Anna 1979: "Foremost among the opponents of independence was José Fernando de Abascal, viceroy of Peru from 1806 to 1816. In the history of South American independence he is a central figure, for his administration was able to stop the spread of independence throughout most of the continent" (page 26).
Werlich 1978: "Peru's role in the drama of Latin American independence was largely that of an interested spectator until the final act...(N)owhere was royalist sentiment stronger than in Peru. In spite of the disadvantages of colonial status, a disproportionate share of the benefits that still existed within the old regime was concentrated in Lima. Peru had more than 100 titled nobles and many imperial bureaucrats...Finally, Peru was the bastion of Spanish military power in South America. Unlike most of the other colonies, where inept royal officials meekly submitted to creole demands, Peru's viceroy during the critical years 1806-16 was José de Abascal, a strong-willed executive and a skillful politician" (page 59).
Anna 1979: "The Junta Central was the government formed in mid-1808 by the various provincial juntas that had sprung up throughout Spain to resist the French invasion and conquest after Ferdinand fell prisoner. It first met in late September 1808, and for sixteen months it was the only legitimate government in Spain and the empire, with its seat first in Seville, then in Cádiz and the Isle of León" (page 40).
Hunefeldt 2004: "Peru had for more than 300 years been the center of Spanish colonial domination in South America, and Lima in particular had strong, long-standing links with Madrid. Lima's elites were tied through economic, political, and even kinship interests to their counterparts in Madrid...Peru took much longer than other Spanish colonies to embrace the independence movement, and it remained for years a bastion of Spain in the midst of other colonies that had proclaimed their freedom" (page 96). "Spain was thrown into chaos and turmoil when it was occupied by Napoleon Bonaparte's troops in 1808 and King Ferdinand VII was deposed" (page 98).
Werlich 1978: "The viceroy's army suppressed autonomous governments established in 1809 at Quito, Ecuador, and the Bolivian cities of Chuquisaca and La Paz" (page 59).
Anna 1979: "In January 1809 the Junta Central in Spain announced that the vast overseas territories in America and Asia were integral parts of the Spanish nation rather than colonies, and each viceroyalty and captaincy-general of America was invited to send a delegate to take part in the Junta. In Peru each cabildo chose one nominee and submitted his name to Viceroy Abascal...José Silva y Olave [was selected and] left for Spain via Mexico, where he was informed of the dissolution of the Junta Central, whereupon he returned to Lima" (page 43).
Anna 1979: "When creation of the Junta Central was announced in Lima on 9 March 1809, the capital again responded quietly and loyally and immediately recognized it as the legitimate government. Lima remained quiet and untroubled in the midst of the greatest political crisis that had ever swept the empire. Despite the massive discontent of Peruvians with the regime, when the storm came the elite found Abascal their beacon of safety" (pages 40-41).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "La elección de un diputado ante la Junta Central del Reino Español" (pages 75-92). Describes the election in each cabildo.
Klarén 2000: "(D)issident creoles in the colonies deposed the peninsular authorities and formed local governing juntas in La Paz, Quito, Caracas, Santiago, and Buenos Aires between April and September 1810. This overthrow of peninsular authorities did not happen in Peru, but considerable confusion and uncertainty did reign in the viceroyalty between 1809 and 1814" (page 126).
Pike 1967: "Manuel Lorenzo de Vidaurre...had been chosen by officials in Peru to represent the viceroyalty in the 1810 Cortes or parliament of Cadiz at which Spaniards, menaced by the French, met as equals with colonial representatives to confront problems of the peninsula and empire" (page 41). Vidaurre's Plan del Perú "urged the Cortes to initiate throrough-going reforms and to grant Peru and the other colonies some element of autonomy" (page 42).
Anna 1979: "The Junta Central in Spain dissolved itself in January 1810 in favor of a newly created Council of Regency. The Regency proceeded...to fulfill the announced intention of the former Junta to call together in Cádiz a Cortes, or parliament, of all the empire. The American dominions were to be represented in the Cortes on the basis of one deputy to each 100,000 white inhabitants" (page 43).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "Las elecciones de diputados ante las cortes generales y extraordinarias" (pages 93-109).
Anna 1979: "On 27 August 1810 the city council of Lima chose by lot from among three nominees the name of Francisco Salazar...as its Cortes deputy" (page 44).
Anna 1979: "The Cortes, which governed the empire from 1810 to 1814, convened in Cádiz on 24 September 1810. Since there had not been time for the delegates from America to arrive in Spain, the Cortes began its sessions with substitute overseas delegates chosen from among the many colonials residing in the peninsula...By the week of the Cortes's first meeting, almost all of America, with the exception of Peru, Central America, and the Caribbean islands, was in revolt" (page 44).
Werlich 1978: "A series of revolts in Peru-beginning at Tacna in 1811, and culminating in the uprising of Mateo Pumacahua which swept through the southern highlands in 1814-also were crushed with brutal efficiency" (pages 59-60).
Anna 1979: "(T)he abolition of the Indian tribute [is] decreed on 13 March 1811. As a poor country, perpetually on the verge of financial collapse, Peru simply could not afford to lose the tribute...Just as critically, abolition of the tribute provoked yet another round in the neverending debate over the proper status and condition of the voiceless Indians who composed 60 percent of Peru's population. Although Abascal had no choice but to implement the decree, he made no secret of his outrage" (page 55).
Klaiber 1977: "According to an estimate in 1812, out of a total population of 1,509,551 inhabitants, there were some 178,025 Spaniards, 954,799 Indians, 287,486 mestizos, and 89,241 Negro slaves in Peru" (page 1).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "Las primeras elecciones de municipalidades (1812-1813)" (pages 181-214).
Pike 1967: "From 1812, and even up to 1820, reform to Peru's liberal intellectuals implied not independence, but rather persuading Spain to make concessions within the colonial framework" (page 43).
Anna 1979: "The Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, which was written by the Cortes, was promulgated and sworn to in Lima in the first week of October 1812. It constituted, at least in theory, a genuine political revolution, for it converted the empire into a parliamentary state with a limited monarchy...The viceroy was downgraded to the status of ‘superior political chief' (jefe político superior), and was required to share power with an elected Provincial Deputation, whose jurisdiction encompassed most of Peru except Cuzco...One representative from each of the seven provinces, plus the viceroy, made up the deputation...Intendants of the provinces became jefe político of their territories. At the local level, the city councils were made elective, the proprietary regidors losing their offices" (page 82). "(C)ity councils, Provincial Deputations, and Cortes deputies were to be elected by an extraordinarily complex series of indirect votes...The Constitution itself never clearly specified who possessed the vote. Consequently, each viceroyalty, and in truth probably each locality, set its own standards...The Constitution did, however, exclude certain inhabitants from the suffrage-women, minors, mestizos, castes (or people of African background), and servants" (page 83). Gives details.
Anna 1979: "In the first constitutional elections, conducted in Lima in December 1812 and January 1813, [Miguel de] Eyzaguirre and Abascal...clashed. The viceroy charged him with influencing the parish voting in order to get men of liberal and procreole persuasion elected...In the parish elections for the new city council and in the separate parish elections for deputies to the Cortes, according to Abascal, Eyzaguirre got himself and his followers elected by conspiracy" (page 58). "On 13 December 1812 the twenty-five electors met in the city palace, where Viceroy Abascal presided...In rapid order the new cabildo of two alcaldes, sixteen aldermen, and two syndics was elected" (pages 85-86).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 9/12: "Se realizan, en Lima, elecciones para enviar diputados a las Cortes de Cádiz" (page 337).
Anna 1979: "(T)he second set of elections-the ones for Cortes delegates and the Provincial Deputation-[were held] in March 1813" (page 86).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "Las elecciones de diputados para las cortes ordinarias de 1813-1814" (pages 119-154). "Las elecciones municipales de 1813. Padrones para las elecciones" (pages 214-235).
Anna 1979: "Lima's second city council election was held in proper order in December 1813. According to the Constitution, the two alcaldes, one syndic, and half the aldermen were to be replaced" (page 88).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "La restauración absolutista, la suspensión temporal de las elecciones municipales y las elecciones municipales después de la derogatoria de la constitución" (page 235-253).
Anna 1979: "The Pumacahua uprising broke out in the city and province of Cuzco on 2 August 1814 as a direct result of the refusal of the royal authorities there to implement fully the constitutional reforms. It was also the major expression of the regional identity and of grievances against Lima felt by white, mestizo, and Indian residents of Cuzco and southern Peru" (page 93).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 3/8: "En la rebelión del Cusco, los patriotas sublevados toman la ciudad, apresan a los miembros de la Audiencia y establecen una Junta de Gobierno" (page 339).
