Elections and Events 1992-1993

1992

Grayson 1992: "Voters in 14 Mexican states will go to the polls during 1992, with 13 of the contests scheduled for the last half of the year...(T)hey will cast ballots for governors (11 states), mayors (11 states), and state legislators (14 states)" (page 1). "1992 electoral calendar" (page 28).

Loyola Díaz 1997: "Modelos de competencia en las elecciones para gobernador (1992)" (page 23).

Santiago Castillo 1993: In 1992 the electoral laws are changed in Guerrero to move the local elections to 1993 and in Guanajuato to hold all local elections together (page 19). "Puestos de elección popular ganados por partido: elecciones locales 1992" (pages 22-23).

January

Chiapas

Calderón Alsati 1996: "A principios de 1992, un numeroso grupo de indígenas realizó una angustiosa Marcha de la Dignidad, desde Chiapas hasta la ciudad de México, para informar y protestar por las graves y continuas injusticias de que estaban siendo objeto por parte de los caciques locales protegidos y acaudillados por Patrocinio González Garrido, quien encabezaba el gobierno estatal" (page 72).

Tabasco

Amezcua 1997: Salvador Neme Castillo resigns as governor of Tabasco on January 28, 1992 (page 80).

Curzio Gutiérrez 1994a: Salvador Neme Castillo asks for a leave of absence as governor of Tabasco on January 28, 1992. "Con la salida de Neme del gobierno y la llegada de un miembro de la oposición a la presidencia del segundo municipio del estado, la era del Tabasco uniformente priista terminó" (page 156).

Grayson 1992: The governor of Tabasco resigns on January 11, 1992 because of "opposition charges of widespread electoral fraud" (page 30).

Keesing’s record of world events January 1992: "The government of President Carlos Salinas de Gortari annulled on Jan. 12 the results of elections held in Tabasco state in November 1991. This followed accusations of fraud and a 50-day march by 500 peasants from Tabasco to Mexico City, where they joined a demonstration by 20,000 opponents of the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The governor of Tabasco...resigned. The disputed elections concerned three towns...[The PRD] claimed that votes for the PRI in Cárdenas exceeded the number of registered voters. The Cárdenas city government was handed over to the PRD" (page 38716).

February

Jalisco

Alonso 1994a: Because of changes in the state electoral codes, the municipal and state deputy elections in Jalisco are moved from December 1991 to February 9, 1992 (page 264). Gives number of municipalities in which each party had candidates (page 266). Gives official results, including percent of vote for each party in state deputy elections, and the number of municipalities won by PAN, PARM, and PRD (page 275).

Arredondo Ramírez 1995: Discusses municipal elections in Jalisco in February 1992, with 18 of 124 municipalities won by the opposition and many other results contested (page 223).

Santiago Castillo 1993: Describes and gives the results of the local elections in Jalisco in 1992 (pages 19-20).

April

Amezcua 1997: The governor of Zacatecas asks for a leave of absence on April 9, 1992 (page 208). The governor of Tlaxcala asks for a leave of absence on April 11, 1992 (page 215). On April 22, 1992 explosions in Guadalajara wreak havoc on the population (page 232). On April 30, 1992 the governor of Jalisco, Guillermo Cosío Vidaurri, resigns (pages 233-234).

Baloyra Herp 1994: "Respondiendo a las demandas de transparencia y de legalidad por parte de la sociedad mexicana, el Partido de Gobierno Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), entabló una prolongada negociación con los partidos de oposición. Así surgió un Acuerdo de los Partidos Políticos, el 30 de abril de 1992, que impulsó muchas de las reformas impuestas por el obvio agotamiento del sistema en el proceso electoral de 1988" (page 12).

Grayson 1992: The governors of Tlaxcala and Zacatecas leave their offices to become respectively the secretary-general of the PRI and the president of the PRI (page 30). The governor of Jalisco resigns on April 30, "blamed, in part, for lax enforcement of environmental laws preceding the April 22 explosions in Guadalajara."

May

Keesing’s record of world events May 1992: "Carlos Rivera Aceves of the...PRI was elected by the Jalisco state legislature on May 1 to be interim state Governor in place of disgraced PRI hardliner Guillermo Cosio Vidaurri. Cosio, 62, had on April 30 taken a 12-month ‘leave of absence,’ one of Mexico’s unwritten political courtesies allowing a public official to leave office voluntarily rather than be removed by presidential decree or through legal action" (page 38905).

