Information On More Than One Election

Aguilar 1994: "Elecciones federales, 1988-1994: votación obtenida por el PRI (porcentajes)" (pages 259-260). Tables by region and state. "Elecciones federales, 1988-1994: votación obtenida por el PAN (porcentajes)" (pages 261-262). Tables by region and state. "Elecciones federales, 1988-1994: votación obtenida por el PRD (porcentajes)" (pages 263-264). Tables by region and state. "Porcentajes de abstencionismo, 1988-1994" (pages 268-269). "Padrón electoral y votantes: elecciones federales, 1988-1994" (page 270).

Aguilar Laviada 1996: Tables are for Yucatán. "Resultados electorales de gobernador" (page 41). Compares results of 1993 and 1995 elections. "Resultados electorales de diputados federales y locales" (page 42). Compares results of federal and local elections from 1991-1995.

Alonso 1994: Discusses the various elections in the early nineties in which an opposition party appears to have won the election and the PRI candidate is given the victory. States that although, after much protest, the PRI victor is sometimes removed, "en ninguno de estos casos los principales líderes opositores llegaron a gobernar. Hay un arreglo centrado en la caída de la figura del que fue candidato priista, pero no en un reconocimiento de que el voto ciudadano favoreció a los opositores. La negociación política se basa en el voto opositor, pero a éste no se le da el valor de decisión última" (page 11).


Alvarado Mendoza 1992: "Tamaulipas. Elecciones municipales, 1980-1989" (page 56). Charts elections returns. "Tamaulipas. Elecciones para el congreso del estado, 1980-1989" (page 57). Charts election returns. Charts results of municipal elections by district (pages 58-60) and by urban/rural designation (page 61). "Tamaulipas. Elecciones para gobernador, 1974-1986" (page 62). Charts election returns.

Anuario estadístico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1995: "Votación efectiva en elecciones federales para presidente por partido político participante 1952-1994 (miles de votos)" (page 554). "Votación efectiva en elecciones federales para senadores por partido política solicitante 1964-1994" (page 555). "Votación efectiva en elecciones federales para diputados por partido política participante 1961-1994" (page 556). "Comicios y votación efectiva en elecciones locales para gobernador por partido político participante 1980-94" (page 557). "Comicios y votación efectiva en elecciones locales para diputados por partido político participante 1980-94" (page 558). "Comicios y votación efectiva en elecciones locales para municipes por partido político participante 1980-94" (page 559).

Arreola Ayala 1985a: "Calendario político electoral del estado de México--1981-1985" (page 12). Gives type and date of election.

Arreola Ayala 1995: Gives results of gubernatorial elections in Mexico (state) from 1919-1993. "Elección de gobernador en el estado de México. Porcentajes de votación por partido, 1975-1993" (page 416). Elections of 1975, 1981, 1987, and 1993. "Eleccion de ayuntamientos en el estado de México. Porcentajes de votación por partido, 1978-1993" (page 417). "Elecciones de diputados locales en el estado de México. Porcentajes de votación por partido, 1972-1993" (page 418).

Aziz Nassif 1985: "História de las elecciones federales, Chihuahua 1961-1982" (pages 114-115). Gives the number of votes and percent of vote for each party in each election.

Aziz Nassif 1992: Discusses voting patterns at the district level from 1982-1988 (pages 75-79). "Chihuahua. Elecciones locales de ayuntamiento, 1980-1989" (page 90). Gives total votes, abstentions, and number of votes for PRI and PAN. "Chihuahua. Elecciones para diputados federales, 1979-1988." Gives total votes, abstentions, and number of votes for PRI and PAN. "Elecciones federales en Chihuahua, 1979-1988, comparación PRI-PAN (diputados) Porcentaje de votación" (pages 91-94). Charts results for each of ten districts.

Baer 1990: "Vote by party for the chamber of deputies, 1961-1985 (single-member districts)(in percents)" (page 42). Gives by party for each election the percent of vote won. "Mexico: national abstention, 1961-1985 (in percents)" (page 47). Gives for each election the percent of vote annulled and percent of abstention. "Representation in chamber of deputies by party" (page 54). Gives for 1943-1985 the number of seats held by each party.

Bailey 1988: "Direct consultations confront strong vested interests at the local level" (page 117). "PRI’s use of ‘direct consultations’ in choosing municipal candidates, 1984-85" (page 118). Gives state, date of general elections, number of municipalities, and number of consultations. "The president and senators are chosen by direct popular vote at the same time (the first Sunday of July, 1976, 1982 and 1988) and serve six-year terms. Beginning in 1994 the election will be held on the first Sunday of September, this to reduce the period of the ‘lame duck’ President. A mixed system is employed for the national Chamber of Deputies, with 300 deputies elected directly on a plurality basis from single-member districts and another hundred chosen on a proportional representation basis in at-large multi-state electoral districts" (page 149).

Bailey 1994a: "National Vote Percentages from 1961 to 1991" (page 19). Gives for each election the percent of the vote won by each party. "Distribution of Seats in the Federal Chamber of Deputies" (page 20). Gives for elections from 1955 to 1994 the number of seats won by each party.

Bailón 1995: "Oaxacan municipios governed by opposition parties" (page 210). Gives names of municipalities governed by PRD, PARM, PAN, PRCRN, and PPS.

