Elections and Events 1830-1849

1830

Forment 1999:  "Entre 1830 y 1845, Perú se vio asolado por episodios recurrentes y prolongados de guerra civil.  Con cada nueva oleada de violencia, la elite se polarizaba socialmente y se radicalizaba políticamente en mayor medida, socavando así la capacidad organizacional y la legitimidad moral de las instituciones públicas que ya no eran capaces de estabilizar la vida pública" (page 207).

 1831

Forment 2003:  "Voting requirements for the 1831 and 1850 presidential elections were...very exclusionary and restrictive and were based on a complex set of requirements related to income, literacy, residency, and moral character.  More than 95 percent of Peruvians were disqualified from participating in elections as a result of the rules.  Voting in Peru was multi-stage and indirect, with the first stage taking place in the neighborhood parish and lasting for a week or so.  At this stage eligible voters elected their ‘representative' to the electoral college.  The second stage, which lasted another week, took place in the state's capital, with electors from each district gathered together in the college to vote for members of the national congress.  The third and final stage, relatively brief and simple, was held in Lima in the congressional chamber, with deputies and senators voting for the president" (page 180).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Congreso 1831.  Senadores" (page 248).  "Congreso 1831.  Diputados titulares" (pages 249-250).  "Congreso 1831.  Diputados suplentes" (page 250).

April

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  16/4:  "Se expulsa al vicepresidente Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente, a raíz de un enfrentamiento con Francisca Zubiaga, esposa del presidente Agustín Gamarra" (page 363).

August

Pike 1967:  "Gamarra decided the time had once again come to wage war against Bolivia.  At the last minute, with the Peruvian armies poised on the Bolivian boundary, Chilean diplomacy succeeded in averting warfare.  In August 1831 the two countries that had come to the brink of war signed a treaty of peace" (page 73).

1832

 

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Congreso 1832.  Senadores titulares" (page 245).  "Congreso 1832.  Senadores suplentes" (page 245).  "Congreso 1832.  Diputados titulares" (pages 246-247).  "Congreso 1832.  Diputados suplentes" (page 247).

July

Markham 1892:  "When the seventh congress met on the 29th of July, 1832, it was found there was a strong constitutional opposition, ready to maintain the law and to bring the government to account" (page 295).

December

Markham 1892:  "(C)ongress was dissolved on the 22d of December, 1832" (page 296).

1833

Pike 1967:  "(A)ware that his term of office would end in December 1833, Gamarra, barred by the constitution from seeking immediate re-election, began to think about a successor.  He, or perhaps his insanely ambitious and domineering wife Francisca Zubiaga de Gammara, known as ‘La Mariscala'...decided that Pedro Pablo Bermúdez, a military officer from Tarma, was the most suitable man to succeed to the presidency...By this time, however, Luna Pizarro had returned from his short exile and had renewed his intrigues, trying to induce congress to elect as president a man whom it could dominate.  He soon won a number of delegates to his way of thinking, persuading them to support the candidacy of General Luis José de Orbegoso" (pages 73-74).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Convención nacional 1833-1834.  Representantes titulares" (pages 242-243).  "Convención nacional 1833-1834.  Representantes suplentes" (page 244).

Werlich 1978:  "Legally barred from a second successive term, Gamarra attempted to obtain the election of his henchmen Gen. Pedro Pablo Bermúdez in 1833" (page 70).

July

Markham 1892:  "According to the law of 1828 a constituent convention was to meet in July, 1833, to revise the constitution, and the president's term of office ended on the following 20th of December.  The convention met, and was composed of a large majority hostile to the government of Gamarra" (page 296).

August

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  "En algunos departamentos se realizan las elecciones de representantes al Congreso nacional y las presidenciales, sin llegar a completarse" (page 366).

September

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  12/9:  "Se instala la Convención Nacional que tiene como primer presidente al clérigo Francisco de Paula González Vigil" (page 366).

December

Aljovín de Losada 2005:  "En 1833, ningún candidato obtuvo los votos requeridos en los colegios electorales de provincia.  Es por ello que el Congreso, con las mañas del Padre Luna Pizarro-enemigo de Gamarra-nombró a Orbegoso como presidente provisorio" (page 54).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  20/12:  "Asume la Presidencia Provisoria el general Luis José Orbegoso, designado por la Convención Nacional, al no haberse completado el proceso electoral" (page 367).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "(I)n 1833, the remaining rebels in Huanta played another role in the complex politics of the new republic when they sided with the liberal-minded general Luis José Orbegoso in ousting the conservative president Agustín Gamarra" (page 109).