July

Keesing’s record of world events July 1992: "On July 12 almost 3,000,000 people voted to elect governors, state legislatures and town mayors in two states--Chihuahua...and Michoacán...On July 13 the...PRI conceded defeat in Chihuahua, where the new governor would be Francisco Barrio Terrazas of the...PAN. In Michoacán, however, the PRI candidate for governor won with a large majority. In Chihuahua, where a turnout of 63 per cent of those eligible to vote was reported, Barrio became only the third non-PRI state governor...In Michoacán...the PRI’s principal opponent was the...PRD...Official results on July 16 showed the PRD candidate for governor ... suffering a resounding defeat, with 289,000 votes, at the hands of ... the PRI [candidate], who had 418,000 votes" (page 39000).

Rodríguez 1997: "(T)he 1992 election serves to illustrate the point [that PRI does not treat all opposition parties equally]: while the PAN’s gubernatorial victory was readily recognized in Chihuahua, the PRI claimed victory in the state of Michoacán and hung tough, despite the case’s being widely publicized as electoral results were hotly contested by the PRD" (page 54).

Campeche

Grayson 1992: The July 12, 1992 election in Campeche is to elect 28 state deputies. Gives the breakdown of the outgoing state legislature (page 16).

Santiago Castillo 1993: Describes and gives the results of the local elections in Campeche on July 5, 1992 (page 20).

Chihuahua

Alba Vega 1997: Discusses the July 12, 1992 election in Chihuahua and the results (pages 395-400).

Lau 1994: "(E)n Chihuahua en 1992...PAN triunfó en comicios transparentes frente a un...PRI que tuvo las manos atadas para proceder con mecanismos tradicionales" (page 65). "Una impresión muy fuerte en Chihuahua, sobre todo en las filas priistas, es que la gobernatura fue negociada a cambio de Michoacán" (page 66). Discusses relationships between PRI and PAN and PRI and PRD.

Orozco 1994: "Resultados totales por partido en las elecciones de 1992" (page 207). Gives for Chihuahua the number of votes and percent of vote for each party in the elections for governor, state deputies, and municipal councils. "Elecciones para diputados locales 1992" (page 211). Gives for each district the total vote, and the number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones para gobernador 1992. Correlación entre población, servicios básicos y preferencias políticas" (pages 212-214). Gives this information by municipality.

Pizarro Chávez 1995: "Votaciones para gobernador 1992" (page 303). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for PRI, PAN, PRD, and PT in Chihuahua election.

Quintana S. 1994: "Pocas veces en la historia de Chihuahua los resultados de unas elecciones han sido tan poco cuestionados y tan rápida y masivamente aceptados como los del 12 de julio de 1992" (page 41). Discusses in detail the voter participation rate and the impact of the various political parties. "Votación por el PRI y por el PAN en los diez municipios más poblados y en el resto del estado" (page 49). Gives number and percent of votes. "Votación por los cuatro principales partidos políticos en Chihuahua, julio de 1992" (page 54). Provides statistics comparing this election to previous elections.

Michoacán

Amezcua 1997: Discusses the July 12, 1992 election (page 171) and gives results (page 176).

Calderón Mólgora 1997: Discusses the July 12, 1992 election and issues involved.

Grayson 1992: Discusses the issues and candidates involved in the July 12, 1992 gubernatorial election in Michoacán (pages 11-14).

The 1994 Mexican election: a question of credibility 1994: "Another example [of PRI election intervention] was the July 1992 election for the governorship of Michoacán, a position formerly held by Cárdenas, who took 64% of the state’s presidential vote in 1988...The PRD decried not only fraud in the classic sense, but also what they considered an unseemly attempt to buy back PRI support in Cárdenas’ back yard. The PRI reportedly spent $80 per vote in Michoacán, compared to $2 per vote by the PRD" (page 13).

Rivera Velázquez 1994: Describes July 12, 1992 election for governor and state deputies in Michoacán. Gives the official results for each party in both of the elections (page 168). Gives PRD’s report of the vote for PRI, PRD, and PAN (page 169).

