Alcántara Sáez 1989: Provides details on the election and terms of office of the congress and president and describes the electoral system (pages 237-239). Lists with date of assumption of office the presidents from 1904 to 1990 (page 246).
Andreve 1979: Gives a history of electoral reform in Panama, describes recent changes in the electoral law, and reprints new electoral code.
Black 1989: "During the last half of the nineteenth century, violent clashes between the supporters of the Liberal and Conservative parties in Colombia left the isthmus’s affairs in constant turmoil. Local self-government for the department of Panama was extended when the Liberals were in power and withdrawn when the Conservatives prevailed" (page 20). "According to one estimate, the period witnessed forty administrations of the Panamanian department, fifty riots and rebellions, five attempted secessions, and thirteen interventions by the United States, acting under the provisions of the Bidlack-Mallarino Treaty...Between 1863 and 1886, the isthmus had twenty-six presidents...The new constitution of 1886 established the Republic of Colombia as a unitary state; departments were distinctly subordinate to the central government, and Panama was singled out as subject to the direct authority of the government. The United States consul general reported that three-quarters of the Panamanians wanted independence from Colombia and would revolt if they could get arms and be sure of freedom from United States intervention" (page 21).
Carey 1997: As of 1972, the president, vice-president, and members of congress are elected concurrently for six-year terms and municipal representatives to the National Legislative Council are elected for two-year terms (page 454).
Castro Herrera 1990: Provides a history of elections in Panama and the issues that influenced them.
Conte-Porras 1980: "En esta misma generación [la década del 1940-1949] fueron elegidas como los primeros representantes de la mujer panameña ante el Organo Legislativo, dos educadoras, Esther Neira de Calvo y Gumersinda Paez, pero en ningún momento de su actuación parlamentaria pudieron calificarse como dirigentes populares" (page 50). Lists Arnulfo Arias vice-presidential candidates in the elections of 1940, 1948, 1964, and 1968 (pages 53-54).
Dunkerley 1994: "Panama, general, May 1989 (annulled immediately by Gen. Noriega) and January 1991 (partial)" (page 150). Gives abstention rates, parties, and seats won.
Gandásegui 1989: "Panamá tiene un sistema político que desde 1904 celebra elecciones periódicas para escoger sus mandatarios y legisladores. De igual manera, el sistema sirve para la elección de autoridades municipales. Entre 1920 y 1968 las elecciones se realizaban cada cuatro años y en forma directa. El voto popular proclamaba al Presidente de la República. En los comicios correspondientes a 1904, 1908, 1912 y 1916 la votación del primer magistrado se hacía por medio de un colegio electoral. Las elecciones de Presidente en 1972 y 1978 se hicieron por medio de una Asamblea de (505) Representantes de Corregimiento. En 1984 se regresó al sistema de votación popular y directa" (page 11). "Partido político de los presidentes panameños electos (1904-1984)" (page 53). "Partidos políticos y elecciones presidenciales 1964-1984" (page 73). Gives for elections of 1964 and 1984 the number and percent of vote received by each party (groups "partidos de izquierda" and "otros partidos").
Gandásegui 1989a: "El liberalismo hundió sus raíces en Panamá a mediados del siglo XIX. Reflejaba los intereses comerciales de las ciudades de Panamá, más tarde, Colón, al igual que los intereses de pequeños y medianos productores rurales...Después de la separación de Colombia en 1903, el Partido Liberal se convirtió en el eje central de todas las iniciativas políticas, hasta el golpe de 1968" (page 275). "Partidos políticos de los presidentes panameños (1904-1984)" (page 278). Gives year of election, name, and political party. "Partidos políticos y elecciones presidenciales 1964-1984" (page 301). Gives for elections of 1964 and 1984 the number and percent of vote received by each party (groups "partidos de izquierda" and "otros partidos").
González 1985: "Cifras de las elecciones" (pages 61-69). For the elections of 1980 and 1984 gives for each party the number of votes in each province.
Gorvin 1989: The "election summary" covers 1945 to 1988 (page 267).
Harris 1970: "The country is divided into nine provinces, headed by governors, who are named by the president and are accountable directly to him. Each province is divided into municipal districts which are divided into ‘corregimientos,’ and they, in turn, into ‘regimientos’...The municipalities elect ‘alcaldes’ and municipal councils...The initiative and referendum exist at this level" (page 171). "The Assembly is made up of 53 deputies, who are elected for four-year terms by direct vote and apportioned on the basis of one for every 15,000 provincial inhabitants...The president is elected for four years" (page 185).