Bizberg 1992: Discusses voting patterns by district in Coahuila (page 103-108). "Las elecciones en Coahuila (totales)(porcentajes)" (page 133). For all elections from 1981-1988 gives percent of vote for six parties and percent of registered voters who abstained. "Votación por el PRI en las elecciones para diputados locales (porcentajes)" (pages 133-134). Gives percent of vote by district for elections from 1982-1988. "Votación por el PAN en las elecciones para diputados locales" (page 134). Gives percent of vote by district for elections from 1982-1988. "Votación por los partidos que conforman el FDN en las elecciones para diputados locales de 1988 (porcentajes)" (pages 134-135). Gives percent of vote by district. "Resultados de las elecciones federales de 1988 (porcentajes)" (page 135). Gives for major cities the percent of vote for each party for president and congress. "Votación por el PRI en las elecciones municipales" (pages 135-136). For the elections of 1981, 1984, and 1987, gives by municipality the votes and percent of total votes won. "Votación por el PAN en las elecciones municipales" (page 137). For the elections of 1981, 1984, and 1987, gives by municipality the votes and percent of total votes won. "Votación por otros partidos en las elecciones municipales" (page 138). For the elections of 1981, 1984, and 1987, gives by municipality the votes and percent of total votes won.

Bruhn 1995: "Between 1988 and 1991, the Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD) won control of more municipal governments than any other opposition party in Mexico: 89 governments to 31 for the PAN. Nearly 60 percent of those PRD governments are located in Michoacán" (page 113).

Butler 1991a: "Mexican presidential election results: 1934-1982" (pages 28-29). Gives for each presidential election in these years the percent of the official vote for the PRI in each state. "Non-PRI presidential vote: 1934-1988" (page 30). Gives percent of vote in presidential elections in these years in Baja California, Federal District, México (state), Michoacán, Morelos, and the national average.

Camp 1991: "Comparison of selected legislative districts, 1982 and 1988 Mexican elections" (pages 110-111).

Camp 1996: "Representation in the legislative branch, Mexico, 1991-1997" (page 159). Gives representation in the chamber of deputies and senate for each party. "Percentage of total vote won by candidates for congress by major party, 1961-1994" (page 173). "Seats in the Chamber of Deputies by party, 1949-1994" (page 177).

Carrillo L. 1997: "Partido Acción Nacional: resultados electorales para diputados federales 1982 a 1997" (pages 52-53). Gives results by state.

Casar 1995: "Electoral turnout, 1934-1994" (page 14). "Presidency: comparative electoral results 1988-1994" (page 18). "Chamber of Deputies (% seats). Comparative electoral results 1988-1994."

Cornelius 1996: "Composition of the Mexican congress, 1994-1997" (page 28, also in Rodríguez 1998 page 174). Gives for the chamber of deputies and senate by party the number of seats won by majority vote, number awarded by proportional representation, the seats held by each party, and the percent this constitutes of total seats. "Mexico is divided into 32 states and federal territories, and each state is divided into ‘municipios’ (politico-administrative units roughly equivalent in size and governmental functions to county governments in the United States). The ‘municipio’ is governed by an ‘ayuntamiento,’ or council, headed by a ‘presidente municipal’ (municipal president or mayor). Municipal officials are elected every three years" (page 30). "Support for ruling party’s presidential candidate, 1946-1994" (page 64). Shows percentage of total votes won by candidate. "Electoral competition in national elections, 1964-1994 (percentage of 300 federal electoral districts)" (page 65). "Turnout of registered voters in presidential elections, 1934-1994" (page 97).

Country profile. Mexico 1990-91: "Presidential election results, 1970-88 (% of total votes cast, excluding null and blank votes)" (page 5). Gives for each election the percent of the vote won by each party.

Country profile. Mexico 1995-96: "Distribution of seats in the Chamber of Deputies" (page 6). Gives distribution by party in 1991 and 1994.

Craig and Cornelius 1995: "A key element of Mexican ‘presidencialismo’ is the incumbent’s ability to select and impose public-office holders in elected and appointed positions ranging from mid-level bureaucrats to state governors, federal legislators..., leaders of the ruling party, heads of state industrial enterprises, and even some high-ranking military officers" (page 252). "Voting in presidential elections, Mexico, 1934-1988" (page 258). Gives year of election, percent of vote for PRI, PAN, and all others, and turnout ("percent of voters among eligible adults"). "Support for the PRI in national congressional elections, Mexico, 1946-1988" (page 261). Charts percentage of total votes. "Patterns of electoral competition, Mexico, 1964-1988 (percentage of 300 federal electoral districts)." "Support for the PRI by type of congressional district, Mexico, 1979-1988 (percentage of total vote)" (page 263). "Percentage of votes for the Chamber of Deputies, Mexico, 1964-1991" (page 274). "Opposition party senators in Mexico, 1929-1991" (page 275). "Party representation in the Chamber of Deputies, Mexico, 1964-1991 (percentage of seats)" (page 286). "Appendix: major changes in the electoral laws of Mexico" (pages 290-297). Summarizes changes in electoral laws from 1918-1990.

Dachary 1990: "Relación entre PRI-oposición en las legislaturas estatales de Quintana Roo. 1974-1990 (porcentajes)" (page 61). "Porcentajes de regidores por partido en los ayuntamientos de Quintana Roo. 1981-1990 (en forma global)" (page 65).

Díaz Montes 1997: "Oaxaca, elección para gobernador según partidos (1986-1992)" (page 51).

Durand 1991: "(U)n aspecto de la discusión sobre los procesos electorales ha girado en torno al número de votantes y a los que se abstienen. Y sin duda es un aspecto muy importante pero que también omite un hecho: la existencia de un sector importante de la sociedad mexicana que ni vota ni se abstiene porque de hecho está imposibilitado de votar. Son los dos millones de mexicanos con más de dieciocho años que se calcula que viven o trabajan en los Estados Unidos" (page 168).