Rivera Velázquez 1994b: Gives the number of votes and percent of total vote won by the PRI, PRD, PAN, PFCRN, PARM, and PPS in the July 12, 1992 gubernatorial election in Michoacán (page 224).

August

Keesing’s record of world events August 1992: "Voting took place on Aug. 2 to elect governors, state legislators and mayors in the states of Durango, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas and Baja California [no gubernatorial election in Baja California]. The abstention rate in some states was a high as 70 percent, and the polls were marked by mutual accusations of fraud by the participating parties...The PRI claimed victory in all six states, despite allegations by the PRD and..PAN of illegal campaigning, PRI intimidation, theft of ballot boxes and the manipulation of the results. The opposition especially disputed the results for the governorships of Durango and Veracruz, where the PRD and PAN ran joint slates" (page 39045).

Aguascalientes

Grayson 1992: Gives the background of the PRI candidate for governor in the Aguascalientes gubernatorial election on August 2, 1992 (page 16).

Baja California

Grayson 1992: The August 2, 1992 election is for 19 state deputies and 4 mayors. Gives the municipalities and the seats in the outgoing legislature held by each party (page 18).

Guillén López 1994: "En 1992 [en Baja California] volvieron a elegirse las diputaciones del Congreso local y los ayuntamientos" (page 36). Describes the election in detail and gives the percents of the vote won by the PAN and the PRI in the four municipalities and in selected district deputy elections (pages 37-38).

Guillén López 1995: "In 1992 the PAN won the mayorship [of Tijuana, Baja California] again, but this time the difference was much narrower: 46.5 percent for the PAN, 44.1 percent for the PRI" (page 57).

Negrete Mata 1994: "Resultados electorales por distrito. 1992" (pages 66-67). Gives number of votes and percent of vote won by each party in Baja California election.

Vicencio 1996: The August 2, 1992 municipal and state deputies election in Baja California gave three municipalities and eight deputies to PAN, one municipality and seven deputies to PRI, and four deputies to PRD by proportional representation (page 127).

Durango

Grayson 1992: Discusses the issues and candidates in the August 2, 1992 gubernatorial election in Durango (pages 14-15).

Peschard 1997: Local elections are held in Durango on August 2, 1992 for governor, municipal councils, and state deputies (page 249). "Distribución política de los municipios (1992)" (page 274). "Resultados de las elecciones en la ciudad de Durango (1992)" (page 275). Gives votes for each party in each election.

Santiago Castillo 1993: Describes and gives the results of the local elections in Durango in 1992 (page 21).

Singer S. 1993: "Elecciones en Durango 1992" (page 93). Gives the votes for each party for the municipality of Durango, the governor, and state deputies. "Las elecciones en Durango de 1992, comparaciones" (page 94). Gives results by district.

Oaxaca

Clarke 1996: In the gubernatorial election in Oaxaca in 1992 the PRI candidate received 77% of the vote, the PRD candidate 10%, and the PAN candidate 5% (page 290).

Díaz Montes 1997: "Oaxaca, resultados absolutos en las elecciones para gobernador por distritos electorales locales, 1992" (page 49). "Oaxaca, votación y abstencionismo en las elecciones para gobernador, 1992" (page 52).

Grayson 1992: Discusses the gubernatorial candidates in Oaxaca for the election of August 2, 1992 (pages 18-19).

Santiago Castillo 1993: Describes and gives the results of the local elections in Oaxaca in 1992 (page 21).

Sorroza Polo 1994: Discusses the August 2, 1992 gubernatorial elections in Oaxaca (page 303).

Veracruz

Grayson 1992: Discusses the gubernatorial candidates in Veracruz for the election of August 2, 1992 (page 20).

Loyola Díaz 1997a: Discusses and gives results of the gubernatorial election in Veracruz in 1992 (pages 174-175).

Santiago Castillo 1993: Describes and gives the results of the local elections in Veracruz in 1992 (page 23).

Zacatecas

Grayson 1992: Discusses the gubernatorial candidates in Zacatecas for the election of August 2, 1992 (pages 24-25).

Sánchez Gutiérrez 1997: Discusses the August 2, 1992 election in Zacatecas for governor, municipal councils, and state deputies (page 180) and gives results of the gubernatorial election (page 202).