Pike 1967: "Peru's most significant early nineteenth-century independence movement erupted in the Cuzco area in 1814. It represented the response to a local situation of particularly harsh abuse by inept Spanish administrators and in its origins had little if any direct relationship to the revolutionary philosophy voiced by the liberal savants who seldom left the city of Lima...(A)lmost from the outset the ‘mestizo' Mateo García Pumacahua emerged as its symbol and military leader" (pages 44-45). "Between the suppression of Pumacahua's revolution and the arrival of José de San Martín on Peruvian soil in 1820 little happened to advance the cause of independence" (page 47).
Anna 1979: "Abascal greeted news of the king's restoration with unrestrained joy; at long last his resistance to the Constitution was over. On 6 October 1814 he published the royal decree annulling the Constitution. The Provincial Deputation was immediately dissolved...A peculiar anomaly of the annulment, however, was that the king did not at first disband the elected city councils. Indeed, a decree published in Lima on 25 October 1814 ordered the elected cabildos to remain in office pending further instructions" (page 103).
Anna 1979: "(T)he regularly scheduled parish voting for the third elected city council took place on 6 November, even though the Constitution had already ceased to exist. In this election serious irregularities did occur and were for the first time substantiated not by the viceroy but by private citizens...According to a letter..., the election in Lima's chief parish, the Sagrario, was controlled by a conspiracy...As a consequence, the viceroy annulled the election in the Sagrario and called for a new one on 20 November" (page 104).
Anna 1979: "All problems notwithstanding, the electors gathered to choose the new cabildo on 18 December...But, even as the new aldermen were being chosen, rumors ran through the city that the king had abolished the constitutional cabildos...On 30 December, the day before the new council was to take office, formal certification arrived. Thus none of the newly elected members ever took their seats" (page 104). Gives details.
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "Las elecciones a cortes ordinarias de 1815-1816" (pages 154-180).
Anna 1979: "(O)n 1 March 1815, the crown ordered the reestablishment of the Indian tribute in America" (page 120)
Anna 1979: Viceroy Abascal retires from office in July 1816 (page 109).
Anna 1979: "The new viceroy was Joaquín de la Pezuela, former subinspector general of artillery, currently serving as commander-in-chief of the army of Upper Peru" (page 131). "Pezuela's formal reception occurred on 17 August 1816, although he took possession of the office on 7 July" (page 132). "Two fundamental elements destroyed the government of Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela between 1816 and 1820: the regime's financial collapse...and José de San Martín's brilliant strategy of crossing the Andes to attack not Upper Peru, as the Buenos Aires rebels had been doing for six years, but Chile-Peru's southern flank" (page 133).
Hunefeldt 2004: "(I)n 1818, Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela was able to report to Spain that in Peru few dared to discuss self-government or talk about a Peruvian nation" (page 98).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 12/2: "Chile se declara Estado libre, soberano e independiente" (page 342).
Hunefeldt 2004: "(I)n 1920 the government in Spain had promulgated a new, more liberal constitution that granted equal civil status to Spanish subjects living in the colonies. In the eyes of the royalists in Lima, this obviated the need for Peruvian separation and weakened the patriot argument for independence" (page 99).
Klaiber 1992: "In 1820, on the eve of independence, there were about three thousand priests in the Viceroyalty of Peru for a population of two million inhabitants" (page 38).
"Recent studies have clearly established that the great majority of the secular clergy in the last decades of the colonial period consisted of creoles. Although the ‘peninsulars' continued to predominate in the most important jobs, the creoles had come to occupy many important posts in the ecclesiastical chapters...By reason of its formation and its articulate liberalism, this creole clergy constituted one of the most progressive elites in the nineteenth century...In contrast to the secular clergy,...the religious clergy was in a state of decline well before independence" (page 40).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "Restauración de la constitución de 1812 y de las elecciones constitucionales (1820)" (pages 253-263).
Sanborn 1991: "(I)nequality, racial violence and fear made a broad-based national independence movement impossible in Peru. Indeed, the creole aristocracy feared social revolution more than subjection to the Crown, and hence Peruvian liberation had to come from outside the country" (pages 57-58).
Anna 1979: "For an extended period [Torre Tagle] served as interim intendant of Lima, without salary, during the fatal illness of the incumbent Juan María Gálvez. After Gálvez's death on 15 March 1820 Torre Tagle applied for the Lima position, but Viceroy Pezuela transferred him to the intendancy of Trujillo instead" (page 156).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 20/8: "La escuadra libertadora, a cargo de José de San Martín, zarpa desde Valparaíso con rumbo a Paracas" (page 343).
Hunefeldt 2004: Argentine general José de San Martín "understood that as long as Spanish authorities retained control of Lima and the rest of Peru, the newly won freedoms of the regions to the south would be in peril. He recruited and trained a new 4,500-man army of Argentines, Chileans, and expatriate Peruvians and he assembled a naval squadron, commanded by the British admiral Lord Cochran. In August 1820, San Martín embarked on an invasion of Peru" (page 99).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 24/9: "Se realiza la Conferencia de Miraflores entre los representantes de José de San Martín y los del virrey Joaquín de la Pezuela. No se logra ningún acuerdo" (page 343).
Hunefeldt 2004: "San Martín had hoped the presence of his forces would stimulate an independence movement among the Creole elite of Lima, but there was no organized response from the ‘limeños' and only scattered support for the independence movement from individuals" (page 99).
Anna 1979: "On 7 November Viceroy Pezuela ordered the incumbent cabildo [of Lima] to proceed with drawing up voter lists" (page 168).
Anna 1979: "The marqués de Torre Tagle did not emerge as a rebel until December 1820 when, as intendant and governor of Trujillo, he rebelled against Spain and brought his province into independence under conditions that led him to expect, and get, high rewards from a grateful San Martín" (page 155). "On 7 December 1820 the new cabildo was chosen" (page 168). Gives names of members.
Pike 1967: José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, "on 29 December 1820, proclaimed independence in the northern coastal town of Trujillo, of which he was then the Spanish-appointed governor" (page 48).
Astiz 1969: "The independence movement which expelled the Spaniards from Peru, their last stronghold in South America, in the early 1820's deeply divided the country's clergy. The overwhelming majority of the high officers was clearly opposed to the independence forces...This faction of the clergy, practically all of them born in Spain, owed their positions to the Spanish Crown...The lower clergy, which at the beginning of the nineteenth century included a sizable percentage of Creoles and even some mestizos, appeared divided" (pages 168-169).
Chávez López 2002: "Nacimiento del régimen electoral: (Desde 1821 hasta 1855). La Iglesia Católica jugó un importante papel en la organización electoral. En cada parroquia se constituían los colegios electorales. Los jefes políticos o las autoridades municipales eran las encargadas de la conducción de los procesos en su parroquia. El Congreso de la República administraba justicia electoral, calificaba las credenciales de los electos y proclamaba la nulidad de los comicios" (page 7).
Gootenberg 1989: "From 1821 to 1845 Peru endured at least twenty-four major regime changes...accompanied by untold hundreds of wars, ranging from barracks revolts to all-out internecine and international carnage" (page 11).
Klaiber 1992: "The secular clergy, made up principally of creoles, identified itself with the liberal cause that overthrew Spanish power, while the religious clergy became identified in the public's mind with the old regime. At the time of independence many religious were expelled or executed because they were Spanish or supported Spain" (page 42).
Klarén 2000: "In general, there was little conspiratorial activity among the Lima elite during this entire period, ending with San Martín's capture of Lima in 1821. The plots that were hatched in the capital, mainly after the liberation of Chile in 1818, involved a tiny, unrepresentative minority of the population, were poorly organized and conceived, were met with apathy by the public at large, and were quickly suppressed. This was not, however, the case in the rest of Peru, particularly in the southern provinces, where several serious armed uprisings occurred" (pages 127-128).
Anna 1979: "(O)n 29 January 1821, nineteen of the chief army commanders...signed a petition asking Pezuela to resign the viceroyalty in favor of General La Serna" (page 170).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 29/1: "Occure el motín de Aznapuquio, donde los altos jefes militares españoles destituyen al virrey Joaquín Pezuela y nombran para reemplazarlo al general José de la Serna" (page 345).
Hunefeldt 2004: "(I)n January 1821 Spanish general José de La Serna deposed the viceroy and took control of the royalist government and army" (page 99).
FebruaryMarkham 1892: "The internal divisions of the country were arranged by General San Martin by a decree dated February 21st, 1821. The Spanish ‘Intendencias' were to be called Departments, and the ‘Partidos' were to be Provinces" (page 292).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 2/6: "Se celebra la Conferencia de Punchauca, entrevista entre José de San Martín y el virrey José de la Serna" (page 345).
Werlich 1978: "In June 1821, La Serna sent half of his army into the fortress at Callao and marched to the Sierra with his remaining forces" (page 61).