Electoral reform in Mexico 1993: "The Miguel De La Madrid administration (1982-1988) initially recognized opposition triumphs in five state capitals in 1983 but then responded by resorting to fraud. Regional elections in the states of Nuevo León and Sonora in 1985 and Chihuahua in 1986 were marred by serious allegations of election fraud" (page 13).

Emmerich 1985: "(E)l sistema de elección indirecta [de la constitución de Cádiz] en tres grados fue recogido en el derecho electoral mexicano por la constitución de Apatzingán. Más adelante, la constitución de 1857 continuó con el sufragio indirecto, si bien simplificado a dos grados. Sólo en 1912, con Madero, se instauró el sufragio directo (para diputados y senadores)" (page 42). "Cuadro que muestra en detalle cómo y cúando llegaron al poder los 71 gobiernos distintos que tuvo México desde 1823 hasta 1911" (pages 55-61).

Espinoza Valle 1998: "Baja California: elecciones para presidentes municipales, 1971-1995 (porcentajes)" (page 32). Gives year of election, percent of abstention, and percent of vote for PRI and PAN. "Baja California: elecciones para gobernador, 1971-1995 (porcentajes)" (page 34). Gives year of election, percent of abstention, and percent of vote for PRI and PAN. "Baja California: elecciones para diputados locales, 1980-1995 (porcentajes)." Gives year of election, percent of abstention, and percent of vote for PRI and PAN. "Baja California: elecciones para presidentes municipales, 1971-1995 (porcentajes)" (page 36). Gives year of election, percent of abstention, and percent of vote for PRI and PAN for each municipality. "Baja California: elecciones para diputados" (page 37). For 1980-1995 gives percent of abstention and seats won by PAN and PRI. "Evolución del Partido Acción Nacional. Elecciones para gobernador del estado, 1971-1995 (porcentajes)" (page 49). By municipality. "Evolución del Partido Acción Nacional. Elecciones para presidentes municipales, 1971-1995 (porcentajes)." By municipality. "Evolución del Partido Revolucionario Institucional. Elecciones para gobernador del estado, 1971-1995 (porcentajes)" (page 50). By municipality. "Evolución del Partido Revolucionario Institucional. Elecciones para presidentes municipales, 1971-1995 (porcentajes)." By municipality.

Estrada Castañón 1994: "Guerrero: votación para diputados de mayoría relativa 1961-1991" (pages 133-134). Number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Guerrero: elecciones locales. Votación por partido 1989 y 1993" (page 137).

Gómez Tagle 1988: "Elecciones federales participación electoral" (page 267). Gives year (1961-1985), registered voters, and percent of vote for president, senators, and deputies. "Elecciones federales. Participación electoral por entidad federativa. Total de votos y votos a favor del PRI respecto de empadronados" (pages 268-269). Lists by state the votes in 1979, 1982, and 1985 for deputies and president. "Elecciones federales. Diputados de mayoría. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 270-271). Gives for elections from 1961-1976 the number and percent of votes for each party. "Elecciones federales. Diputados de mayoría. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 272). Gives for elections from 1979-1985 the number and percent of votes for each party. "Elecciones de senadores. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 273). Gives for elections from 1964-1982 the number and percent of votes for each party. "Elecciones presidenciales. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 274). Gives for elections from 1964-1982 the number and percent of votes for each party. "Diputados de representación proporcional" (page 279). Gives for the elections of 1979, 1982, and 1985 the number and percent of votes and seats won by each opposition party. "Elecciones de ayuntamientos década de los ochenta" (pages 280-283). For 1982, 1983, and 1984 gives for each state the number of municipalities, the number of registered voters, total valid votes, percent of registered voters who participated in the election, and the percent of the vote for each party.

Gómez Tagle 1993: "Participación electoral elecciones federales" (page 191). Gives year (1961-1991), registered voters, and number and percent of votes for deputies, senators, and presidents. "Elecciones federales. Participación electoral por entidad federativa. Total de votos y votos a favor del PRI respecto de empadronados" (pages 192-193). Lists by state the votes in 1979, 1982, and 1985 for deputies and president. "Diputados de mayoría. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 194). Gives for elections from 1961-1976 the number and percent of votes for each party. "Diputados de mayoría. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 195). Gives for elections from 1979-1991 the number and percent of votes for each party. "Elecciones de senadores. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 196). Gives for elections from 1964-1991 the number and percent of votes for each party. "Elecciones presidenciales. Porcentaje respecto del total de votos" (page 197). Gives for elections from 1964-1988 the number and percent of votes for each party. "Diputados de representación proporcional" (page 203). Gives for the elections of 1979, 1982, and 1985 the number and percent of votes and seats won by each opposition party. "Diputados federales de 1979-1991" (page 204). Gives total for each party.

Gómez Tagle 1997: Provides detailed statistics of federal elections from 1961-1994, both in the text and on the accompanying compact disks.

Gorvin 1989: "Presidential election results" (page 228). Includes elections from 1946 to 1988 and lists number of votes won by the leading candidates.

Grayson 1990: "Presidential elections, 1928-1988" (pages 288-289). Gives year of election, PRI candidate and percent of total votes received, opposition candidates and percents of total votes received, and total votes cast. "National election results for chamber of deputies, 1961-1985" (page 290). Gives by party for each election the percent of the vote received.