ICSPS 1963: Gives the method of electing the president, a description of the national legislature, and the method of electing the national legislature (pages 10-11).
ICSPS 1968: "Number of votes for president and percentage of the electoral population, by province, 1948-1964" (page 15). Gives number of votes cast and percentage this constitutes of each province’s registered voters.
Jayan Cortés 1989: "Población electoral en Panama 1948-1984" (page 44).
LANIC: This directory at the University of Texas links to a number of web pages related to Panamanian elections on its "government" page under Panama.
McDonald 1989: "Electoral politics" (page 246-249).
Menjívar 1986: "Panamá: cambios en la presidencia según forma de ascenso al poder, por años de 1944 a 1984" (unpaged in "Anexo 2"). "Panamá: elecciones presidenciales según partidos, candidatos participantes, y votos emitidos de 1944 a 1948 [should say 1984]" (unpaged in "Anexo 2").
Millett 1989: "The nine provincial governments are little more than administrative subdivisions of the central government...In contrast, the nation’s sixty-five municipal governments are ‘autonomous political organizations.’...In each municipality, mayors, the directors of municipal administration, and their substitutes (‘suplentes’) are directly elected for five-year terms" (page 183).
Millett 1992a: Describes the Noriega regime (pages 22-23). "Under Panama’s constitution all local government was controlled by the central government. In addition, the regime controlled the judiciary and the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. This last power provided special problems for the opposition. In addition to registering voters, conducting elections, and certifying their results, the Tribunal determined the legal status of parties. This enabled it to keep some parties off the ballot and, most important, in case of internal disputes, to determine which faction was entitled to legal status and control of party assets. This power was repeatedly used by the regime to harass and divide the opposition" (page 23).
Millett 1993: "Arnulfo Arias played a dominant role in Panamanian politics from the 1930s through the 1980s. Elected president three times in that period, he may also have been deprived of victories in 1964 and 1984 through electoral fraud. Using an aggressive populist style, he combined attacks on U.S. influence with appeals to racial prejudices and class divisions. His attacks on West Indian blacks, Asians, Arabs, and Jews made him an increasingly divisive figure in Panama. Arias also clashed repeatedly with Panama’s police-military leadership. The resulting animosity led to his ouster early in each elected term and probably to the electoral fraud that denied his victories in 1964 and 1984" (pages 13-14).
Millett 1996: "Panama has a reasonably efficient and credible system for conducting elections. The process of registering voters, certifying parties and candidates, holding elections, and tabulating results is entrusted to the National Electoral Tribunal, which, under Panama’s constitution, enjoys the status of an independent branch of government" (page 95).
Mujeres latinoamericanas en cifras: Panamá 1993: "Participación femenina en el parlamento, 1946-1991" (page 95). Gives the year of election, name of congress, total members, number who were women, and percent who were women. "Participación femenina en consejos provinciales, 1972-1991" (page 96). Gives the year of election, total number of representatives, number who were women, and percent who were women.
Nickson 1995: "Panama is a unitary nation divided for administrative purposes into nine provinces. Below the province level, the country is covered by sixty-seven districts, each of which has municipal status, including one (San Blas) that has special status as an Indian reservation. Provincial governors are appointed by the president of the republic...At the submunicipal level there are 510 electoral wards (corregimientos)...There is no metropolitan government in the capital, Panama City...Panama has historically had a highly centralized system of government. Both the 1941 and 1972 Constitutions severely restricted municipal autonomy, defining the functions of local government as essentially administrative" (page 221).
Nohlen 1993a, 1993b: Electoral information and tables (1993a pages 477-500; 1993b pages 605-630). 2.1) "Evolution of the electorate 1932-1989" gives year, type of elections, population, registered voters (total number and percent of population) and voters (total number, percent of registered voters, and percent of population). 2.2) "Abbreviations of parties and coalitions."
2.3) "Electoral participation of parties and coalitions 1932-1989" gives party, dates of participation, and the numbers of elections for president in which they participated. 2.4) "Dates of national elections, plebiscites, and institutional interruptions 1932-1989" includes presidential, congressional, and Constituent Assembly elections. 2.5) "Elections for Constituent Assembly 1945 and 1972" has two parts: a) gives total and percent of registered voters, voters, blank, null, and valid votes and b) gives by party number of votes and percent of total vote, seats won and percent of total seats. "Plebiscites 1940, 1977, and 1983" give the information in a) and the total number of yes and no votes. 2.6) "Congressional elections 1960, 1978-1984 (total numbers)" gives by year registered voters, voters, blank, null, and valid votes and total votes received by each party. 2.7) "Congressional elections 1960, 1978-1984 (percentages)" gives the percent of registered voters who voted, the percent of blank, null, and valid votes and the percent of votes received by each party. 2.8) "Composition of Congress 1956-1964, 1984" gives by year the total seats and the number and percent of seats held by each party. 2.9) "Presidential elections 1932-1989" gives by year a) the registered voters, the percent who voted, blank, null, and valid votes and b) candidates/parties with their total votes and percent of vote. 2.10) "List of national leaders (presidents, juntas, dictators, generals, etc.) 1904-1989" gives names, dates, and observations on how they came to power and details on electoral issues in their regimes.