Santiago Castillo 1993: Describes and gives the results of the local elections in Zacatecas in 1992 (page 23).

September

Keesing’s record of world events September 1992: "More than 15,000 supporters of the..PRD gathered on September 15 in the central square of Morelia, the capital of the state of Michoacán to demonstrate against alleged electoral fraud and corruption. The demonstration coincided with the official inauguration of Eduardo Villaseñor of the...PRI as state governor" (page 39089).

October

Keesing’s record of world events October 1992: "Eduardo Villaseñor of the...PRI, who had been inaugurated in September as governor of the western state of Michoacán, asked on Oct. 6 for a ‘one-year leave of absence,’ a form of words effectively meaning that he was resigning. He was replaced by another PRI official, Ausencio Chávez...The PRD greeted Villaseñor’s departure as a further instance of President Carlos Salinas de Gortari being forced to dismiss an unpopular PRI governor, and as a government concession to the need for political reform" (page 39136).

November

Keesing’s record of world events November 1992: "President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, in his fourth state of the nation address broadcast on Nov. 1, made several indirect references to opposition party claims that state elections held during the year had been tainted by fraud, allegedly perpetrated by the...PRI. He went on to propose that sources of party financing should in future be made public, that limits should be placed on electoral expenses and that procedures should be agreed to guarantee the impartiality of the media" (page 39184).

Crespo 1995: "(A)parecían nuevos conflictos poselectorales en los comicios para gobernador de Tamaulipas, Sinaloa y Puebla. Los tres procesos fueron impugnados por la oposición, pero en Tamaulipas la protesta tomó un cariz más violento" (page 193).

Keesing’s record of world events November 1992: "With a round of state elections taking place on Nov.8, Salinas’s apparent acknowledgement of the electoral fraud issue stimulated rather than placated opposition protests...PRI victories in the gubernatorial elections held in the northern states of Tamaulipas and Sinaloa and the central state of Puebla were fiercely disputed. In concurrent municipal elections in the state of Oaxaca, the State Electoral Institute suspended polling in four towns following violent clashes between PRI supporters and those of the opposition PRD" (page 39184).

Oaxaca

Sorroza Polo 1994: Discusses the November 8, 1992 election in Oaxaca for 570 municipal councils (page 304). "Los resultados nos vuelven a la realidad profunda de la política en Oaxaca: un 70% de abstencionismo, 522 para el PRI, 13 para el PRD, seis para en PAN, cuatro para otros partidos y ocho para planillas independientes."

Yescas 1995: In the 1992 municipal elections in Oaxaca the opposition ran 167 municipal slates and won 21, with the PRD winning 14 (page 362).

Puebla

Grayson 1992: Discusses the gubernatorial candidates in Puebla for the election of November 8, 1992 (page 21).

Reynoso 1997: Discusses the November 8, 1992 gubernatorial election in Puebla. "Puebla, resultados de las elecciones para gobernador, 1992" (page 241).

Sinaloa

Alvarado 1997: Discusses the November 8, 1992 election in Sinaloa and gives results (page 296-306).

Grayson 1992: Discusses the gubernatorial candidates in Sinaloa for the election of November 8, 1992 (page 22).

Martínez del Villar 1994: Discusses the 1992 Sinaloa election for governor, 18 municipal councils, and state deputies (pages 88-89).

Tamaulipas

Alvarado 1997a: Discusses the 1992 election in Tamaulipas for governor, municipal councils, and state deputies and gives results (page 323-343).

Grayson 1992: Discusses the gubernatorial candidates in Tamaulipas for the election of November 8, 1992 (pages 22-23).

Tlaxcala

Grayson 1992: Discusses the PRI gubernatorial candidate in Tlaxcala for the election of November 8, 1992 (pages 23-24).

Ramírez Rancaño 1997: "Tlaxcala, resultados de las elecciones para gobernador y diputados locales" (page 76). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party.

December

Michoacán

Amezcua 1997: Discusses the municipal elections of December 1992 (pages 177-179).

Bruhn 1995: The PRD won "39 out of 113 in the December 1992 municipal elections [in Michoacán]" (page 129).