Grayson 1994: Mexico has "31 states plus Mexico City (also called the Federal District, or D.F.); the states...are divided into 2,378 municipalities; Mexico City embraces 16 municipalities. [There are] 64 senators...; recent changes will enlarge the Senate to 128 seats and guarantee substantial opposition-party representation. Reforms that begin to take place this year will ultimately double the size of the senate. The senate will consist of 4 senators per state (including the Federal District); 3 of these represent the party winning the majority in the state and a fourth is elected by the party with the second-largest vote in the state...The Chamber of Deputies is made up of 300 single-member district seats plus 200 deputies elected at-large on a proportional representation basis from five multistate regions" (page xi). "Election results in Mexico, 1910-1988" (pages 4-6). Gives date of election, candidates, number of votes and percent of vote for each. "The states and their governors" (page 32). Gives state, name of governor, party, year sworn in, and status (elected or appointed). "Mexico’s administrative subdivisions, population, and registered voters, 1950-94" (page 34). Gives statistics for 1950, 1970, 1990, and 1994. "Of the 500 members of the Chamber of Deputies, only 40 are women [gives party breakdown]. Only a handful of women serve in the 60-member senate [gives party and name of each]" (page 47).

Grayson 1997: "D.F. voting patterns by party in federal elections, 1961-1994" (page 18). "Mayors of Mexico City: 1929-present" (page 20).

Guillén López 1992a: "Baja California: elecciones para gobernador, 1971-1989" (page 183). Charts votes for PRI, PAN, other parties, and abstentions. Charts the same for municipal elections in Ensenada, Mexicali, Tijuana, and Tecate for the same period (pages 184-185).

Guillén López 1993: Tables compare results of 1989 and 1992 elections in Baja California for municipal councils and state deputies, with election results at the district level for each election (pages 75-79).

Jarquín Gálvez 1996: Tables are for Chiapas. "Pérdidas y ganancias para diputados locales: elecciones locales 1985-1995" (page 117). "Pérdidas y ganancias para presidentes municipales: elecciones locales 1985-1995."

Kantor 1969: Outlines the electoral policies in place in 1969 for president (pages 39-40), congress (pages 44-45), and state and municipal leaders (pages 48-50).

Klesner 1991: "Change in shares of the vote to parties, 1985 to 1988" (page 173).

Levy and Székely 1987: "Presidential electoral results, 1934-1982" (page 72). "Electoral results for the Chamber of Deputies, 1961-1985 (in percentages)" (page 73). "Party affiliation of the 400 deputies, 1979, 1982, and 1985 elections" (page 74).

Levy 1988: "Electoral support for the PRI and the PAN, 1946-1985 (official tallies)" (page 475). Gives percent of the vote for presidency and percent of the vote and seats in chamber of deputies.

López Aceves 1991: Gives the results at the district level for each party in federal elections from 1979-1988 in Tamaulipas (pages 45-80). Gives results of elections for municipal councils in Tamaulipas from 1986-1989 at the municipal level (pages 81-121).

McDonald 1989: "Mexican presidential elections, 1934-1988 (in percentages)" (page 50). Gives percent of vote for PRI, PAN, and "others." "Party composition of the Mexican chamber of deputies by mode of election, 1979-1988" (page 59). "Vote by party for the Mexican chamber of deputies, 1961-1985 (single-member districts; in percentages)."

Medina Peña 1994: "Votación del PAN por entidad federativa (elecciones presidenciales, 1988-1994)" (page 222). "Votación del PRI por entidad federativa (elecciones presidenciales, 1988-1994)" (page 224). "Votación del PRD por entidad federativa (elecciones presidenciales, 1988-1994)" (page 225).

Messmacher 1985: Tables are for Baja California. "Comparativos totales de votación para gobernador" (page 260). Gives total valid vote, null vote, total vote, and abstentions in elections of 1971, 1977, and 1983. "Votaciones totales de los ayuntamientos" (page 261). Gives total valid vote, null vote, total vote, and abstentions in elections of 1971, 1977, and 1983. "Votaciones mayoría-oposición." For elections of 1971, 1977, and 1983.

Middlebrook 1986: "1979 and 1982 federal electoral returns by party (percent of total valid votes cast)" (page 92). For each political party, unregistered candidates, and annulled votes gives 1) for the 1979 elections for chamber of deputies, the simple majority voting and proportional representation voting and 2) for the 1982 general elections, the presidential voting, chamber of deputies simple majority voting, and chamber of deputies proportional representation voting.

Molinar Horcasitas 1986: "PAN election performance, 1946-1961" (page 109). Gives for the elections of 1946, 1949, 1952, 1958, and 1961 the federal deputies at stake, the number of PAN candidates, the percent of votes for PAN candidates, and the percent of offices won by PAN candidates. "Plurality victories of opposition parties before and after 1963 reforms (percentages of total seats at stake)" (page 110).

Molinar Horcasitas 1991: "Elecciones presidenciales 1929-1958 (% de votos)" (page 45). Gives percent of vote for each participating party. "Elecciones para diputados federales 1943-1961 (% de la votación total)" (page 50). Gives percent of vote for each participating party. "Diputados obtenidos por partido" (page 51). Gives number of seats won by each party for elections of 1946-1961. "Elecciones federales para diputados: apoyo electoral de los partidos políticos 1964-1976 (% de votación)" (page 74). Gives percent of vote for each party. "Elecciones federales para diputados: apoyo electoral de los partidos (porcentajes)" (page 129). Covers elections from 1964-1985.

Moncada 1988: Gives a detailed history of gubernatorial elections in Sonora from 1917-1985.

Morales Garza 1993: Tables are for Querétaro. "Elecciones municipales 1988-1991. Votación del PRI" (page 162). Gives percent of vote in each municipality. "Participación de los partidos políticos en Querétaro. Elecciones locales 1985-1991" (page 165). Gives by year the total votes, number of votes and percent of vote for PRI, PAN, and others, registered voters, and number who abstained in gubernatorial and municipal elections. "Participación de los partidos políticos en Querétaro. Elecciones federales 1964-1988" (page 166).