Anna 1979: "(W)hen independence was actually declared by act of an open town council meeting (cabildo abierto) on 15 July 1821, it did not in fact constitute a clear-cut decision on the part of the citizens. Quite simply, Lima had no choice but to declare independence" (page 179). "Lima declared independence in July 1821 because it was the only alternative to the vacuum left by the viceroy's evacuation and the only method available to free the capital from the threat of attack or the depradations of marauding bands of guerrillas. At most, Lima merely acquiesced in a political development it was powerless to resist. And San Martín would soon learn how valueless that acquiescence was...Royal armies remained in the field...Both sides now settled in for what would prove a long stalemate, and the future of Peru remained undecided" (pages 190-191).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 15/7: "El Cabildo de Lima, en cabildo abierto, declara la Independencia del Perú y se firma el acta correspondiente" (page 345). 28/7: "En Lima, José de San Martín proclama el ‘Acta de la Independencia'" (page 346).
Klarén 2000: "(O)n July 28, San Martín declared independence, assumed the position of provisional ruler, or protector, and called for the election of a congress...He also ordered peninsulars to be expelled from the country and their property, along with that of their royalist creole allies, to be confiscated" (page 131).
Markham 1892: "Peru commenced her life of independence under every possible disadvantage. During the centuries of colonial rule, all important posts had been almost invariably given to Spaniards, and no class in the colonies had been trained to high administrative or legislative work...The Peruvians had to commence their difficult task with a total absence of experience...Another misfortune was the preponderance of the military element. This was inevitable after the long struggle for independence, which gave rise to a readiness to appeal to arms for the settlement of differences" (pages 290-291).
Pike 1967: "Sensing that public opinion was turning against them in Lima the Spanish commanders decided by July 1821 that it was necessary to abandon the City of the Kings and to withdraw their forces into the interior where public opinion scarcely existed...Able to enter Lima without bloodshed, San Martín personally proclaimed independence there on 28 July" (page 48).
Werlich 1978: "Before a public meeting of the ‘cabildo' on July 28, San Martín proclaimed Peru ‘free and independent by the will of the people and for the justice of their cause which God defends'...Like many creoles and especially Argentines of that period, San Martín was a monarchist. He believed that the infant nations of Latin America needed the strong, guiding hands of their own kings...San Martín urged the adoption of the monarchical system in Peru" (page 61).
Davies 1974: "In August, 1821, [San Martín] issued a decree which abolished Indian tribute" (page 19). "He also declared the Indian a citizen of Peru and prohibited the legal use of the words ‘Indios' and ‘Naturales,' asserting that henceforth Indians should be known as ‘ciudadanos'...(H)e then abolished all forms of personal service, specifically the ‘mita,' or Indian forced labor draft...These decrees were liberal, even radical, but they were not obeyed...Since San Martín's government lacked the means to enforce its decrees, the state of the Indian remained unaltered" (page 20).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 3/8: "Se crea el Protectorado, y José de San Martín asume el mando con el título de Protector" (page 346). 12/8: "Se decreta la libertad de los hijos de esclavos nacidos en el Perú desde el 28 de julio de 1821" (page 346). 18/8: "Se crea la Legión Peruana de la Guardia, con lo cual se inicia la formación del Ejército Peruano" (page 346). 27/8: "Se aprueba la abolición del tributo indígena" (page 346).
Markham 1892: "On the 3rd of August General San Martin was declared protector of Peru...On the 28th a decree abolished the ‘mita' or forced labor of Indians" (page 250).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "El 9 de agosto de 1821, San Martín decidió abolir la Constitución gaditana que ya había diferenciado entre españoles y ciudadanos" (page 278).
Pike 1967: "From a convocation of Peruvian notables in Lima, moreover, San Martín accepted the title of Protector, together with virtually dictatorial powers" (page 48).
Werlich 1978: "A week after San Martín's declaration of independence, an assembly of prominent citizens named him Protector of Peru with dictatorial powers to prosecute the war. The new government adopted harsh measures against the Spanish civilians who had elected to remain in Lima and instituted several anticlerical reforms" (page 61).
Anna 1979: "(O)n 28 September 1821 San Martín decreed that the children of slaves born from that day forward were free" (page 196).
Anna 1979: "By October 1821, only three months after the Declaration of Independence, San Martín's government was on the verge of collapse...The navy had already deserted for lack of pay. In addition, the army itself suffered heavy desertations...Deserters were replaced by conscripts, and some observers thought the entire army of about 4,800 men was composed of slaves" (page 202).
Markham 1892: "In October the order of the Sun was instituted and titles of nobility, with their entails, were retained" (page 250).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "Proclamada la independencia en Lima, San Martín, lejos de convocar a elecciones, por decreto de 8 de octubre de 1821, asumió la suma del poder civil y militar, esto es, el Protectorado" (page 274).
Werlich 1978: "The Protector's Argentine and Chilean troops, whose pay...was in arrears, demanded to be sent home. In October 1821 their officers attempted to overthrow the government. With Lima freed from Spanish control and San Martín's growing unpopularity, Peruvian enlistments declined...The final defeat of the royalists required military and political strength which San Martín did not possess" (page 62).
Aljovín de Losada 2005: "En el período del protectorado de José de San Martín (1821-1823), se convocó a lo que se puede considerar las primeras elecciones del Perú Independiente. El 27 de diciembre de 1821, San Martín convocó al Congreso para el 1 de mayo de 1822. Para ello designó una comisión cuya función era organizar las elecciones y preparar borradores de la Constitución" (page 42).
Anna 1979: "(I)n November [San Martín] decreed the end of the import of new slaves into Peru. But these decrees did not affect existing slaves, who were too valuable a source of manpower for immediate emancipation" (pages 196-197).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "El 27 de diciembre de 1821 y a pesar de no haberse logrado aún la independencia, San Martín, ‘presionado por la opinión pública,' convocaba a un Congreso General Constituyente de los departamentos libres del Perú. Según el decreto, el Congreso debía reunirse el 1o de mayo de 1822. Escasamente tres días antes, se había adoptado el acuerdo de buscar algún príncipe europeo para que gobernara el Perú" (page 287). "Ciertamente, era indispensable un reglamento de elecciones. Con ese objeto, el decreto de convocatoria designaba una comisión compuesta de 7 miembros que debía elaborar...un proyecto de reglamento electoral y otro de Constitución, los mismos que debían estar concluidos antes de la reunión" (pages 289-290).
Pike 1967: "San Martín and Bernardo Monteagudo,...the general's most highly regarded cabinet member and political adviser, called a secret meeting of notables in December 1821. After a short discussion those in attendance signed a document calling for the establishment of monarchy in Peru and commissioned an agent to go to Europe in search of a suitable prince to occupy the Peruvian throne" (page 49).
Aljovín de Losada 2005: "Estas elecciones tuvieron la particularidad de realizarse antes de finalizada la guerra de emancipación, y aun con la mitad del territorio ocupado por el virrey...También en las zonas realistas se convocó a elecciones en el mismo periodo, aunque hay una diferencia entre las elecciones convocadas por San Martín y las del campo realista. Las primeras buscaban conformar un poder constituyente entre cuyos fines estaba redactar una Constitución. Las elecciones realistas, en cambio, tenían como fin elegir autoridades para las Cortes y diputaciones provinciales, así como para los ayuntamientos. Por otra parte, las elecciones de 1822 también se vinculan al plan de San Martín de instaurar una monarquía constitucional" (page 43). Describes the elections (pages 44-45).
Basadre 1980: "Al quedar la nobleza colonial separada del comando de la revolución emancipadora...se produjo un vacío político que las minorías ilustradas-por lo general dueñas del Parlamento-no alcanzaron a llenar porque surgió el fenómeno del caudillaje militar" (page 15).
Hunefeldt 2004: "While San Martín and his army controlled northern Peru and the central coast, Viceroy La Serna controlled the central and southern highlands" (page 101).
Klarén 2000: "By mid-1822, only a year after San Martín triumphantly entered Lima and proclaimed Peruvian independence, his government was in disarray, and his prospects for liberating the interior were dim" (page 132).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso general constituyente 1822-1825. Representantes titulares" (page 260). "Congreso general constituyente 1822-1825. Representantes suplentes" (page 261). "Congreso general constituyente 1822-1825. Extranjeros" (page 261).
Anna 1979: "In January 1822 [San Martín] announced his intention of meeting with Bolívar at Guayaquil and turned the government over to his supreme delegate, Torre Tagle, a weak and inept leader" (page 210).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: "San Martín designa para el cargo de delegado supremo a José Bernardo de Tagle Bracho y Pérez de la Riva, I Marqués de Torre Tagle" (page 347).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "En cumplimiento del decreto, el 23 de enero de 1822, se designó la comisión encargada de elaborar los proyectos de reglamento de elecciones y de Constitución" (page 290).
Pike 1967: "In January 1822 [Monteagudo] founded the ‘Sociedad Patriótica,' a group of Peru's intellectual leaders whose forty members were personally selected by Monteagudo...Working behind the scenes...to defend republican values in the ‘Sociedad Patriótica' was the priest, Francisco Javier de Luna Pizarro" (pages 49-50).