Markham 1892:  "The convention was called to revise the constitution, and was not empowered to elect a president.  There had been no popular election, and the 20th of December was drawing near.  The matter was so urgent that the convention resolved to proceed to an election" (page 297).  Discusses candidates for president (page 297).  "On the 20th of December, when the convention met, eighty-four members were present.  There were forty-seven votes for Orbegoso, thirty-six for Bermudez, and one for Nieto.  The public accepted this result, although the election was unconstitutional.  It was looked upon as the least among a choice of evils...Orbegoso was installed as president of Peru...on December 30th, 1833" (page 297).

Pike 1967:  "In spite of mild pressure exercised by Gamarra in favour of Bermúdez, congress elected Orbegoso to the presidency.  Apparently Gamarra and Bermúdez were at first willing to accept this setback.  In good faith they allowed the thirty-seven-year-old Orbegoso to assume office.  Gamarra's ambitious wife, however, was not ready to accept defeat" (page 74).

Werlich 1978:  "Weary of arbitrary government, congress rejected the dictator's candidate and elected Gen. Luis de Orbegoso, a mild-mannered man who promised to respect the constitution.  Gamarra and Bermúdez, however, did not accept the decision of the legislature" (page 70).

1834

Gootenberg 1989:  "In 1834 the federalist councils were abolished, soon followed by the replacement of even the traditionally elected cabildos by government-appointed police commissioners.  Until the 1860s, Peru repressed all autonomous local government" (page 93).

January

Chambers 1999:  "In 1834, Arequipa erupted in revolt against the conservative caudillo Agustín Gamarra and in support of elected president José Luis de Orbegoso.  The majority of the townspeople supported the latter's alliance with Bolivian president Andrés de Santa Cruz and the resulting Peru-Bolivia Confederation, which made the south an independent state from 1836 to 1839" (pages 41-42).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  4/1:  "Se da un golpe de Estado en Lima.  El general Pedro Bermúdez es nombrado Jefe Supremo.  Agustín Gamarra y José María de Pando apoyan el golpe de Estado" (page 367).  28/1:  "El pueblo de Lima lucha contra el golpe" (page 368).

Markham 1892:  "On the 4th of January, 1834, the ex-president Gamarra proclaimed General Bermudez as provisional supreme chief of Peru, with the support of the Lima garrison" (page 297).  "General Bermudez declared that the election of a usurping congress was null and void.  He promised that a congress should meet in a few months, and that the people should elect a president.  Orbegoso and Bermudez were both in illegal positions, but the former had the public feeling with him; and the people began to arm for Orbegoso and the convention...On the night of January 28th, 1834, Gamarra, Bermudez and their followers evacuated Lima...Next day Orbegoso entered the capital in triumph" (page  298).

Méndez 2005:  "On January 2, 1834, [Gamarra] orchestrated a coup to oust his successor, General Luis José Orbegoso...But the coup failed to attract supporters in Lima, forcing Gamarra to wage war against Orbegoso from the highlands" (page 49).  "(T)he coup proved highly unpopular, occasioning popular protests in Lima in which multitudes confronted the military in the streets.  So strong was the popular mobilization that it forced the putschist military out of Lima...On January 29, 1834, Orbegoso, who had taken refuge in Callao, returned triumphantly to the capital...But Gamarra did not concede defeat" (page 194).

Pike 1967:  "Surrounding herself with some of the more outspoken advocates of political conservatism and executive authoritarianism, ‘La Mariscala' [Garmarra's wife] worked to persuade her husband to impose Bermúdez by force.  Unfortunately, both Gamarra and Bermúdez soon decided to act in accordance with her plans and succeeded in overthrowing Orbegoso...To a surprising degree the populace [in Arequipa] arose in defence of the constitutionally elected Orbegoso, thereby initiating Peruvian ‘civilismo,'...a movement aimed at subordinating military to civilian leaders in political affairs.  In Lima, also, there occurred the first genuinely popular, mass-supported revolutionary movement of the republican period...(T)he Limeños declared in favour of Orbegoso and drove Bermúdez from the city.  Even the socially prominent women of Lima now assumed an interest in politics, by and large supporting...Orbegoso as a means of ending the power of ‘La Mariscala' whose haughtiness had offended many" (pages 74-75).

February

Gootenberg 1989:  In February 1834, "yet another Peruvian revolution brought to Lima its first openly liberal government since the merchants had chased Bolívar out of Peru some eight years earlier" (page 4). 

Marett 1969:  "After some fighting, during which several of the generals who had originally supported Bermúdez changed sides, Orbegoso was restored to his uneasy throne.  Gamarra and his friends retired into exile" (page 88).

Pike 1967:  "Despite widespread opposition, Bermúdez continued for some time to hold the upper hand because of the preponderance of military support which he enjoyed...Notwithstanding a temporary military setback, the reaction against Bermúdez that had begun in Arequipa and Lima spread to Callao and other parts of Peru.  Facing for the first time a powerful popular opposition, military leaders began to waver in their loyalty to Bermúdez...Orbegoso was able to reacquire his presidential powers.  Bermúdez and other military caudillos, among them Gamarra..., were sent into exile...Luna Pizarro and the liberals again had their man in power" (page 75). 