Rivera Velázquez 1994b: Describes the municipal elections of December 6, 1992 in Michoacán and gives the number of votes and percent of total vote for PRI, PRD, and PAN, the total votes shared by PARM, PFCRN, and PPS, and the number of municipalities won by each party (pages 224-226).

1993

January

Amezcua 1997: In Chiapas on January 4, 1993 the governor José Patrocinio González Blanco Garrido asks for a leave of absence (page 220).

February

Baja California Sur

Toledo Patiño 1995: "Elections are held in Baja California Sur on February 7, 1993 for governor, municipal councils, and local deputies. "(E)l PRI ganó la gubernatura, 7 diputaciones y 2 presidencias municipales, mientras que el PAN obtuvo 8 diputaciones...y 3 presidencias municipales" (page 41).

Guerrero

Crespo 1995: "En el estado de Guerrrero, el PRD tuvo suficiente fuerza como para desafiar al PRI, lo cual, aunado a una serie de irregularidades, generó también un escenario poselectoral conflicto...Con todo, el PRI pudo sostener a su candidato, Rubén Figueroa Alcocer" (pages 193-194).

Estrada Castañón 1994: Discusses the gubernatorial election in Guerrero on February 21, 1993 (pages 129-130).

Keesing’s record of world events March 1993: "Official results released on March 3 of the elections held in...Guerrero on Feb. 25 produced the expected large PRI victory (63.5 per cent) and opposition protests of ruling party fraud. The...PRD came second (27.4 per cent) but no other party gained more than 3 per cent. Abstentions reached the unprecedented level of 67.01 per cent" (page 39359).

Hidalgo

Barrera Ambriz 1995: Elections for governor and local deputies are held in Hidalgo on February 21, 1993 (page 82). Gives results of election (pages 87-88).

Quintana Roo

Larrosa Haro 1995: Elections for governor, local deputies, and municipal councils are held in Quintana Roo on February 21, 1993. Gives results (page 73).

March

Baja California Sur

Crespo 1995: "En Baja California Sur, en febrero de 1993, el PAN se vio en efecto beneficiado por los conflictos interpriístas, y sorprendió al país con la mayoría en el Congreso, con 8 de las 15 diputaciones de mayoría, y disputando cercanamente la gubernatura, pues el PRI obtuvo el triunfo solo por cerca de 5000 votos" (page 109).

Keesing’s record of world events March 1993: "In elections on March 7 in the state of Baja California Sur, the PRI narrowly won the governorship, winning 49,900 votes to 45,006 for the...PAN. However the PAN won a majority in the state congress and took most of the important municipalities" (page 39359).

La república de Babel: anuario político 1997: Gives the number of municipalities and local deputies won by PAN and PRI in the 1993 elections in Baja California Sur (page 199).

Rodríguez 1997: "In the 1993 election in Baja California Sur,...the PAN won a majority in the congressional elections and took several of the leading cities, yet lost the governorship. The losing gubernatorial candidate, outraged, declared openly that his defeat had been traded by the PAN party leadership against victories elsewhere; thus he affirmed, the PAN was allowed to keep the congressional seats and the municipal governments in exchange for the PRI’s keeping the governorship" (page 159).

Distrito Federal

Keesing’s record of world events March 1993: "An unofficial plebiscite was held on March 21 in the Federal District, consisting of the capital, Mexico City, and several neighbouring small towns and villages. The organizers...claimed that 85 per cent of participants had voted in favour of the direct election of the Governor of the Federal District and of the city legislature, both currently appointed by the President. Two-thirds of those voting also wanted the capital to be the country’s 32nd state. The PRI denounced the plebiscite as an opposition trick, claiming that only 300,000 people, fewer than 7 per cent of registered voters, had been involved" (page 39359).

El plebiscito del 21 de marzo en cifras 1993: Tables give results of the plebiscite (pages 35-36).

April

Keesing’s record of world events April 1993: "The PAN on April 24 organized a referendum and protest march of more than 40,000 demonstrators in Mérida, capital of the state of Yucatán, in protest at the PRI decision to postpone until May 1995 the gubernatorial elections which had been set for November" (page 39408).