Anna 1979: "San Martín left for Guayaquil in February but returned to Lima when he heard that Bolívar had decided to continue the campaign of Quito" (page 210).
Anna 1979: "Arriving in Lima on 3 March, [San Martín] signed a decree keeping Torre Tagle at the head of the administration. In essence, therefore, San Martín separated himself from active political leadership six months before the actual meeting at Guayaquil, which took place in July 1822" (page 210).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 19/3: "Estados Unidos reconoce la independencia de los nuevos estados de Hispanoamérica" (page 347).
Markham 1892: "When orders were issued for the election of a Congress on April 26, 1822, eleven departments were enumerated" (page 292). Lists them.
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "El 27 de abril, día siguiente al de sanción del Reglamento Electoral, se publicó otro decreto que convocaba al Congreso Constituyente para el 28 de julio" (page 291). "El reglamento de elecciones del 26 de abril de 1822" (pages 294-308).
Clayton 1999: "On May 4, 1822, Peru's independence was recognized by the United States" (page 26).
Pike 1967: "(A)s the political debates and intrigue continued and as his frustrations mounted, San Martín concluded that Peruvians could not be relied upon to complete the formidable task still before them. Leaving the Marquis of Torre Tagle in the exercise of executive powers, San Martín embarked for the northern port of Guayaquil to confer with Simón Bolívar...The meeting between the two generals in July 1822 proved to be a fiasco...The situation that [San Martín] discovered upon his return to Lima confirmed his conviction that his presence could contribute little to the final campaigns of liberation" (pages 51-52).
Werlich 1978: "The patriot leaders expressed their views concerning the proper form of government for the new nations of Latin America. San Martín, of course, favored monarchy. Bolívar professed republicanism, although his ideal republic had many attributes of a monarchy. The principal issue-that of troops for Peru-could not be resolved" (page 62).
Markham 1892: "The protector San Martin returned from Guayaquil on the 21st of August. In his absence deputies had been elected to form a congress" (page 255).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "El proceso electoral para la elección del Congreso Constituyente de 1822" (page 315-344).
Anna 1979: "On 20 September 1822, the Congress that San Martín had earlier called finally met. It consisted of fifty-one deputies representing the eleven districts into which Peru had been divided. Five of the eleven districts were still entirely in royalist hands (Cuzco, Arequipa, Huamanga, Puno, and Huancavelica) and had to be represented by delegates native to those regions but living in Lima. San Martín formally turned all his powers over to Congress" (pages 210-211). "From September 1822, when San Martín retired from Peru, to September 1823, when Bolívar arrived, the government of the independent regime was in the hands of the Peruvian aristocrats who had so long desired to hold power. They established three separate administrations, all three of which failed to hold the government together or to strengthen independence" (page 215).
Astiz 1969: "Because of the extremely low level of education of the population of Peru during the nineteenth century...the clergy constituted one of the few sources of educated men. Accordingly, they were well represented in many of the congresses, constitutional assemblies, and other political gatherings. In the first Peruvian Constitutional Convention, which lasted from 1822 to 1825, twenty-six of the ninety-one delegates or 28.6 per cent, were priests" (page 170).Basadre 1980: "El primer Congreso inaugurado en 1822 fue un símbolo de una rebelión social frente al sistema de base aristocrático-estamental; es decir, implicó formalmente el desmantelamiento del antiguo régimen, del Virreinato" (pages 14-15). "El Parlamento fue, en sus comienzos, un escenario para los mejores representantes de las dos grandes profesiones de comienzos y mediados del siglo XIX: el abogado y el sacerdote" (page 16). Describes the members of the first congress (page 17). "Hay que señalar que gran parte del territorio estaba ocupado por el ejército del Virrey y que muchos de los primeros representantes ni siquiera conocieron geográficamente las provincias que les fueron otorgadas" (page 20).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 20/9: "Se instala el Primer Congreso Constituyente, ante el cual José de San Martín renuncia al ejercicio del Poder Ejecutivo y, pocas horas después, se retira definitivamente del Perú" (page 348). 21/9: "El Congreso entrega la administración del Poder Ejecutivo a una Junta Gubernativa integrada por José de la Mar, Felipe Antonio Alvarado y el Conde de Vista Florida" (page 348).
Klarén 2000: "In September 1822, [San Martín] submitted his resignation to the newly convened Congress and immediately sailed for home. The fifty-one-delegate congress, composed mainly of lawyers, physicians, churchmen, and military officers, now assumed power, first appointing a junta that ruled ineffectively for only a few months" (page 132).
Markham 1892: Congress "was installed by the protector with due formality on the 20th of September, 1822. He resigned all authority into the hands of the representatives of the people, and withdrew to his country house" (page 255). "The first constituent congress of Peru became the sovereign power of the state on the departure of San Martin, and for nearly a year that body conducted the affairs of the country, and directed the operations of war. Dr. Francisco Xavier Luna Pizarro was elected president of the congress" (page 257).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "El Congreso Constituyente de 1822" (pages 357-378).
Pike 1967: "On 20 September 1822, a congress summoned by San Martín held its first session, and to it the Protector resigned his powers and announced his withdrawal from Peru" (page 52). "After San Martín's withdrawal, the newly-convened congress delegated the executive power to a triumvirate called the ‘junta gobernadora'...(T)heir efforts to provide effective leadership were to a great extent undermined, as San Martín's had been, by the quarrels and intrigues among Peru's intellectual and social leaders over political ideology" (page 53). "Invested with the power to frame a constitution, this congress was composed of ninety-two delegates, of whom twenty-eight were lawyers; twenty-six, priests; and eight, medical doctors. The remaining members were men of widely varying professions, even including merchants...Liberal republicans enjoyed a pronounced majority in the joint constituent assembly and congress" (page 54). "San Martín had scarcely departed from Peru when a voluble group of military officials began to demand that the constituent congress depose the governing junta of three and confer dictatorial powers on José de la Riva Agüero" (page 56).
Werlich 1978: San Martín "became convinced that only his abandonment of the Peruvian stage to [Bolívar] would bring the necessary aid. San Martín returned to Lima and on September 20, 1822, he resigned his authority to a recently assembled Peruvian congress. Accepting the title ‘Founder of the Liberty of Peru,' he departed for Chile and eventual exile and death in Europe. The Peruvian congress now entrusted executive power to a three-man junta" (page 63).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 17/12: "El Congreso promulga las ‘Bases de la Constitución Política'" (page 348).
Klaiber 1992: "In 1823 there were twenty-three clergymen among the seventy members of congress" (page 86).
Klarén 2000: "When royalist attacks compelled the evacuation of the government from Lima to Callao, Congress then deposed Riva Agüero, named Torre Tagle president, and invited Bolívar to enter Peru. However, Riva Agüero refused to relinquish power or recognize the new regime and moved his government to Trujillo, where he entered negotiations with the royalists" (page 132).
Anna 1979: "(O)n 21 January 1823, the Congress's major military offensive collapsed with the defeat at Moquegua of the first Intermedios expedition. A royalist army encamped at Jauja, within easy reach of the capital. Parliamentary rule could not stand the pressure. The patriot army urged Congress to appoint a stronger executive and enforced its demands with threatening troop movements" (page 216).
Werlich 1978: "After a decisive royalist victory in the south, however, prominent military leaders demanded the installation of a single chief of state" (page 63).
Anna 1979: "On 27 February 1823...Congress did away with the Governing Junta and appointed José de la Riva Agüero as first president of the republic. Riva Agüero's administration lasted less than four months. Yet in that short period its accomplishments were more than those of either its predecessor or its successor" (page 216).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 28/2: "El Congreso nombra para el cargo de Presidente de la República a José de la Riva-Agüero" (page 349).
Klarén 2000: "(U)nder pressure from the army for stronger leadership..., [congress] appointed the Lima aristocrat José de la Riva Agüero, a longtime proponent of independence, as the first president of the republic" (page 132).
Markham 1892: "The failure [of the military offensive in January] led to a change of government and, after an existence of five months the executive committee of three was dissolved. On February 26th, 1823, the principal officers of the patriot army near Lima set forth, in an animated and forcible address to congress, the critical state of affairs. They recommended the appointment of Riva Aguero as president of the republic...The congress concurred, and Don José de la Riva Aguero became the first president of the republic of Peru. He took the oaths...on the 28th of February, 1823" (pages 260-261).
Méndez 2005: "In February 1823 an army insurrection dissolved the governing junta and required the Congress to accept Colonel José de la Riva Agüero as head of state. Besieged by the military, in what some consider to be the first coup d'état in the history of Peru, the Congress made Riva Agüero the first Peruvian president. But he did not hold office for long" (page 53).
Pike 1967: "February 1823 marked the inception of Peru's age of ‘caudillismo,' of political bosses and personal rivalry, of revolution and counterrevolution led by military chieftains whose motives were often as complex as the political situations they created...In February 1823 congress bowed to the pressures exerted upon it and recognized Riva Agüero as Peru's chief executive. Thus occurred the first military coup against established government in republican Peru" (page 56).