Needler 1995: "Revolutionary presidents of Mexico, 1917-95, by state and region of origin" (page 44). Gives years in office, name, state of origin, and region. "Party representation in the Chamber of Deputies, 1994-97" (page 83). Gives party and seats held. "During the turbulent 1920s and 1930s, it was common for the national government to replace state governors...On the occasions when a governor is replaced in this manner today, it is generally because public disturbances have broken out, protesting arbitrary or illegal acts by the governor...President Salinas was unusual in the little consideration he gave to a governor’s finishing his elected term. He removed miscreants; but he also appointed sitting governors to executive positions, and forced newly-elected governors to resign if the local PRI had rigged the election in an obvious and clumsy fashion--or even if PAN demonstrations against an allegedly rigged election managed to create a breakdown of public order" (pages 89-90).

Negrete Mata 1996: All tables are for Baja California. "Votación para gobernador, 1989-1995" (page 47). Gives by municipality the number of votes and percent of vote for PRI and PAN. "BC: votación para ayuntamientos, 1989-1995" (page 48). Gives by municipality the number of votes and percent of vote for PRI, PAN, and PRD. "Votación para diputados. 1989-1995." Gives by district the percent of vote for PRI, PAN, and PRD.

The 1994 Mexican elections: a question of credibility (August 15, 1994) 1994: "By 1992, the PRI had recognized PAN victories in gubernatorial elections in Baja California (1990), Guanajuato (1991) and Chihuahua (1991)...The PRD took a more confrontational tack...This position hardened over time after a series of state and local elections after 1988 in which the PRD appeared again to be the victim of fraud. Suspicious PRI victories in Michoacan and other PRD strongholds gave credence to PRD charges that the PRI was practicing ‘selective democracy’: permitting isolated PAN wins in order to foster a democratic image, while employing any means necessary to exclude the PRD from office" (page 13).

Nohlen 1993a, 1993b: Electoral information and tables (1993a pages 423-452; 1993b pages 537-576). 2.1) "Evolution of the electorate 1917-1991" gives year, type of elections, population, registered voters (total number and percent of population) and voters (total number, percent of registered voters, and percent of population). 2.2) "Abbreviations of parties and coalitions." 2.3) "Electoral participation of parties and coalitions 1917-1988" gives party, dates of participation, and the numbers of elections for president in which they participated. 2.4) "Dates of national elections and institutional interruptions date" includes presidential and congressional elections. 2.6) "Congressional elections (total numbers)" includes the Chamber of Deputies (1943-1991) and Senate (1964-1991) and gives by year registered voters, voters, blank, null, and valid votes and total votes received by each party. 2.7) "Congressional elections (percentages)" includes the Chamber of Deputies (1943-1991) and Senate (1964-1991) and gives the percent of registered voters who voted, the percent of blank, null, and valid votes and the percent of votes received by each party. 2.8) "Composition of Congress" includes the Chamber of Deputies (1940-1991) and Senate (1982-1991) and gives by year the total seats and the number and percent of seats held by each party. 2.9) "Presidential elections 1917-1988" gives by year a) the registered voters, the percent who voted, blank, null, and valid votes and b) candidates/parties with their total votes and percent of vote. 2.10) "List of national leaders (presidents, juntas, dictators, generals, etc.) 1900-1988" gives names, dates, and observations on how they came to power and details on electoral issues in their regimes.

Nuncio 1992: "Crecimiento de la votación priista de 1982 con respecto a la de 1979 para diputados federales [en Nuevo León]" (page 209). Gives number of votes in each election in each district and gives the percent by which the number of votes increased from 1979 to 1982.

Pacheco Méndez 1990: "Potential electorate: population of voting age (PVA)" (page 65). Includes statistics for 1958-1988. "Electoral statistics, 1961-1985: deputies elected by relative majority (in percentages of the PVA)" (page 67). "Electoral statistics 1961-1985: deputies elected by relative majority (in thousands of votes)" (page 68). "Electoral statistics, 1958-1982: votes cast for president of the republic (in percentages of the PVA)" (page 70). "Election statistics, 1958-1982: presidential elections (in thousands of votes)" (page 72).

Peschard 1993: All the following tables include information on the federal elections from 1946-1991. "Votación comparada PRI/oposición (%)" (page 41). Gives percent of the vote for PRI and the opposition in the nation and in the D.F. "Evolución comparada de la abstención (cifras para elecciones de diputados en todos los casos. Porcentajes respecto de la población empadronada)" (page 42). Gives percent of abstention in the nation and in the D.F. "Votación capitalina de los partidos políticos (%)" (page 43). Gives number of registered voters and percent of the vote for nine parties in the D.F. "Curules capitalinas por partido político (1946-1991)" (page 44).

Peschard 1997: "Trayectoria del voto en elecciones para diputados federales en Durango (porcentajes)" (page 255). 1961-1991. "Comparación de la participación en elecciones federales en Durango y en el nivel nacional (porcentajes)" (page 256). 1961-1991. "Durango, elecciones para diputados locales (porcentajes)" (page 258). 1971-1992. "Población rural y votación por distrito electoral federal (porcentajes)" (page 260). 1979-1991. "Durango, votación por distritos electorales locales (porcentajes)" (page 262). "Composición del congreso local (1992-1995)" (page 273).