April

Méndez 2005:  "(B)y the end of April 1834 Gamarrista armies were defeated in Ayacucho" (page 50).

 Pike 1967:  "After his disastrous attempt to impose Bermúdez by force of arms, Gamarra had gone into exile in Bolivia where his old nemesis, Santa Cruz, had been ruling wisely and efficiently since 1829.  With ample reason the two generals did not trust each other.  Under the circumstances, however, each felt he could best serve his purposes by effecting a reconciliation and agreeing to a joint plan of action.  As finally agreed to, the Gamarra-Santa Cruz plan called for Gamarra to seize Cuzco and from there pronounce against Orbegoso and in favour of a Peru-Bolivia confederation to be presided over by Santa Cruz" (page 80).

May

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  6/5:  "Luis José Orbegoso retorna a Lima luego de pacificar el Sur" (page 368).

Méndez 2005:  "By early May the civil war had (temporarily) ended in favor of Orbegoso, who returned to Lima a popularly acclaimed hero" (page 50).

June

Alcántara Sáez 1989:  La "liberal Constitución de 1834 nació como transformación de la de 1828, que preveía su modificación a los cinco años.  Reveló las huellas de las luchas civiles inmediatas contra el despotismo de Gamarra; la nota predominante, por tanto, fue su sentido antimilitarista, dándole facultades al Congreso para limitar los grados militares, fijar los efectivos, ratificar los ascensos a las altas jerarquías y suspender en el ejercicio de la presidencia de la República cuando el titular asumiera el mando de las Fuerzas Armadas" (page 124).

Davies 1974:  "(T)he constitution of 1834 fixed no property and literacy requirements for voting.  The only condition for Indian suffrage was payment of the tribute.  By the end of the year, however, Congress had passed a law which reinstated the former qualifications" (page 24).

Fleet 1997:  "The Peruvian constitution of 1834 provided for union of church and state.  It committed the government to the defense of the Roman Catholic faith, and explicitly forbade the practice of other religions" (page 78).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  10/6:  "Se promulga una nueva Constitución de corte liberal" (page 368).

Marett 1969:  "The liberals, as was their wont, celebrated their triumph by promulgating in 1834 a new constitution designed to restrict the power of the President, a limitation which Orbegoso, as their nominee, was prepared to accept.  But not so the leaders of the army, the Roman Catholic Church, and a powerful section of the oligarchy" (page 88).

Markham 1892:  "(T)he convention completed its labors, and the short-lived constitution of 1834 was promulgated" (page 300). 

Pike 1967:  "Reflecting the spirit engendered by the bitter struggles that had just come to an end, the constitution of 1834 was most notable for its anti-military provisions...The 1834 constitution, in many ways similar to the 1828 instrument, continued the division of powers and the bicameral legislature, as well as the council of state which assisted and at the same time supervised and restricted the president when congress was not in session...[Luna Pizarro's] arguments that chaos was likely to arise from allowing the indigent and ignorant masses to vote and from permitting an exaggerated form of federalism proved conclusive" (page 76).

August

Gamboa Balbín 2005:  "Ley Orgánica de Elecciones del 29 de agosto de 1834" (page 213).

Gootenberg 1989:  By August, the "armies of Gran Mariscal Agustín Gamarra, combined with those of the ‘caudillos' Bermúdez, La Fuente, and Salaverry, were again on the march, the same nationalists thought to be vanquished six months before" (page 5).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  11/8:  "La Convención Nacional clausura sus sesiones" (page 369).

November

Markham 1892:  "On November 9th, 1834, owing to disturbances in the south, President Orbegoso left Lima at the head of an army and marched to Arequipa.  The Count of Vista Florida, as vice president, remained in charge of the government at the capital" (pages 301-302).

December

Gootenberg 1989:  "In December, Orbegoso fled Lima to battle the rebels in the far south, on the last turf to find the liberal faithful.  The south as usual would not suffice" (page 5).

1835

Pike 1967:  "Although San Martín in 1821 had declared the abolition of slavery, the reform measure had never been implemented and by 1835 the slave trade, temporarily suspended, had been re-established" (page 65).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Asamblea de Sicuani 1835-1836" (page 240).  Gives names by department.

January

Gootenberg 1989:  "On New Year's Day, 1835, Lima's remaining militias mutinied to the cause of the fiery limeño Colonel Felipe Salaverry, the nationalist caudillo just past adolescence" (page 5).

Marett 1969:  "In 1835...conservative elements found their champion in the young and debonair Inspector-General of the Peruvian army, General Felipe Salaverry" (page 88).