Werlich 1978: "Congress complied in February 1823, naming the aristocrat José de la Riva Agüero Peru's first president. The new executive demonstrated great vigor in organizing another expedition against the Spaniards, but his commanders failed him in the field" (page 63).
Werlich 1978: "Gen. Antonio José de Sucre, Bolívar's protégé, arrived at Lima in May 1823 with 3,000 Colombian troops" (page 63).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 18/6: "Las fuerzas realistas de Canterac ocupan Lima" (page 349). 19/6: "El Congreso, refugiado en el Callao, decreta su traslado a Trujillo, y encarga a Antonio José de Sucre el poder militar" (page 349). 22/6: "El Congreso decreta que José de la Riva-Agüero cese en su cargo" (page 349). 29/6: "En Trujillo, Riva-Agüero desconoce al Congreso del Callao y anuncia que retiene la Presidencia" (page 349).
Markham 1892: "On the 19th of June, 1823, the president Riva Aguero was lawlessly deposed" (page 263). "Riva Aguero proceeded to Truxillo, with the loyal majority of the congress, where they resumed their sittings" (page 264).
Méndez 2005: "The Congress, having taken refuge in Callao, voted to depose Riva Agüero and delegated supreme military command in Peru to the Colombian General Antonio José de Sucre, whom they expected to quell the Spanish military threat while paving the way for Bolívar's arrival. Riva Agüero, however, refused to yield his command and instead dissolved the Congress" (page 53).
Pike 1967: Riva Agüero's "adversity began when the Spaniards were able temporarily to recapture Lima in June 1823, forcing the new president and his congress to flee to Callao. There he engaged with the legislature in a heated dispute over a trivial matter. As a consequence, only a portion of the congressmen accompanied the president when, shortly, he abandoned Callao and proceeded northwards to Trujillo where he had a large following of loyal supporters. The other deputies remained in Callao where within a few days of Riva Agüero's departure they were able to welcome the Venezuelan General Antonio José de Sucre to Peruvian soil...Sucre believed Riva Agüero to represent a divisive factor, and soon began plotting to strip him of power" (page 57).
Werlich 1978: "Congress impeached and removed Riva Agüero from office in June, and placed the Marquis de Torre Tagle in power. Challenging the legitimacy of the new regime, the deposed president went to Trujillo where he reestablished his own government in opposition to that in Lima. Riva Agüero received the support of the northern region, much of the army, and the newly created Peruvian navy" (page 63).
Anna 1979: "(O)n 17 July Congress made the marqués de Torre Tagle chief executive" (page 218). "From July 1823 until December 1824, the patriot cause seemed close to defeat" (page 220).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 19/7: "Riva-Agüero disuelve el Congreso y forma un Senado de diez miembros" (page 350).
Markham 1892: "Don José Bernardo Tagle, Marquis of Torre Tagle, a weak, unprincipled man who was the tool of Bolivar, was nominally placed in command of the Peruvian executive with the title of supreme delegate, but General Sucre retained all the power in his own hands, as commander-in-chief" (pages 263-264).
Méndez 2005: "Riva Agüero...[appointed] a ten-man ‘senate' which he thought might enable him to cling to the presidency from his base in the city of Trujillo. In the meantime, the Spanish had evacuated Lima, while the Congress, reinstalled in the capital, named Marquis Bernardo de Torre Tagle as president of Peru. Hence, when Bolívar arrived he found two presidents: Riva Agüero in Trujillo and Torre Tagle in Lima. Thus, in the span of one year following the proclamation of Independence, Peru had been ruled by one so-called protector (General San Martín), one governing junta, two presidents, and at least three military commanders, while its capital was raided by Spanish troops for more than a month" (page 53).
Pike 1967: "The Sucre-Riva Agüero rivalry was intensified when Spanish forces withdrew from Lima in July. Upon entering that city Sucre proclaimed the Marquis of Torre Tagle...president of Peru" (page 57).
Anna 1979: "On 16 August [Torre Tagle] was formally created president of the republic by the part of Congress that contined to meet in Lima" (page 218).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 16/8: "El Congreso, en Lima, designa Presidente de la República a José Bernardo de Tagle" (page 350).
Pike 1967: "Congress, or rather that part of it not loyal to Riva Agüero and holding sessions in Trujillo, approved this appointment" (page 57).
Anna 1979: "(A)fter Bolívar's arrival in Peru [in August] Torre Tagle functioned merely as a figurehead in charge of the civilian government. Riva Agüero, meanwhile, transferred to Trujillo together with his supporters in the Congress, where he steadfastly refused to give up the presidential office or to recognize Torre Tagle...Peru now had two presidents, each of whom refused to recognize the legitimacy of the other" (page 218).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 1/9: "Simón Bolívar arriba al Perú" (page 350). 10/9: "El Congreso en Lima otorga a Simón Bolívar la autoridad militar denominándolo ‘Libertador', también la autoridad política directorial. Poco después surge el conflicto entre Simón Bolívar y José de la Riva-Agüero" (page 350).
Klarén 2000: "When Bolívar landed in Callao on September 1, 1823, he found that Peru now had two presidents and was virtually bankrupt. Under pressure from the army to end the political chaos, Congress, despite the suspicion of many that Bolívar was a Napoleon-like usurper, made him military dictator and commander of the armed forces" (page 132).
Pike 1967: "Arriving in Callao on 1 September, Bolívar faced a most unpromising situation. There were still two patriot governments contending as much with each other as with the royalist troops which were apparently more powerful than ever. In Lima Torre Tagle and the congressional elements loyal to him invested Bolívar with absolute command over the armed forces and soon conferred dictatorial political powers upon him as well. In Trujillo, however, Riva Agüero still claimed to be the legitimate president" (page 58).
Werlich 1978: "On September 1, the Liberator himself received a triumphant welcome to the Peruvian capital. Torre Tagle continued to be the nominal president, but Bolívar controlled the army and, therefore, was the actual ruler of the country. The Liberator attempted to end the feud between the Lima and Trujillo governments but without success" (page 63).
Alcántara Sáez 1989: "La primera Constitución republicana de 1823 sólo rigió fugazmente, hasta 1827. Fue el producto más genuino de todos los documentos emanados de la Revolución emancipadora, y la más acentuada expresión del liberalismo peruano. Se colocó al Parlamento por encima de los demás poderes y disminuyeron las atribuciones del Ejecutivo" (page 124).
Anna 1979: "In November 1823 Riva Agüero proposed a complete sellout, offering to establish a kingdom in Peru under a Spanish prince chosen by Ferdinand VII" (page 220). "Riva Agüero was overthrown, on 25 November 1823, by one of his own military aides, Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente. Convinced that Riva Agüero's negotiations with the royalists constituted open treason, de la Fuente marched to Trujillo and deposed him. The former president was imprisoned in Guayaquil, where he was eventually freed...He then went into exile in Europe" (page 221).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 12/11: "Se promulga la primera Constitución de la República" (page 350). 25/11: "José de la Riva-Agüero es depuesto en Trujillo por sus tropas cuando iniciaba tratos con el virrey José de la Serna" (page 350).
Markham 1892: Riva Aguero "continued in power [in Trujillo] for six months; but on the 25th of November, 1823, he was arrested by Colonel La Fuente, one of his own officers, and placed in confinement" (page 264).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "(L)a Constitución de 1823 fue, en la práctica, un intento de adaptación de las instituciones de la Constitución española de 1812 a la realidad del Perú. Suspendida en su vigencia el mismo día de su promulgación (12 de noviembre de 1823), cedió el paso, en esa misma fecha, a la dictadura de Bolívar que se habría de prolongar hasta diciembre de 1826. Es también un hecho que la Carta de 1823 fue dictada por constituyentes que, en su gran mayoría, fueron elegidos por peruanos avecindados en Lima y oriundos de los departamentos aún ocupados por las tropas realistas" (page 41).
Pike 1967: "The constitution itself was ready for promulgation in November 1823. Owing to the prevailing political disorder and warfare, both civil and that directed against the Spaniards, it was placed in operation, however, only for a brief period in 1827...The most powerful institution which it provided for governing Peru was the congress, which completely dominated the executive. Chosen by congress, the president was unable to initiate or to veto legislation; he was simply to be the faithful executor of the legislative will" (page 54).
Werlich 1978: "Riva Agüero was determined to regain control over his nation which he feared would become completely dominated by Bolívar and his Colombian forces. Late in 1823, Riva Agüero wrote to La Serna proposing a Spanish-Peruvian alliance to drive the Colombians from the country and the establishment of an independent monarchy in Peru under a Spanish prince. The Lima government intercepted this letter and denounced Riva Agüero as a traitor" (page 64).
