 67 municipalities (page 80). Describes PRD reaction to the fraud and post-electoral repression by the army (pages 80-81).

Michoacán

Bruhn 1995: "In the December 1989 elections in Michoacán the PRD won an unprecedented 52 of 113 ‘municipio’ presidencies and, in July of the same year, one-half of the contested seats in the state legislature" (page 113).

Gómez Tagle 1993: Describes the December municipal elections in Michoacán, the fraud, and negotiated municipal governments (pages 150-152). "Elecciones municipales de 1989 en Michoacán. Municipios ganados por partido. Primeros resultados [y] despues del conflicto" (page 185).

Gómez Tagle 1994: "Since PRD was unable to achieve any of its demands [in the July 1989 election], it handed over the city halls and prepared to participate in the December elections for 113 municipal presidents...Yet the official results gave 57 municipalities to PRI and only 52 to PRD. PAN and PARM won the others" (page 79). Describes PRD reaction to the fraud, including setting up of parallel municipal governments.

Grayson 1992: In the municipal elections in Michoacán in December 1989 "The PRD...captured 52 municipalities to 43 for the PRI and three for the PAN---with 15 going to other parties. These contests ignited violence that caused 69 deaths in 1989 and severely damaged the state’s economy" (page 12).

Rivera Velázquez 1994a: Gives the number of municipalities won by each party in the December 3, 1989 election in Michoacán (page 181).

Rivera Velázquez 1994b: Describes the December 1989 municipal elections in Michoacán and gives the votes won by the PRI and PRD (page 221).