February

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  23/2:  "Ocurre el levantamiento de Felipe Santiago Salaverry, quien se proclama Jefe Supremo del Perú" (page 369).

Markham 1892:  "Vista Florida...fled...and a few minutes afterward General Salaverry galloped into Lima.  On February 25th, 1835, he proclaimed himself supreme chief of Peru" (page 303).

Méndez 2005:  "President Orbegoso was left virtually without power after a young caudillo, Lima-born Felipe Santiago Salaverry, took over the Real Felipe fortress in a new coup in February 1835, proclaiming himself Supreme Chief of the Republic...In the meantime, Gamarra continued his relentless struggle to reclaim the presidency, courting Salaverry and Santa Cruz simultaneously but ultimately turning against the latter.  By February 1835, Peru had two presidents and one ex-president who was aggressively fighting his way back into power" (page 207).

Pike 1967:  "In February 1835 [military leader] Salaverry sought to put his ideas into practice and managed to overthrow the liberal-supported Orbegoso administration.  But he and his conservative advisers were destined to be thwarted in their plans for implementing authoritarian government" (page 79).  "Salaverry soon became a mere pawn in the renewed struggle between Gamarra and Santa Cruz...Salaverry regarded himself as the righful president of Peru and had no intention of joining his country in a confederation with Bolivia.  Gamarra now had to decide whether to recognize Salaverry, whom he had actually encouraged while in exile in Bolivia to oust Orbegoso, as president of an independent Peru or to honour his commitment to Santa Cruz" (page 80).

March

Méndez 2005:  "By March...parts of the country had pronounced themselves for Salaverry, while lawlessness wracked the capital city, as the self-appointed president left Lima in order to contain a wave of mutinies in the provinces" (page 207).

June

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  15/6:  "Se establece el pacto de ayuda entre Andrés de Santa Cruz, presidente de Bolivia, y Luis José Orbegoso, presidente del Perú" (page 369).

Méndez 2005:  Orbegoso "transferred his ‘presidential powers' to Marshall Andrés de Santa Cruz in the midst of a new political crisis in June 1835" (page 201).

Pike 1967:  Santa Cruz "abandoned Gamarra and entered into an alliance with Orbegoso, promising him and his liberal supporters assistance in gaining vengeance against both Gamarra and Salaverry...In return for his co-operation Santa Cruz wished Orbegoso and his liberal partisans to accept a confederation, made up of the state of northern Peru with its capital in Lima, the state of southern Peru with its capital in Arequipa or Cuzco, and the state of Bolivia with its capital in La Paz.  Santa Cruz would exercise an overall hegemony in the three states, each of which was to have its own president, vice-president and congress" (page 80).

July

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  7/7:  "Salaverry lanza su declaratoria de guerra a muerte contra Santa Cruz" (page 370).  27/7:  "Se firma un pacto entre los generales Felipe Santiago Salaverry y Agustín Gamarra contra la Confederación Perú-Boliviana" (page 370).

Pike 1967:  "Faced with [the Santa Cruz/Orbegoso pact] Gamarra...agreed to recognize Salaverry as legitimate president of Peru and to join with him in combatting the Orbegoso-Santa Cruz alliance.  The invading troops of Santa Cruz, however, carried all before them in southern Peru and in mid-1835 annexed that region to the confederation" (pages 80-81).

1836

Klarén 2000:  "(T)he Peru-Bolivian Confederation (1836-39)...was engineered by General Andrés Santa Cruz...Invading Peru and opportunistically siding with one or another faction, Santa Cruz succeeded in capturing Lima and uniting the two countries in a confederation in 1836" (page 155).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Asamblea de Huaura 1836" (page 241).

February

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  7/2:  "El general Felipe Santiago Salaverry es derrotado...por las tropas confederadas" (page 370).  18/2:  "Se producen los fusilamientos de Felipe Santiago Salaverry y ocho de sus principales jefes en la plaza de Arequipa" (page 371).

Marett 1969:  "(I)n February 1836 the Peruvian army was routed and Salaverry himself was taken prisoner.  He and his principal officers were then lined up and shot by the unrelenting Bolivian ‘caudillo.'  Santa Cruz was now the undisputed master of both Bolivia and Peru" (page 89).

Méndez 2005:  The Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation "was a short-lived and conflict-ridden, albeit meaningful, political experiment whereby the republics of Peru and Boliva were merged into a single polity comprising three ‘confederate states':  North Peru, South Peru, and Bolivia.  It lasted barely three years (from February 1836 to January 1839), and its supreme chief, ideologue, and founder was the La Paz-born Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz" (page 206).

Pike 1967:  "In February 1836 [Salaverry] was crushingly defeated, captured, and along with his principal officers summarily executed by the confederation armies" (page 81).