Klaiber 1992: "As a consequence of independence, almost all the bishops were forced to abandon their dioceses. Bolívar and his immediate successors attempted to assume the right of patronage over the church and to name new bishops to fill in the vacant dioceses. Rome rejected these attempts to create a national patronage and ignored the petitions in the hope of gaining control over the church. Since neither side gave in, Peru found itself with vacant dioceses for long periods" (page 45).
Klarén 2000: "Eventually, Bolívar determined that Lima could not be held and withdrew to Trujillo in the north to secure a more viable base from which to mount an attack on royalist forces in the sierra. Lima was again reoccupied by a loyalist army from February until December 1824 and witnessed the extraordinary defection of President Torre Tagle and almost the entire patriot leadership back to the royalist side. By March 1824, all but the north was once again under Spanish control, and the patriot cause seemed lost. Bolívar nonetheless persevered and began to rebuild his forces in Trujillo" (pages 132-133).
Klarén 2000: "Turning over the administration of the government to the able and patriotic Sánchez Carrión, [Bolívar] patiently gathered an army of over 10,000, composed of Colombians and what was left of the patriot forces" (page 133).
Anna 1979: "Early in 1824 the patriots received an unexpected but critical assist through the defection of the royal commander of the army in Upper Peru since 1820, General Pedro Antonio Olañeta...In January 1824...Olañeta openly mutinied against the viceroy, overthrowing the constitutionalist government in Upper Peru and replacing it with an absolutist regime of his own...The most damaging impact of the Olañeta rebellion was that it deprived La Serna of the security of a friendly Upper Peru" (page 230).
Basadre 1980: "La ley de elecciones [es] aprobada en enero de 1824" (page 20).
Anna 1979: "Bolivar appointed General Mariano Necochea, an Argentinian, to command the capital. On 10 February Congress went into recess; on 17 February Torre Tagle turned his command over to Necochea; on 27 February-again motivated by the impossibility of defending the capital-Necochea abandoned Lima. Two days later the royalists...occupied the city. This time the republic was in complete collapse. The civilians, with Callao denied them as a refuge, were unable to flee the Spaniards. The disorder and chaos of that last week of February 1824 was on a scale Lima had never before experienced" (page 223). "The Spaniards held Lima from February until December 1824, with occasional retreats to Callao when patriot forces drew near. Callao was the bastion, and it remained in royalist hands without interruption until January 1826...In Lima life returned to something resembling normality in the good old days of the viceroyalty...The cabildo met...and, most important, it consisted of many of the same members as in 1820" (page 225).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 10/2: "El Congreso se declara en receso y nombra Dictador a Simón Bolívar. Ocurre un conflicto entre Simón Bolívar y José Bernardo Torre Tagle" (page 350).
Markham 1892: "(T)he members of congress, who had supported General Sucre's revolution, dissolved themselves on the 10th of February, 1824, and conferred an absolute dictatorship on [Bolívar]" (pages 265-266).
Méndez 2005: "In February 1824 the Congress, having ousted President Torre Tagle under accusation of plotting with the Spaniards, handed Bolívar dictatorial powers...Although the accusations against Torre Tagle were not proven, Bolívar ordered his arrest and, with Riva Agüero already out of the picture, proceeded to appoint the Rioplatense General Mariano Necochea as military and political chief of Lima. Necochea, however, abandoned the capital shortly afterward, leaving it completely leaderless (Bolívar being at his headquarters in Pativilca)" (pages 55-56).
Werlich 1978: "President Torre Tagle shared Riva Agüero's suspicions of Bolívar. He also resented his subordinate position within the regime and the more liberal tone of the independence movement under the republican Liberator. The old monarchist secretly offered to surrender Lima, Callao, and the troops under his immediate command to La Serna...Torre Tagle joined the royalist uprising, and a Spanish force from the highlands occupied the capital on February 21, 1824. That same day, congress formally conferred dictatorial powers on Bolívar and he established an openly authoritarian regime at Trujillo. The patriots' situation was extremely precarious" (page 64).
Anna 1979: "By the end of March 1824 the powers of the patriots were at their lowest ebb. In that month Bolívar established his headquarters in Trujillo and watched more or less helplessly as royal forces took most of the rest of the country" (page 227). Viceroy La Serna "issued a formal decree on 11 March 1824 in Cuzco, abolishing all the acts of the constitutional government...In the first months of 1824, therefore, the royalist commanders had considerable grounds for self-congratulation; they appeared to be on the verge of complete success" (page 229).
Méndez 2005: "The mutual distrust between a significant portion of the Peruvian ruling elite and Bolívar became a major source of political instability and seriously undermined the ability of the partisans of Independence to quell Spanish military threats" (page 56). "The creole elite of Lima owed their power, prestige, and sources of livelihood precisely to their ties to (or membership in) the colonial bureaucracy...The fact that the first two Peruvian presidents, Riva Agüero and Torre Tagle, belonged to prominent families of the creole nobility of Lima explains in part why, despite having favored independence, they did not conceive of the Spanish as their natural enemies, particularly when confronted with Bolívar's dominant personality and limitless political ambitions, which they saw as no less of a threat" (page 57).
Davies 1974: "In April of 1824, Simón Bolívar...initiated a policy which, though well intentioned, had disastrous effects for the Indian, actually working to deprive him of his lands. His first decree dealt with new fund-raising methods necessary to continue the independence struggle. Bolívar ordered all state lands and state-owned haciendas sold for one-third less than their assessed value...He also gave the Indians title to their lands and made it possible for them to sell or dispose of them in the manner of their choosing. In addition, the ‘comunidades' were all but dissolved by article three, which ordered the land divided among the members" (page 20). "Judges and government officials usually cooperated with the ‘hacendados' to defraud Indians and mestizos...Thousands of individual Indians and hundreds of ‘comunidades' lost their lands and were absorbed into the larger estates" (page 22).
Klaiber 1977: "As in most other areas of Latin America, the liberals themselves often created more problems for the Indians than they solved. In 1824 Bolívar ordered an end to communal lands among the Indians in the hopes of creating a country of productive private landowners. Unaccustomed to liberal doctrines of private property, thousands of Indians lost their lands to white and mestizo landowners and speculators" (page 48).
Werlich 1978: "By April 1824, the patriot forces numbered 6,000 Colombians and 4,000 Peruvians" (page 64).
Anna 1979: "In June 1824 Olañeta rejected an ultimatum from Viceroy La Serna ordering him to submit to his command" (page 230).
Klarén 2000: "In June 1824, [Bolívar] moved his army into the sierra, where he received aid from the guerrilla ‘montoneras' that had never ceased operating in behalf of independence" (page 133).
Werlich 1978: "(I)n July, La Serna's commander in Upper Peru rebelled, depriving the viceroy of 4,000 troops. The Liberator seized the opportunity afforded by this dissension within the imperial ranks and marched his men into the Sierra" (page 64).
Hunefeldt 2004: "On August 4, 1824, [Simón Bolívar] confronted the royalist army, commanded by General José de Canterac, at the Battle of Junín...The battle ended with a hurried retreat of Canterac's army" (page 104).
Markham 1892: "The battle of Junin opened the ‘Sierra' country to the patriots, for Canterac retired in great disorder to join the viceroy at Cuzco" (page 274).
Anna 1979: "Peru was not independent, properly speaking, until December 1824, when the battle of Ayacucho permanently expelled royal troops from the country" (page 163). "On 7 December 1824, Bolívar entered the now patriot-held city and proceeded to organize its defense. Callao, however, remained securely in royalist hands, and thousands of civilian collaborators fled to the protection of the impregnable fortresses" (page 232). "The battle of Ayacucho was a total patriot victory and the most decisive encounter in all the American wars of independence. Spanish power in Peru was broken. More than that, Spanish power was ended on the entire continent, for La Serna's army was the last major royal force still intact. For the first time the royalists had no backup, no territory into which they could retreat, no other army to call upon...On 21 December 1824 Bolívar called for the reinstallation of Congress" (page 233).
Clayton 1999: "The year 1824 ended with a one-hour battle fought on the breathtaking heights of Ayacucho Province situated at 11,600 feet in the Andes. This battle broke the back of Spanish resistance to the independence of Peru...After the Battle of Ayacucho, Peru was independent both in name-its declaration made by San Martín in 1821-and in fact" (page 28).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 9/12: "Se libra la Batalla de Ayacucho. Se firma la capitulación del virrey La Serna y su ejército" (page 351).
Hunefeldt 2004: "After the battle of Ayacucho, Bolívar called elections for a new congress" (page 105).
Méndez 2005: "Far from capitulating, the last remaining royalist officers in Lima barricaded themselves in the Real Felipe fortress of Callao, where they continued, under the command of José Ramón Rodil, to offer tenacious resistance to the government of Bolívar. This strategic position enabled them to control Peru's most important port, the gateway to the city of Lima" (page 31).
Werlich 1978: "The battle of Ayacucho delivered a death blow to the Spanish Empire in South America, but a few die-hard royalists continued the struggle" (page 65).