San Luis Potosí

Araya Jiménez 1995: "La pasada elección de gobernador [en San Luis Potosí], realizada el 18 de abril de 1993, fue convocada de manera extraordinaria después de las renuncias de dos gobernadores oficialmente electos y de tres gobernadores interinos" (page 96). "Resultados de las elecciones de gobernador por partido en San Luis Potosí, 1993" (page 104). Gives number of votes for each party.

Keesing’s record of world events April 1993: "The...PRI claimed a landslide victory in the extraordinary gubernatorial election held in the state of San Luis Potosí on April 18. The PRI rejected opposition claims that it had resorted to fraud" (page 39408). Gives percent of vote won by the major candidates and seats won by PRI in the simultaneous local state congress election. "The San Luís Potosí election was the first poll in Mexico to be supervised by non-partisan officials and was intended to restore political stability in the state in the aftermath of the forced resignation in October 1991 of the newly elected PRI governor."

May

La Botz 1995: On May 24, 1993 Cardinal Juan Jesús Posadas Ocampo is assassinated in the Guadalajara International Airport (page 16).

July

Keesing’s record of world events July 1993: PRI won the July 5 gubernatorial election in the state of México (page 39551). Gives turnout and percent of vote for PRI, PAN, and PRD. PRI also won the July 4 gubernatorial election in Nayarit. Gives percent of vote for PRI/PARM, PAN, PRD, and PFCRN, and percent of votes that were invalid.

México (state)

Arreola Ayala 1995: Discusses and gives the results of the July 4, 1993 gubernatorial election in México (state) (pages 326-331).

Crespo 1995: "En julio [1993] hubo comicios para gobernador en el Estado de México...El triunfo fue para el candidato oficial, con 58%, frente al 16% para el PAN y el 8% del PRD" (page 194).

Emmerich 1994: Discusses in detail the July 4, 1993 election in México (state) and gives numerous statistics (pages 276-280). Tables list the districts and municipalities in which the PAN, PRD, and PRI obtained the most votes and gives votes won (pages 283-284).

Emmerich 1995: "Las elecciones de gobernador realizadas en el Estado de México el 4 de julio de 1993 dieron el triunfo al Partido Revolucionario Institucional" (page 129). "Distritos y municipios en los que el PAN obtuvo la mayor cantidad de votos en las elecciones del 6 [debe decir 4] de julio de 1993" (page 135). "Distritos y municipios en los que el PRD obtuvo mayor cantidad de votos en las elecciones del 6 de julio de 1993."

Nayarit

Crespo 1995: "En Nayarit se celebraron igualmente elecciones para gobernador [julio 1993]. Siendo también una entidad dominada por el PRI, hubo una vez más una escisión por parte de priístas inconformes con el proceso de selección interna de candidatos, que fueron a alimentar las huestes perredistas" (page 194).

Pacheco Ladrón de Guevara 1993a: Includes many tables based on the statistics included in the following tables listed here for the July 4, 1993 local elections in Nayarit. "Nayarit. Resultados electorales de gobernador por distrito electoral. 4 de julio de 1993" (pages 170-173). "Nayarit. Resultados electorales de presidentes municipales por municipio. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 174). "Nayarit. Regidores correspondientes al PAN. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 175). "Nayarit. Regidores correspondientes al PARM. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 176). "Nayarit. Regidores correspondientes al PFCRN. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 177). "Nayarit. Regidores correspondientes al PFRAP. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 178)."Nayarit. Regidores correspondientes al PPN. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 179). "Nayarit. Regidores correspondientes al PPS. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 180). "Nayarit. Regidores correspondientes al PRD. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 181). "Nayarit. Regidores correspondientes al PRI. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 182). "Nayarit. Regidores correspondientes al PRS. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 183). "Nayarit. Regidores correspondientes al PT. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 184). "Nayarit. Resultados electorales de diputados locales por distrito electoral. 4 de julio de 1993" (page 185).

Pacheco Ladrón de Guevara 1995: "El 4 de julio de 1993 se llevaron a cabo en Nayarit procesos electorales locales. Se eligieron 20 presidentes municipales, 30 diputados y un gobernador" (page 115).