March

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  16-22/3:  "Se reúne en Sicuani una asamblea para establecer el Estado Surperuano compuesto por los departamentos de Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cusco y Puno" (page 371).  17/3:  "Se promulga la Constitución del Estado Surperuano" (page 371).

April

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  10/4:  "Orbegoso, por decreto, reconoce al Estado Surperuano como Estado libre e independiente" (page 371).

June

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  "Asamblea de Tapacarí por la cual Bolivia pasa a formar parte de la Confederación Perú-Boliviana" (page 371).

August

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  3/8:  "Se instala la Asamblea de Huaura, por la cual se establece el Estado Norperuano" (page 371).  11/8:  "Se reconoce la creación del Estado Norperuano, del Estado Surperuano y la entrega de todos los poderes a Andrés de Santa Cruz como Supremo Protector" (page 371).  20/8:  "Se crea la provincia litoral del Callao y Bellavista" (page 371).

October

Werlich 1978:  "(T)he Peru-Bolivia Confederation...was formally proclaimed in October 1836.  The new entity consisted of three states-Bolivia, Southern Peru, and Northern Peru...Each of the three units had its own capital, president, and legislature...Santa Cruz...controlled the union's armed forces, finances, and foreign policy as well as the Bolivian presidency" (pages 70-71).

1837

Pike 1967:  "(I)n the middle of 1837, the Chilean government determined to continue its efforts against the confederation.  A...force was quickly organized and placed under the command of the Chilean General Manuel Bulnes.  Many Peruvian militarists, among them Gamarra and La Fuente, held high positions in the Bulnes expeditionary force" (page 82).

January

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  24/1:  "Se celebra el Congreso de Tacna, donde se establece el orden jurídico de la Confederación" (page 372).

Marett 1969:  "In 1837, at a meeting of delegates at Tacna in southern Peru, [Santa Cruz] was invested with the title of Protector of the newly created Peru-Bolivian federation.  This shaky structure consisted of three component republics-Bolivia, Southern Peru, and Northern Peru...These arrangements for confederation pleased practically nobody...Virtually all the politicians, irrespective of region, were alarmed by the obviously dictatorial pretensions of their Protector...Agustín Garrara...now joined with other Peruvian exiles in Chile in plotting his revenge" (page 89).

May

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  9/5:  "Se aprueba el Pacto por el cual se establece la Confederación Perú-Boliviana" (page 372).

October

Chambers 1999:  "(T)he Chileans, fearful that the enlarged Andean republic would grow in power as well as territory, invaded...in October 1837" (page 227).

November

Werlich 1978:  "Chile nervously watched the formation of this new power on its northern frontier...(T)he Peru-Bolivia Confederation-if allowed to consolidate-would have upset the balance of power which the Chileans hoped to maintain in the Pacific" (page 71).  "Possessing naval supremacy, Chile presented Santa Cruz with several demands, including the dissolution of the Peru-Bolivia union.  The Protector rejected this ultimatum and Chile declared war on November 11" (page 72).

1838

Marett 1969:  "(I)n 1838, under the command of the Chilean general Manuel Bulnes, but with a number of Peruvian generals such as Gamarra and La Fuente in important subordinate commands, an expeditionary force was landed in Peru" (page 89).

August

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  24/8:  "Agustín Gamarra es nombrado Presidente Provisional del Perú por una junta de vecinos" (page 373).

Pike 1967:  "(T)he vanguard [of the Bulnes expeditionary force] succeeded in entering Lima in August 1838" (page 82).

1839

Chambers 1999:  "A second invasion from Chile in 1839 restored Gamarra to power and reestablished centralized control from Lima; the new constitution, for example, abolished all elected bodies at the local level" (page 227).

January

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  20/1:  "Se libra la Batalla de Yungay, donde es derrotada definitivamente la Confederación Perú-Boliviana, gracias a la decisión de los jefes peruanos Ramón Castilla y Agustín Gamarra" (page 374).  24/1:  "Santa Cruz ingresa en Lima y anuncia su derrota" (page 374).

Klarén 2000:  "In January 1839, Santa Cruz's army was crushed at the Battle of Yungay, putting an end to the confederation.  With the collapse of the confederation, the conservative Gamarra regained the presidency (1839-41) and imposed yet another centralist and antiforeign constitution" (page 156).

Pike 1967:  Ramón "Castilla's men changed the tide of battle" (page 82).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Congreso de Huancayo y Congreso General de Lima 1839-1840" (pages 238-239).

February

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  27/2:  "El general Gamarra ingresa en Lima y convoca a un Congreso Nacional de una sola Cámara" (page 374). 

Werlich 1978:  "In February 1839, the Chileans decisively defeated the forces of Santa Cruz at Yungay...The confederation disintegrated and its Protector fled to Ecuador" (page 72).

March

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  22/3:  "Los colegios electorales eligen a los representantes al Congreso" (page 374).