Aljovín de Losada 2005: "Las elecciones para el Congreso de 1825 se acercan más a la típica elección de la primera mitad del siglo XIX...El proceso fue organizado a dos grados, lo que permitió una participación más intensa de la población" (page 46). Describes the election (pages 46-48).
Hunefeldt 2004: "Around 1825 slaves accounted for about 3.8 percent of the total population of Peru, or 50,000 of 1.3 million, and there were also approximately 40,000 free blacks, including mixed-race descendants of former slaves" (page 80). "Independence did not bring the rebellions in the countryside to an end. A revolt broke out in Iquicha, in the northern part of the department of Ayacucho, that lasted from 1825 to 1839" (page 108).
Klarén 2000: "In the province of Huanta in the department of Ayacucho...a serious popular revolt against the new republican regime erupted in 1825...The revolt, which brought together a group of former royal officials, Spanish and mestizo merchants, and the Iquicha Indians, was led by an illiterate Indian muleteer named Antonio Navala Huachaca" (page 157).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Reinstalación del congreso general constituyente de 1825. Representantes" (page 259).
Basadre 1980: "Terminada la guerra de la Independencia, Bolívar quiso que funcionara el Congreso anterior. Las sesiones parlamentarias duraron entre el 10 de febrero y el 10 de marzo de 1825" (page 20).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 10/2: "Se instala el Congreso" (page 351). 18/2: "El Congreso no acepta la renuncia de Bolívar a la Presidencia" (page 352).
Hunefeldt 2004: "Congress proclaimed Bolívar leader of the nation...During his brief command over Peru's political destiny Bolívar attempted to introduce several liberal-minded reforms, especially pertaining to Indians" (page 105).
Markham 1892: "On February 10th, 1825, Bolivar assembled the members of the old congress who had joined in Sucre's conspiracy, and went through the farce of resigning the dictatorship. He was requested to remain at the head of affairs, and consented with much affectation of reluctance" (page 281).
Pike 1967: "Congress, appearing to be delighted with the general's conduct, decided to suspend its sessions for a year, thus assuring to Bolívar the continued use of his absolute powers during that time" (page 61).
Basadre 1980: "La ley de elecciones aprobada en enero de 1824, fue promulgada en marzo de 1825" (page 20).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 3/3: "Se dicta la Ley Reglamentaria de Elecciones de diputados al Congreso y senadores, y diputados departamentales; asimismo, la Ley de Elecciones Municipales" (page 352). 10/3: "Concluye el Congreso" (page 352).
Markham 1892: The "assembly broke up on the 10th of March, and met again on the 29th with the exclusion of all men who were not entirely creatures of Bolivar. The remnant approved the tyrant's proposal of a life presidentship" (page 281).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 3/4: "Se instala el Consejo de Gobierno integrado por José de la Mar, Hipólito Unanue y José Faustino Sánchez Carrión" (page 352).
Pike 1967: "Determining to rule with the assistance of a council of government, Bolívar wisely selected as its members three of the most able men then in Peru" (page 61).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 20/5: "Bolívar convoca a elecciones" (page 352).
Markham 1892: Congress "was dismissed on the 1st of May. The dictator then set out on a triumphal tour" (page 280). "During the absence of the dictator an executive committee ruled at Lima, composed of the Colombia General Tomas Heres, Don Hipolito Unanue, and Don José Maria Pardo" (page 282).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 2/6: "Muere José Faustino Sánchez Carrión, defensor del sistema republicano [y miembro del Consejo de Gobierno]" (page 352).
Davies 1974: "On July 4, 1825, Bolívar issued three important decrees. The first attacked the question of Indian personal service" (page 20). "The second decree...sought to abolish Indian communal landholding...All ‘communidades' were to be abolished and the land divided among the members...In the final decree...Bolívar...abolished the title of ‘cacique' and all its concomitant powers. Local authorities were charged with assuming the customary duties of the ‘cacique'" (pages 21-22).
Pike 1967: "By the end of 1826...it was clear to most observers that Luna Pizarro was trying to use the congress, in which he served as one of Arequipa's delegates, as the means to force Bolívar's withdrawal. Angered by these proceedings, the Liberator for a time thought of using military force to purge congress of Luna Pizarro and his partisans...Bolivar soon abandoned this scheme and accepted the impossibility of enforcing his will on the Peruvians... However exalted his vision and sound his long-range judgement, Bolívar did not have a chance in Peru" (page 63).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Segundo congreso constituyente de 1826. Representantes" (pages 257-258). "El primer Congreso no llegó a reunirse" (page 258).
Markham 1892: "In January, 1826, Bolivar returned to be present when a new congress met at Lima. But there were ominous signs of a general desire that Bolivar and his Colombians should depart; so the deputies were ordered to return to their homes" (pages 283-284).
Werlich 1978: "The royalists in the fortress at Callao, under General Rodil, refused to surrender until January 1826. By that date two-thirds of these besieged stalwarts, including the unfortunate Marquis de Torre Tagle, had starved to death" (page 65).
Basadre 1980: "(E)l Libertador ordenó, mediante el decreto del 10 de febrero de 1826, la realización de nuevos comicios de los que debían salir noventaiséis diputados propietarios y cincuenta y ocho suplentes. Así debía formarse, por primera vez en el Perú, un Poder Legislativo integrado por auténticos personeros de las provincias" (page 20).
Basadre 1980: "(L)as Juntas Preparatorias...empezaron el 29 de marzo de 1826 con sesentaicinco diputados calificados" (page 20).
Basadre 1980: "En las Juntas triunfaron los gobiernistas. Quedaron nulos los poderes de todos los diputados que habían tomado una actitud heterodoxa. Pero, ello no obstante, de acuerdo con Bolívar y el Congreso, cincuentaidós miembros de la mayoría ‘purificada' solicitaron el 21 de abril, la suspensión del Congreso dentro de la finalidad de hacer luego, algo así como un plebiscito ya que la ciudadanía debía opinar sobre distintos asuntos relacionados con la Carta política y con el futuro Presidente de la República. El Libertador aprobó la petición el 27 de abril" (page 21).
Basadre 1980: "Las Juntas Preparatorias terminaron el 1o de mayo de 1826" (page 21).
Alcántara Sáez 1989: "La Constitución vitalicia bolivariana de 1826 fue la primera Carta fundamental conservadora y la de más corta duración. Su importancia radicó en que representó el maduro y fina pensamiento de Bolívar, en donde El Liberador quiso lograr una transacción realmente imposible entre Monarquía y República" (page 124).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "La Constitución vitalicia que era copia de la Constitución de Bolivia, por su parte, fue impuesta por el Libertador, quien obligó a aprobarla a los colegios electorales, que, naturalmente, carecían de representatividad y de competencia constituyentes" (page 41).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 1/7: "El Consejo de Gobierno aprueba la Constitución vitalicia propuesta por Bolívar" (page 357).
Davies 1974: "Realities soon forced the Peruvian government to reinstitute Indian tribute. A decree of August, 1826, created the Contribución de Indígenas to help defray government expenses" (page 23).
Werlich 1978: "After a heated debate, the Peruvian congress adopted Bolívar's life-term constitution in August 1826 and elected him president under the system" (page 67).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 1/9: "Bolívar parte hacia la Gran Colombia" (page 357).
Markham 1892: "In September, 1826, General Santa Cruz became president of the council of government" (page 284).
Pike 1967: "Appointing Santa Cruz, the general from Upper Peru, now become Bolivia, president of the council of government and commander in chief of the national army and navy, the Liberator left for Bogotá" (page 63).
Werlich 1978: "Turning over his executive powers to a government council headed by Gen. Andrés Santa Cruz, a Bolivian, the Liberator left Peru on September 3, 1826. He never returned" (page 67).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 30/11: "La Constitución Política es ratificada por los Colegios Electorales" (page 358).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso general constituyente 1827-1828. Representantes titulares" (pages 255-256). "Congreso general constituyente 1827-1828. Representantes suplentes" (page 256).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 27/1: "El pueblo de Lima protesta contra la Constitución Vitalicia y contra Bolivar. Se suspende esa Constitución y entra en vigencia la de 1823" (page 358). 28/1: "Andrés de Santa Cruz convoca al Congreso ante la presión pública y del Ejército" (page 359).
Markham 1892: "As soon as they were free from foreign dictation, the people of Peru declared unanimously against Bolivar and his constitution. Orders were issued by General Santa Cruz for the election of deputies for a new congress to settle the government of the country" (page 284).
Pike 1967: "Instead of trying to suppress [the rebellion, Santa Cruz] joined in..., hoping to control and moderate it" (page 70).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 4/6: "Se instala el Congreso" (page 359). 9/6: "El Congreso elige Presidente al general José de la Mar" (page 359). 11/6: "Se anula la Constitución Vitalicia" (page 359).
Markham 1892: "This assembly framed the provisional constitution of 1828" (page 284).