Ponce G. 1989: "México: población en edad de votar (ciudadanos) y empadronada (ciudadanos registrados)" (page 333). Covers federal elections from 1946 to 1988. "México: elecciones presidenciales. Empadronados y ciudadanos abstencionistas" (page 334). For 1946 to 1988 gives the percent of eligible voters and percent of registered voters who abstained. "México: elecciones para diputados federales. Empadronados y ciudadanos abstencionistas" (page 335). For 1961 to 1988 gives the percent of eligible voters and percent of registered voters who abstained. "México: elecciones para senadores. Ciudadanos abstencionistas (millones de personas)" (page 336). Covers 1964 to 1982. "México: elecciones presidenciales: votación por partido como porcentaje de la votación nacional" (page 337). Covers 1934 to 1988. "México: elecciones para diputados federales: votación por el PRI y la oposición como porcentaje de la votación nacional" (page 338). Covers 1961 to 1985. "México: elecciones presidenciales. Número de votos totales por estado" (page 341). Covers 1934 to 1988. "México: elecciones presidenciales. Número de votos por candidato del PRI por estado" (page 342). Covers 1934 to 1988. "México: elecciones presidenciales. Porcentaje de votos por el PRI por estado" (page 343). Covers 1934 to 1988. "México: elecciones presidenciales. Porcentaje de votos por la oposición por estado" (page 344). Covers 1934 to 1988. "México: elecciones presidenciales. Porcentaje de ciudadanos y empadronados que no votaron por entidad" (page 345). Covers 1964 to 1982. "México: elecciones para diputados federales. Votos recibidos por partido (cifras en milliones)" (page 346). Covers 1952 to 1985. "México: diputados federales por partido, de mayoría, de partido y de representación proporcional (1946-1988)" (page 347).

Los procesos electorales en el estado de Tlaxcala, 1986-1991 1992: Describes elections in state of Tlaxcala from independence to 1991. "Los gobernantes de Tlaxcala: 1857-1991" (pages 111-116).

Quintana S. 1994: All the tables refer to Chihuahua. "Participación electoral 1974-1992" (page 43). "Municipios con más significativos decrementos de votación, 1986-1992 (votación para ayuntamientos)" (page 44). "Incremento de votación en los cinco municipios más poblados del estado (1986-1992)." "Votación absoluta y relativa obtenida por el PRI (1986-1992)" (page 46). "Votación por el PRI en los diez municipios más poblados y en las zonas rurales: 1992-1986 (elecciones para gobernador del estado)." "Votación absoluta y relativa por el PAN 1986-1992" (page 48). "Votación por el PAN en los diez municipios más poblados y en las zonas rurales: 1986-1992" (page 49). "Resultados obtenidos por el CDP [Partido del Comité de Defensa Popular] en las elecciones 1985-1992" (page 51). "Votación obtenida por el PRD en Chihuahua 1989-1992" (page 52).

Ramírez Rancaño 1997: "Tlaxcala, abstención en las elecciones para gobernador y diputados locales (1956-1992)" (page 78).

Reyes del Campillo 1992: "Puestos de elección popular ganados por el PAN" (pages 92-94). For 1946-1991 gives by date and state all the elected officials (governors, federal and state deputies, senators, and mayors) won by PAN.

Reyes del Campillo 1993: Gives for federal elections from 1982-1991 the number of votes for PAN, PRI, PDM, and "izquierda" in each of the electoral districts in Guanajuato (pages 254-257).

Reyes del Campillo Lona 1996: "Votación del Partido Revolucionario Institucional 1982-1990 (ayuntamientos)" (page 51). "Entidades de competitividad PRI-PAN" (page 63). For federal elections from 1985-1993 gives number of votes for PAN and PRI in states where PAN had a strong representation. "Entididades de competitividad PRI-PRD" (page 87). "Distribución de diputados federales por partido" (page 143). Gives seats held by each party from 1979-1994.

Reyes Rodrigúez 1997: "Abstencionismo electoral en elecciones presidenciales (1968-1992) [should say ‘para gobernador’]" (page 98). "Abstencionismo electoral en elecciones para gobernador (1964-1994) [should say ‘presidente’]." "Votos panistas en elecciones presidenciales en Aguascalientes" (page 107). 1952-1994. "Votos panistas en elecciones para gobernador en Aguascalientes" (page 107). 1952-1992.

Reyes Soto 1995: "Elecciones de gobernador Yucatán" (page 92). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for PRI and PAN in 1987, 1993, and 1995. "Elecciones de diputados locales Yucatán" (page 94). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for PRI and PAN in 1987, 1990, and 1993. "Elecciones municipales Yucatán" (page 95). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for PRI and PAN in 1987, 1990, and 1993.

Reynoso 1992: "El calendario electoral sonorense concentra las elecciones para los distintos puestos en el mismo día. Así, cada tres años en julio, los sonorense deben acudir a las urnas para sufragar por presidentes municipales, diputados locales y diputados federales. Las elecciones sexenales para puestos de representación...también tienen lugar el mismo día" (page 243). "Votación del PAN en Sonora y en el país, 1976-1988" (page 254). "Sonora. Elecciones municipales, 1976-1988" (page 255). Gives for each election the percent of vote for each party and total number of votes cast. "Sonora. Estructura electoral dual. Elecciones municipales, 1982 y 1988. Municipios rurales y mixtos" (page 255). Gives type of municipality, number of municipalities, total population, rural population, and percent of vote for PRI and PAN. "Sonora. Elecciones para gobernador, 1973-1985" (page 262). Gives for each election the percent of vote for PRI and PAN, total votes, percent this constitutes of registered voters, and the number of registered voters. "Resultados electorales del PAN y del PRI en Sonora a nivel nacional, 1976-1988. Porcentajes de votación" (page 277). Gives percent of vote won by PRI and PAN in Sonora as compared to percent won at national level.