Markham 1892:  "A congress was convoked to assemble at the little town of Huancayo, in the valley of Xauxa, being elected according to the law of the constitution of 1834" (page 330).

August

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  15/8:  "Se instala el Congreso Constituyente de Huancayo" (page 374).

Marett 1969:  "During his second term as President, Gamarra ruled Peru uneasily from 1839 until 1841" (page 90).

Markham 1892:  Congress "met on the 15th of August, 1839, and declared Gamarra to be constitutional president of Peru, with the title of Restorer.  All the acts of assemblies which met during the confederation were declared to be null and void, and the very liberal constitution of 1834 was also annulled.  Out of the sixty-two deputies assembled at Huancayo, sixty voted for its abolition" (page 330).

November

Alcántara Sáez 1989:  "(A)sumió la presidencia el general Gamarra, quien promulgó la Constitución de Huancayo (1839), conservadora, autoritaria y nacionalista.  Con el triunfo de los limeños sobre los serranos se profundizaron más las diferencias abismales que ancestralmente han separado al bajo y alto Perú" (page 124).  "La Constitución de Huancayo duró hasta 1855" (page 125).

Davies 1974:  The constitution of 1839 "again exempted Indians from the literacy qualification for voting until 1844, but they still had to pay the tribute" (page 25).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  10/11:  "Se aprueba la Constitución de Huancayo, de carácter conservador, ‘primera expresión constitucional de un autoritarismo nacionalista'" (page 374).  26/11:  "El Congreso de Huancayo nombra Presidente Provisorio a Agustín Gamarra y se convoca a los Colegios Electorales para la elección presidencial" (page 375).  29/11:  "Se promulga la Ley Electoral y termina sus labores el Congreso" (page 375).

Markham 1892:  "The constitution elaborated by the congress of Huancayo was proclaimed on November 10th, 1839.  The congress was to be composed of a senate and chamber of deputies, a third of the deputies being renewed every two years and half the senate every four years.  Deputies were elected by colleges, one for every 30,000 souls, and for every two deputies, a substitute was elected.  The senate was composed of twenty-one citizens elected by the departments from among residents.  The congress was to meet every two years.  The president was elected for six years, another six years elapsing before he could be re-elected.  There was to be a council of state consisting of fifteen members, elected by the congress, the president and vice-president of which were elected by the congress each session.  On a vacancy of the presidency, the president of the council of state was to succeed, and to convoke the colleges for a new election...Each department is governed by a prefect, and each province by a sub-prefect nominated by the president, under whom there were local governors of districts" (page 331).

Monsalve 2005:  "The debates around the suffrage right of the indigenous population were essential in the elaboration of the constitutions of 19th Century Peru.  The 1839 Constitution stated that it was a requirement to be able to read and write in order to have a right to vote, but delayed the implementation of this requirement until 1844" (page 10).

Peloso 1996:  "Any further institutionalization of elections as a fundament of the liberal state was set back momentarily in the 1839 Congress of Huancayo.  A convention was called in response to the national emergency posed by hostilities between the liberal confederationist forces of Bolivian leader Andrés Santa Cruz and restorationists behind Agustín Gamarra...Only Pedro Gálvez, the best-known liberal delegate, outlined the liberal position on voting...The Huancayo revision of the basic laws of Peru accepted the creation of a broader electorate by eliminating the literacy requirement for voting" (page 190).  "Electoral power remained in the hands of provincial electors" (page 191).

Pike 1967:  "(A)n electoral college chose Gamarra as constitutional president for a four-year term.  One of his first and best-considered acts in his new term was to appoint Castilla, the hero of Yungay, as minister of the treasury" (page 83).  "The constitution of 1839, framed in Huancayo under the direct influence of Gamarra, was to be in effect for twelve years (1839-42, 1845-54)...Framed by men of political and business experience rather than by theoreticians, the 1839 constitution was the first in Peru to stress order over liberty.  It provided for a strong executive with a six-year term of office.  The powers of the bicameral congress were somewhat curtailed in comparison with earlier instruments, and those of the Council of State, consisting of fifteen men chosen by congress either from within or outside its membership, expanded...The constitution provided that only literate male citizens of twenty-five years of age or more could vote (illiterate Indians and ‘mestizos' could, it was stipulated, continue to vote until 1844), deputies had to be thirty years of age, and senators forty...The most unfortunate feature of the constitution, it is often suggested, was the creation of an excessively centralized political structure.  By suppressing the municipalities and making no attempt to provide for even a semblance of regional autonomy, it fixed upon Peru an iron-bound centralism which was beneficial to Lima but disastrous to the economic and political life of the rest of the country" (pages 86-87).

December

Gamboa Balbín 2005:  "Ley Reglamentaria de Elecciones del 29 de diciembre de 1839" (page 213).