Pike 1967: Santa Cruz "on 4 June convened a new congress. In this assembly the liberals enjoyed undisputed control. Thus, within a period of four years they had succeeded in discrediting and routing both the monarchists and the advocates of authoritarian government. Luna Pizarro as head of the liberals was in many ways the most powerful man in Peru. Still, in Santa Cruz he recognized a serious rival...Santa Cruz stood in opposition to the political ideals of Luna Pizarro, for whom good government required parliamentary supremacy over the executive" (page 70).
Werlich 1978: "In June, a liberal-dominated congress restored the Constitution of 1823" (page 69).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 22/8: "El general José de la Mar toma posesión de la Presidencia del país, hecho que es criticado por ser él natural de Cueca, Ecuador" (page 359).
Marett 1969: "In 1827 La Mar entered upon his period of office faced by the imminent danger of a war with Bolívar, now back in Colombia and thoroughly disgusted with Peru and its liberal-dominated Congress. Nor could the new Peruvian President count upon the loyalty of the senior generals in his own army" (page 86).
Markham 1892: Congress "proceeded to elect a president, the choice being between Generals Lamar and Santa Cruz, the former receiving fifty-eight and the latter twenty-seven votes. General LaMar was declared president, and the Count of Vista Florida vice-president of the republic, on the 24th of August, 1827. They had been the two leading members of the executive council of three which was in power during the latter half of 1822" (page 285).
Pike 1967: "Santa Cruz hoped that the congress he had convened in June would elect him to a full term as president of Peru. He...might have...won the election had it not been for Luna Pizarro...[who] arranged matters so that congress would elect a weak executive, one who could be controlled by the legislature. Thus it was that the fifty-year-old Ecuadoran General José de la Mar triumphed over Santa Cruz" (pages 70-71).
Werlich 1978: In August, "congress elected Gen. José de la Mar to the presidency, replacing the caretaker regime of Santa Cruz" (page 69).
Werlich 1978: "Alarmed by the rapid transfer of Indian property to whites and mestizos, the government prohibited the sale of land by illiterate natives in 1828, but this law could not be enforced. Whether they were called ‘Indians' or ‘Peruvians,' the natives continued to be exploited by the republican successors of the colonial elites" (page 74).
Alcántara Sáez 1989: "La Constitución liberal de 1828 representó el primer experimento de una armónica distribución de los poderes públicos...(C)onformó un Régimen presidencial, por el que el presidente tenía amplios poderes, siendo elegido por elección popular. El Poder Ejecutivo era bicameral; el Poder Judicial inmovible, y se proclamaba la unión Iglesia-Estado. La Constitución implicó uno de los más nuevos e interesantes experimentos descentralizadores" (page 124).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "La Constitución de 1828, en efecto, echa los cimientos de la constitución histórica del Perú, define sus instituciones fundamentales y, por ello, influye duraderamente en todas las Constituciones que habrían de dictarse posteriormente" (page 42).
Davies 1974: "In March, 1828, President José de la Mar promulgated an Indian land title law which reaffirmed Bolívar's decree by recognizing the Indians and the mestizos as owners of the land which they occupied and ordering the departmental juntas to assign lands to those Indians who were landless...Thus, one of the few protective devices which had existed was gone and new haciendas sprang up and old ones were expanded, all at the expense of the Indians. The constitution of 1828 adversely affected the Indians. Suffrage, which had been universal under the 1823 constitution, was restricted to landowners, those with incomes of at least eight hundred pesos a year, and teachers and professors. Moreover, all voters had to be literate. Although Indians were specifically exempted from these provisions, in practice they were not. The mere existence of restrictions provided many officials with the excuse they needed to disenfranchise Indians" (page 23).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 18/3: "Se aprueba la nueva Constitución de 1828" (page 359). 30/3: "Un terremoto sacude Lima" (page 360).
Markham 1892: The "assembly framed the provisional constitution of 1828, by which it was arranged that a national convention should meet in July, 1833, for the purpose of considering, reforming, and finally sanctioning a constitution. It also abolished ‘mayorazgos' or entails" (page 284).
Pike 1967: The constitution of 1828 "corrected some of the more notable weaknesses of the earlier instrument. In the new constitution there was some attempt to provide for a legitimate division of powers. Although congress still emerged as the most powerful agency of government, the rôle of the president was enhanced" (page 71).
Gamboa Balbín 2005: "Ley Reglamentaria de Elecciones del 19 de mayo de 1928" (page 213).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 17/6: "El Congreso entra en receso" (page 360).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 15/7: "La Gran Colombia declara la guerra al Perú" (page 360).
Marett 1969: "In 1828...Agustín Gamarra, the Commander-in-Chief of the army in the south, took it upon himself without consulting La Mar to invade Bolivia, where Marshal Sucre, Bolívar's favourite lieutenant, was still installed as President. The Peruvian invasion succeeded, Marshal Sucre resigned his office, and a government subservient to Peru was installed in La Paz" (page 86).
Pike 1967: "(T)he liberal congressional leaders...began to manoeuvre La Mar towards a declaration of war against Colombia...It was hoped that a Peruvian victory over Bolívar's Gran Colombian forces would discredit the Liberator and allow the liberals to gain power in Colombia and at the same time strengthen their position in Peru...As the congressional majority consciously pursued a policy that could only lead to war with Colombia, Agustín Gamarra...who was now in command of his country's armed forces in the south, decided on his own, without authorization from the government in Lima, to invade Bolivia" (page 71).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso 1829. Senadores titulares" (page 251). "Congreso 1829. Senadores suplentes" (page 251). "Congreso 1829. Diputados titulares" (pages 252-253). "Congreso 1829. Diputados suplentes" (pages 253-254).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 27/2: "El Ejército del presidente José de la Mar es derrotado por las tropas gran colombianas" (page 361). 28/2: "Se firma el Convenio de Girón (Perú-Gran Colombia), el que pone fin al conflicto" (page 361).
Marett 1969: "This was the moment of weakness for which La Mar's powerful enemies in the Peruvian army had been waiting. Three generals-Gamarra, the victor in the recent successful invasion of Bolivia; Santa Cruz who having failed to become the President of Peru, now aspired to be the President of his native Bolivia; and La Fuente, a turncoat soldier-politician who had already betrayed one President of Peru and was now preparing to betray another-met...and hatched a plot for getting rid of La Mar" (page 87).
Pike 1967: "Believing that La Mar had been sufficiently discredited by the loss of the opening battle, Gamarra felt the moment was propitious to carry out the plot against his president and commander in chief" (page 72).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 4/6: "El general Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente se proclama jefe supremo en Lima y obliga a renunciar al vicepresidente Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano" (page 362). 7/6: "El general Agustín Gamarra se subleva en Piura contra el presidente José de la Mar y lo destierra a Costa Rica" (page 362).
Marett 1969: "Gamarra, whose southern army had already joined La Mar's command in the north, had the President arrested in his military headquarters in Piura and assumed command of the Peruvian army" (page 87).
Pike 1967: "On 4 June 1829, [Juan Bautista] Eléspuru and La Fuente made their move, easily deposing vice-president Manuel Salazar. Three days later in the north Gamarra took La Mar by surprise, made him a prisoner, and sent him into exile" (page 72).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 10/7: "Se firma el armisticio de Piura entre el presidente provisorio Gamarra y el representante colombiano" (page 362).
Marett 1969: Gamarra "concerted an armistice with the Colombians" (page 87).
Pike 1967: "Luna Pizarro and some of his friends were exiled" (page 73).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 31/8: "En Lima, el Congreso elige a Agustín Gamarra presidente provisional y al general Gutiérrez de la Fuente como vicepresidente" (page 362).
Markham 1892: "General La Fuente assembled a congress at Lima on the 31st of August, 1829, and resigned the powers he had assumed. This assembly conferred the office of provisional president on Gamarra, with La Fuente as vice-president" (pages 288-289). "On August 31st, 1829 [Gamarra] was inaugurated as President of Peru, with General La Fuente...as vice president" (pages 293-294).
Marett 1969: Gamarra "hurried southwards to be nominated President of Peru by a stunned Congress, with La Fuente taking office as Vice-President...Gamarra ruled Peru as a strong-man from 1829 until 1833. The leaders of the liberal opposition were exiled" (page 87).
Pike 1967: "In its sessions in Lima on 31 August the Peruvian congress, although still controlled by liberals, bowed to necessity, naming Gamarra provisional president and La Fuente vice-president" (page 73).
Werlich 1978: "In August 1829, congress yelded to pressure and elected Gamarra president and La Fuente vice-president. The authoritarian Gamarra was unique among the caudillos of the period: he survived a full, four-year term. Nevertheless, to accomplish this feat, he had to crush seventeen rebellions" (page 70).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: "En elecciones populares son elegidos presidente y vicepresidente de la República los generales Agustín Gamarra y Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente" (page 362).
Pike 1967: In "December electoral colleges confirmed this decision and Gamarra and La Fuente began their constitutional terms of office" (page 73).