Reynoso 1993: "Elecciones presidenciales. Resultados a nivel nacional y en Sonora (1929-1988)" (page 198). Gives percent of vote for PRI (and predecessors), PAN, and "otros" (lists specific candidate for these). "Sonora. Resultados electorales promedio (1979-1988) de las elecciones municipales" (pages 209-211). "Sonora. Resultados elecciones presidenciales, 1982 y 1988, por distritos electorales federales" (page 219). Gives percent of vote for FDN only.

Reynoso 1997: "Puebla, elecciones para gobernador (1974-1986)" (page 210). Gives year, registered voters, and number of votes and percent of vote for each party. "Puebla, elecciones para diputados locales antes de la reforma política de 1977" (page 212). "Puebla, elecciones para diputados locales después de la reforma política de 1977" (page 214).

Rionda 1996: "Votación por diputados federales de mayoría: Guanajuato 1991-1994" (page 29).

Rivera Velázquez 1993: "Michoacán: resultados oficiales de las elecciones de 1988 a 1991" (page 174). For federal elections of 1988 and 1991 and local elections of 1989 gives the votes for each party and total votes.

Rocha Moya 1987: "Votación en elecciones locales, Sinaloa 1980-1986" (page 127). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party in elections for governor in 1980 and 1986 and state deputies in 1980, 1983, and 1986.

Rodríguez, Manuel A. 1997: "De 1988 a la fecha se han realizado cuatro elecciones locales y/o estatales en el estado de Guerrero. Tres de éstas fueron para elegir presidentes municipales y Diputados locales (1989, octubre de 1993 y 1996) y la otra fue para elegir gobernador de la entidad (marzo de 1993)" (page 89). Describes and maps the results of the municipal elections of 1989, 1993, and 1996 (pages 89-93).

Rodríguez and Ward 1994: "Gubernatorial election results for Baja California since 1953" (page 40). Gives year, candidates, parties, number of votes, and percent of vote. "PRI and PAN vote in municipal elections, 1986-1992 [Baja California]" (page 41). Gives municipality, year of election, total votes, number and percent of votes for each party, and participation rate.

Rodríguez and Ward 1995: "The political reform of the 1970s induced a sea change in ‘panista’ fortunes. Although the PRI continued to dominate, it no longer held such monopolistic control over national politics....Prior to 1988 several opposition parties had won control of a city administration [lists parties, names of municipalities, and dates]. However, until 1988 the PAN formed the vanguard of the opposition and therefore was the foil and the focus of the PRI’s attention" (page 6). "In the aftermath of 1988, the issue of opposition government has gained center stage ... Within an arrangement of continued PRI dominance, it suited Salinas’s purposes for non-PRI parties to have effective representation in the political process, even if this meant sacrificing absolute control of some state and municipal governments. The PAN has taken (or been allowed to take) greatest advantage of this newfound political space" (page 8). "The 1994 elections became the acid test of the extent of democratization achieved in Mexico during the Salinas administration, both in the actual conduct of the elections themselves and in the outcome of a genuinely competitive two- or three-party system" (page 9).

Rodríguez 1997: "Until the recent electoral defeats suffered by the PRI at the state level..., political custom had it that, through the official party, the PRI, the Mexican president directly appointed state governors and they, in turn, appointed municipal presidents and officials to higher positions. Then they were all officially elected by the people and ratified by the legislature...(I)t appears that candidate selection methods have not changed a great deal for PRI candidates. This may change soon, however, because one of the most significant issues within party ranks involves candidate selection procedures" (page 26). "Under the federal and state constitutions, municipal governments in Mexico are uniformly organized and structured...(H)owever, their size, and therefore their importance, varies greatly...Every municipality is governed by the ‘ayuntamiento,’ which is made up of both elected and appointed officials" (page 28). "Not all opposition parties are treated equally. To a large extent, President Salinas’s democratization project was a process of negotiation, but because of the PRD’s origins i.e., as the party born from the democratic current that caused the debacle of 1988, any negotiation between the PRD and the government was virtually impossible " (page 54).

Rodríguez 1998: "Each state in Mexico is governed by a legislature elected every three years and by an executive led by the governor, who is elected for a six-year term" (page 183).

Rodríguez Araujo 1993: All tables include statistics for Baja California, Chihuahua, and Michoacán. "% abstención en elecciones de diputados locales (1974-1989)" (page 274). "Abstención y voto PRI (porcentajes calculados sobre empadronados)" (page 277). "Votos por el PRI y la oposición."

Ruiz Vargas 1987: "Votos del PRI en las elecciones para gobernador 1971-1983" (page 26). Gives the number of votes and percent of vote in four municipalities. "Votos del PAN en las elecciones para gobernador 1971-1983." "Votación obtenida por los partidos políticos en las elecciones de ayuntamientos, Baja California. 1971-1986" (page 30). Gives number of votes and percent of vote for each party, null votes, and votes for unregistered candidates. "Distribución de votación por partido según municipio en las elecciones de ayuntamientos. 1980-1983" (page 32). Gives percent of vote for each party in each municipality. "Abstención nacional y en Baja California. (Porcentajes)" (page 36). Gives percent of abstention in each election from 1961-1982. "Porcentaje que representan los votos con respecto al total de empadronados en las elecciones municipales de Baja California. 1974-1986" (page 38). Gives number of votes for PRI and PAN and percent they constitute of registered voters. "Porcentajes de evasión electoral en los comicios municipales, Baja California. 1974-1986" (page 39). Gives percent of abstentions for each municipality in each election.

Salazar Medina 1993: "Elecciones municipales en el estado de México. Porcentajes de votación por partido y abstención, 1981-1990" (page 159). "Resultados electorales en el estado de México, 1987-1991. Frecuencias absolutas (y relativas)" (page 160). Covers 1987 municipal election, 1988 presidential election, 1990 municipal election, and 1991 federal deputy election.