1840

Forment 1999:  "A principios del decenio de 1840, mientras el Perú se encontraba todavía bajo un gobierno autoritario, la elite se ligó cada vez más al Estado...Los ministros del Poder Ejecutivo y los oficiales del ejército utilizaban...reuniones para establecer lazos clientelistas con la elite social y cultural del país" (page 211).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "After 1840 the Peruvian state made several attempts to reform Peru's tributary system, but each met political resistance.  No party or leader wanted to support such unpopular actions" (page 129).

Klarén 2000:  "Over the course of four decades, from 1840 to 1880, some 11 million tons of guano were ‘mined,' transported, and sold to European and North American markets for an estimated $750 million.  Laboriously dug up, carted, and shoveled down chutes to awaiting ships by a relatively small army of about 1,000 imported Chinese indentured coolies, guano...became the classic Latin American boom-to-bust story...when finite guano reserves were finally depleted in the 1870s" (page 158).

Muecke 2004:  "From the 1840s, the economy of the central and northern coastal regions also experienced a boom that was sparked by the export of guano" (page 20).  "The riches amassed from the guano trade in the mid-nineteenth century were instrumental in the development of a ruling class, which profited in a variety of ways from the new source of income.  This elite was directly involved in guano export itself, but, in addition, the state transferred part of the profits gained from the guano trade to the emerging bourgeoisie" (page 21).

Peloso 1996:  "When guano became commercially important, the stakes in congressional elections rose as did electoral fraud" (page 192).

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  "Como en la Colonia, los habitantes de la capital seguían adscritos a una comunidad social de tipo antiguo; por un lado estaba la aristocracia, o ‘gente decente'; por el otro lado, la plebe" (page 232).  "Al comenzar la década de 1840, la población limeña experimentó una sacudida social motivada por el desorden político promovido por los caudillos militares, la cual se conoce en la historiografía como la fase de la anarquía.  Esta coyuntura se caracterizó por continuos golpes efímeros, fraccionados y violentos.  La aristocracia consideró a la fase de la anarquía como la causante de la demolición del orden corporativo que la distinguía de la plebe" (page 233).

Pike 1967:  "A brief period of political stability at the beginning of Gamarra's term was ended by the unreliable men with whom the president had to deal in southern Peru" (page 83).  Gives details (pages 83-84).

April

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  19/4:  "Tratado de Paz con Bolivia" (page 375).

July

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  10/7:  "El Congreso de Huancayo ratifica la elección del general Agustín Gamarra como Presidente Constitucional" (page 375).

Markham 1892:  "The constituent congress of Huancayo was dissolved on July 11th, 1840" (page 332).

October

Werlich 1978:  "The Chilean forces left Lima in October 1840, after placing their ally General Gamarra in power under a new conservative constitution" (page 72).

November

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  10/11:  "El capitalista nacional Francisco Quirós arrienda por seis años los yacimientos de guano de las islas del Estado, descubiertas y por descubrir por 10000 pesos anuales" (page 376).

December

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  23/12:  "El coronel Suárez se levanta en Ayacucho, a favor del general Manuel Ignacio Vivanco" (page 376).

Pike 1967:  "Vivanco, tremendously popular in Arequipa and convinced that only he could provide the enlightened authoritarian rule needed to regenerate Peru, decided to rebel against Gamarra" (page 84).

1841

January

Gootenberg 1989:  "In January 1941, Peru suddenly exploded into new civil and border wars, the deepest, most byzantine round in its turbulent history, lasting four torturous years.  The gamarrista caudillos fell into bitter disarray" (page 111).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  1/1:  "En el Cusco se produce el levantamiento del coronel Valentín Boza, que nombra Presidente al general Juan Crisóstomo Torrico" (page 376).  3/1:  "En Puno se rebela Juan Francisco Balta a favor del caudillo Manuel Ignacio Vivanco" (page 376).  4/1:  "En Arequipa se subleva el general Manuel Ignacio Vivanco bajo la bandera de la ‘Regeneración', contra Agustín Gamarra.  Se declara Jefe Supremo de la República" (page 377).

March

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  25/3:  "Ramón Castilla, ministro de Hacienda de Agustín Gamarra, es derrotado por Manuel Ignacio Vivanco en Cachamarca" (page 377).

April

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  6/4:  "En la Batala de Cuevillas, Ramón Castilla vence a las tropas vivanquistas, por lo que el jefe huye a Bolivia" (page 377).

June

Pike 1967:  "In June 1841 a revolution in Bolivia unseated the constitutional president.  The successful insurgents called upon Santa Cruz to return from his Ecuadoran exile and assume the presidency" (page 84).