Ochoa 1987: "Panama population voting in presidential elections, 1904-84" (page 892). Gives year of election, number of voters, total population, percentage of population voting, and person elected president.
Oppenheimer 1992: "The United States has a unique relationship with Panama. It regularly intervened in the country’s affairs long before Panama’s birth as a nation in 1903...The relationship has been special on both sides: perhaps no other country in Latin America has welcomed so many U.S. interventions with so little opposition. The U.S. interest in Panama began with the California gold rush of the 1840s, which led to the construction of the Panama railway by the United States in 1850. The United States intervened in Panama directly on five occasions between 1860 and 1902 to protect the railway under a U.S.-Colombian treaty of 1846" (page 41).
Perfil de la situación de la mujer en Panamá y lineamientos de acciones prioritarias 1992: "(P)ara el período 1980-1994, según datos aportados por la secretaría-general de la Asamblea Legislativa, ha habido 14 legisladoras y 47 suplentes mujeres. La participación femenina promedio de la década, según estas cifras es de 7% para las posiciones principales y de 12% para las de suplentes...(P)ara el período vigente (1989-1994) hubo 5 Legisladoras principales y 23 suplentes" (page 25). Gives the percent of legislators or substitutes who are women. "Es obvio que estas cifras no guardan proporción cone el volumen de la población electoral femenina que según el Censo Electoral de 1989 representó el 49.6%...Durante la década de estudio hubo aproximadamente un total de 11 directoras de entidades autónomas, 4 gobernadoras de provincia, [y] 4 alcaldesas electas por votación directa."
Roberts 1968a: "Registered voters and voting population" (page 184). Gives total population, total vote, and percent of population voting in elections from 1948-1964.
Ropp 1990: "Since 1903 Panamanian politics has been dominated by a struggle for power between the largely white urban commercial class and nonwhite groups that have been excluded from the full benefits of nationhood. [There is a] continuing need to reach an accommodation between upper and lower class interests" (page 555).
Ruddle 1972: "Changes in government: a summary of selected political dates, 1940-1972" (pages 55-57). Presidential elections, 1940-1968 (page 94). Gives date, candidates, votes, and percent of vote received. "Registered voters and voting population" (page 112). Covers 1948-1968.
Smith 1986: Table (page 192) gives for elections from 1948 to 1968 the number who voted, the percent they constitute of eligible voters, and the abstention rate.
Smith 1992: "Panama’s political parties and presidential elections" (page 218). Gives party, date of election (1960, 1964, 1968), and percent of vote won. "Panama: elections and abstention, 1948-1968" (page 218). Gives election year, total votes, and percent of electorate voting or abstaining.
Smith W. 1992a: "Panama: partidos políticos predominantes por captación de votos 1960,1964 y 1968" (page 152). Gives percent of vote for four parties.
Tribunal Electoral: This is the official web page of the Tribunal Electoral de Panamá, and it includes extremely detailed information and statistics on recent Panamanian elections.
Vanhanen 1975, 1979, 1990: Results of presidential elections, 1904-1968 (1975 pages 199, 202, 201; 1979 pages 239-240) 1978-1984 (1990 page 222). Gives year, elected presidential candidate, votes received, percent of the total votes, total votes, and percent of the total population who voted.
Villanueva 1994: "Autonomía electoral en Panamá" (pages 167-173). Gives a brief history of elections and electoral reform and describes the structure of the Tribunal Electoral and its responsibilities.
Zimbalist 1991: "(T)he defining characteristics of Panama’s dominant class in the nineteenth century--moderate wealth and partial political power with little control over economic life--became more apparent in the early twentieth century. These characteristics made the post independence ruling groups politically vulnerable and more prone to turn to representatives of the U.S. government in Panama to protect their rule over the lower classes and even to settle disputes among themselves....The role for the U.S. government as de facto viceroy of the isthmus was legally enshrined in the 1904 Panamanian constitution, which granted Washington the unilateral and, in practice, unrestricted right of intervention in the hastily created country" (page 11).