September

Electoral reform in Mexico 1993: The electoral reform debate of 1993 which resulted in the changes passed by the Senate and Chamber of Deputies in September 1993 "was solely on federal elections whereas most of the controversy in the last four years has focused on state and local elections. Formally, IFE and the federal government have no real authority over state and local elections. IFE provides the registration list and whatever technical assistance that is requested, but it does not administer those elections " (page 15). Constitutional reforms include doubling the number of senate seats to 128, with each state and the Federal District having four instead of two senators; eliminating the governability clause approved in the 1990 reform; and limiting the maximum number of seats any single party can hold in the Chamber to 63 percent or 315 of its 500 seats (pages 16-17).

Local elections

Coahuila

Beltrán 1995: Gives results of gubernatorial election in Coahuila on September 26, 1993 (pages 152-153).

Crespo 1995: "En Coahuila hubo comicios para gobernador en septiembre de 1993...El candidato oficial obtuvo una victoria de 60% de la votación, frente al 30% del PAN" (page 194).

October

Guerrero

Crespo 1995: "Al celebrarse [en Guerrero] los comicios municipales en octubre de ese mismo año [1993], hubo gran inconformidad con los resultados al grado de que en catorce municipios el PRD impidió la toma de posesión de los alcaldes electos, lo que a su vez provocó tensos desalojos que arrojaron un número elevado de heridos" (page 194).

López Chavarría 1995: "(E)n las recientes elecciones del Estado de Guerrero (3 de octubre de 1993)...de los 75 ayuntamientos el Revolucionario Institucional fue el único partido que registró candidatos a alcaldes en todos los municipios, le siguieron el Partido de la Revolución Democrática con 70, el Partido del Frente Cardenista de Reconstrucción Nacional con 47; Acción Nacional con 36; y el Partido Revolucionario Unificador con tres" (page 146).

Nuevo León

Rodríguez and Ward 1996: Nuevo León passes a new state electoral law in October 1993 (page 101).

November

La Botz 1995: "By November of 1993, Salinas claimed that PRONASOL had 150,000 committees, and that they were operating in more than 95 percent of Mexico’s 2,378 municipalities" (page 109).

México (state)

Keesing’s record of world events November 1993: "Elections were held in México state on Nov. 14 in which the PRI was declared the outright winner in all but two seats, namely Cuautitlán, where the PAN candidate won 57 per cent of the vote compared with 34 per cent for the PRI, and Tepotzotlán, where the result was declared too close to call" (page 39729).

Yucatán

Crespo 1995: "La elección [en Yucatán] se celebró el 28 de noviembre [1993]. Tanto la gubernatura como la alcaldía de Mérida fueron ganadas oficialmente por el PRI que sólo admitió su derrota en cuatro municipios. En la elección para gobernador, el PRI ganó oficialmente el 60% frente al 38% que se le reconoció al PAN. El partido blanquiazul se movilizó de inmediato" (page 195).

Huchim Koyoc 1995: Discusses local elections of 1993 in Yucatán and gives results (page 397). "La votación priísta más alta del periodo es la de 1993, en la que se eligió al gobernador Granja Ricalde por 18 meses, a fin de ajustar el periodo constitucional para que en los sucesivo se elija gobernador después de la elección de Presidente de la República" (page 414).

Keesing’s record of world events November 1993: "Elections in the state of Yucatán on Nov. 28 produced heated controversy and demands for annulment of the poll. The PRI had claimed victory in the gubernatorial election, the 25 state legislative seats and all Yucatán’s 106 mayorships, but was accused of vote-rigging by the PAN, which itself claimed to have won the gubernatorial election, at least six mayorships and one state legislature seat. Dulce María Sauri, interim state governor of Yucatán since February 1991, whose term was not due to end until the end of January 1994, resigned along with six members of her state Cabinet on Dec. 1" (page 39729).

The 1994 Mexican election: a question of credibility 1994: "On November 28, 1993,...disputed elections were held in the PAN stronghold of Yucatán. A power outage occurred during the vote tabulation. Later a quick count by independent observers disagreed with the official results. Observers also documented vote-buying, ballot-box stuffing and nonsensical voter turnout levels in many precincts. The PRI claimed both the governorship and the capital city, but ceded the latter to the PAN after weeks of demonstrations" (page 15).

Poot Capetillo 1995: Describes the election of November 28, 1993 in Yucatán (pages 166-167).

December

Amezcua 1997: Dulce María Sauri resigns as governor of Yucatán in December of 1993 (page 72).