Samperio 1995: "Presidentes de 1876 a 1994" (pages 167-170). Gives name, place of birth, dates in office, principal opponents, and how they came to office (provisional, elected, etc.).

Sánchez Mota 1996: "Elecciones federales para presidente de la república, B.C.S." (page 215). "Elecciones federales para presidente de la república, senadores y diputados de mayoría relativa en Baja California Sur. Porcentajes totales" (page 216). "Elecciones locales para gobernador Baja California Sur" (pages 217-218). Gives percent of vote for each party in each district in elections in 1975, 1980, 1987, and 1993. "Elecciones locales para ayuntamiento en Baja California Sur. Porcentajes en cada municipio" (pages 219-220). Includes elections of 1977, 1980, 1983, 1987, 1990, and 1993. "Elecciones locales para diputados de mayoría relativa Baja California Sur" (pages 221-222). Covers elections of 1975, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1987, 1990, and 1993.

Santoyo Ramírez 1996: All statistics are for Veracruz. "Elecciones de presidentes municipales" (pages 7-214). For municipal elections in October 1979, October 1982, October 1985, October 1988, November 1991, and November 1994 gives by municipality the registered voters, total votes, null votes, and number and percent of votes for each party. "Elecciones de diputados locales" (pages 223-243). For elections of September 1980, September 1983, September 1986, September 1989, August 1992, and August 1995 gives by district the registered voters, total votes, null votes, and number and percent of votes for each party. "Elecciones de gobernador" (pages 247-260). For elections of September 1980, September 1986, and August 1992 gives the registered voters, total votes, null votes, and number and percent of votes for each party. "Elecciones de diputados federales" (pages 268-291). For elections from 1982-1994 gives by district the registered voters, total votes, null votes, and number and percent of votes for each party. "Elecciones de senadores" (pages 296-308). For elections from 1988-1994 gives by district the registered voters, total votes, null votes, and number and percent of votes for each party. "Elecciones de presidente de la republica. Resultados electorales 1964-[1994]" (pages 312-325). Gives by district the registered voters, total votes, null votes, and number and percent of votes for each party.

Schmidt 1988a: "Abstención total en México, 1961-1982" (page 27). "Abstención en seis estados del norte de México [1961-1982]" (page 28). Includes Tamaulipas, Coahuila, Sonora, Chihuahua, Baja California, and Nuevo León. "Elección presidencial PRI, 1964-1982." In six northern states. "Elección presidencial PAN, 1964-1982 (porcentajes)" (page 29). In six northern states. "Elección presidencial PPS, 1964-1982." In six northern states. "Elección presidencial PARM, 1964-1982 (porcentajes)" (page 30). In six northern states. "Votación favorable a la izquierda en las votaciones presidenciales de 1982 (porcentajes)" (page 30). In six northern states. "Porcentajes nacionales de votación de cuatro partidos 1961-1982" (page 33). Includes PRI, PAN, PPS, and PARM. "Porcentajes de votación en seis estados fronterizos" (pages 33-35). Individual tables for six northern states from 1961-1982. "Votación presidencial PRI, nacional y seis estados 1964-1982" (page 35). "Votación senador PRI, nacional y seis estados 1964-1982" (page 36). "Votación diputado PRI, nacional y seis estados 1961-1982." "Votación presidente PAN, nacional y seis estados 1964-1982." "Votación senador PAN, nacional y seis estados 1964-1982." "Votación diputado PAN, nacional y seis estados 1961-1982" (page 37). "Votación presidente PPS, nacional y seis estados 1964-1982." "Votación senador PPS, nacional y seis estados 1964-1982." "Votación diputado PPS, nacional y seis estados 1961-1982" (page 38). "Votación presidencial PARM, nacional y seis estados 1964-1982." "Votación senador PARM, nacional y seis estados 1964-1982." "Votación diputado PARM, nacional y seis estados 1961-1982" (page 39).

Stansfield 1996: "Presidential votes in northern states, 1988-1994" (page 143). "Presidential votes in centre-north states [1988-1994]" (page 146). "Presidential votes in the DF and the state of Mexico [1988-1994]" (page 147). "Presidential votes in the southern states [1988-1994]." "Presidential votes in PAN governed states [1988-1994]" (page 148).

Valdés V. 1997: In the federal elections of 1982, 1985, and 1988 in Chiapas, PRI won around 90% of the vote (page 97). "Resultados de las elecciones de diputados federales (MR) en Chiapas (1991, 1994 y 1997)" (page 100).

Valdiviezo S. 1993: "Puebla, distritos electorales y cabeceras" (page 116). 1959-1989. Individual tables cover local deputy elections in 1959, 1962, 1965, 1968, 1971, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1986, and 1989 (pages 117-127). For each gives the number of votes by municipality for each party. "Porcentaje de abstención" (page 129). For 1959-1989 gives votes cast (excludes null votes), registered voters, and percent of abstention.

Valencia García 1994: "En Guanajuato, las elecciones de 1979, 1982, 1985, 1988, y 1991 se han caracterizado por una competitividad partidista en ascenso. A lo largo de estas cuatro elecciones el PRI ha visto decrecer su participación porcentual en los resultados, a la par que la oposición ha presenciado el aumento de los suyos" (page 86).

Vanhanen 1975, 1979, 1990: Results of presidential elections, 1848-1970 (1975 pages 192-195; 1979 pages 237-238) 1976-1988 (1990 page 219). Gives year, elected presidential candidate, votes received, percent of the total votes, total votes, and percent of the total population who voted.