July

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  6/7:  "El Congreso autoriza al presidente Gamarra a hacer la guerra a Bolivia por el posible regreso de Santa Cruz al poder" (page 377).  18/7:  "Manuel Menéndez, presidente del Consejo de Estado, queda encargado de la Presidencia al tomar Agustín Gamarra el mando de la tropa peruana, con la intención de invadir Bolivia" (page 377).

Pike 1967:  "Asserting that Peru was once again in danger from Santa Cruz, the Council of State authorized Gamarra to wage war against Bolivia.  Nothing could have pleased the president more.  At last the moment seemed propitious for him to attempt the deed that had always enticed him:  the establishment of a centralized Peru-Bolivia confederation under his authoritarian rule" (page 84).

Werlich 1978:  Gamarra "attempted to resurrect the union under his own protectorship.  Accusing the Bolivian government of a plot to restore Santa Cruz to power, Gamarra led his army across the southern border" (page 72).

November

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  18/11:  "El Ejército Peruano es derrotado por los bolivianos en la Batalla de Ingavi.  Muere Agustín Gamarra" (page 377).

Klarén 2000:  Gamarra "was killed in battle while invading Bolivia in 1841, provoking the outbreak of another civil war and the political disintegration of the country between 1841 and 1845" (page 156).

Markham 1892:  "Don Manuel Menendez, on the death of President Gamarra, became, by the constitution, the acting president of the republic.  But the generals in command of forces assembled to defend the country, took a most erroneous view of their duties" (page 335).

Pike 1967:  "By the time [Gamarra] arrived the supposed threat to Peru had evaporated, for Santa Cruz had been turned back in his attempt to re-enter Bolivia and the briefly successful revolution proclaiming his presidency suffocated.  But Gamarra was not in a mood to curtail his ambitions...The main battle took place at Ingavi on 18 November 1841...Gamarra...was killed on the field of battle" (page 85).

Werlich 1978:  "At the battle of Ingaví, on November 18, 1841, the Bolivians routed the Peruvians and killed Gamarra.  A period of almost incomprehensible confusion ensued" (page 72).

1842

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  "En las tres primeras décadas de la República, la gente decente limeña se había mostrado reacia a fomentar asociaciones cívicas con connotaciones políticas.  Este desafecto por participar en la esfera política se ampliaba en épocas de elecciones al escaso interés por ejercer el derecho al voto.  Sin embargo, las elecciones presidenciales y legislativas, convocadas en junio de 1842 por el presidente Menéndez, fueron vistas de otro modo.  Por vez primera un sector de la aristocracia vio este acto como un medio para recuperar los antiguos órdenes político y social.  La certeza de que las luchas entre los caudillos militares era la causa del aumento de las tensiones sociales contribuyó a moldear el nuevo comportamiento de la elite civil" (page 234).

June

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  5/6:  "Se celebra el Tratado de Puno que sella la paz entre el Perú y Bolivia" (page 378).

Pike 1967:  "The war came officially to an end in June of the following year when the two contending nations signed a treaty of peace.  With the death of Gamarra and the subsequent re-establishment of peace, all serious attempts to establish a Peru-Bolivia confederation came to an end" (page 85).

Julio

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  "El 13 de julio de 1842, un selecto grupo de limeños se reunió en el local de la Bolsa del Comercio de Lima...Todos coincidieron en que la indiferencia de la gente decente por la contienda electoral había sido un error que urgía corregir" (page 234).  "La plataforma electoral de los hombres de la Bolsa del Comercio se puso en marcha sin mencionar la candidatura que apoyaría" (page 235).

August

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  16/8:  "El coronel Juan Crisóstomo Torrico depone a Manuel Menéndez" (page 378).

Marett 1969:  "General Menéndez, who took over the presidency after the death of Gamarra, was soon ousted from his post by the commander of the northern armies General Torrico" (page 90).

Markham 1892:  "General Torrico...marched to Lima, deposed Menendez, and declared himself supreme chief.  He was joined by General San Roman.  Civil war prevailed over the country" (page 336).

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  La "primera intervención civil en una elección fue interrumpida abruptamente a principios de agosto de 1842 por un nuevo golpe militar.  Los gobiernos militares que se establecieron a partir de entonces impusieron su propia idea de orden político y social, que quedó sujeto a la arbitrariedad del mandatario en turno" (page 235).

September

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  22/9:  "El general Ramón Castilla derrota al general Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente" (page 378).

October

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  17/10:  "Se libra la batalla de Agua Santa, en la que el general Francisco Vidal, apoyado por el general Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente, derrota a Juan Crisóstomo Torrico.  Vidal asume la presidencia" (page 378).

Marett 1969:  "General La Fuente, who now commanded the southern troops, ousted Torrico, imposing in his stead a friend, General Vidal" (page 90).

1843

January

Chambers 1999:  "In January 1843...a military revolt in Arequipa proclaimed [Vivanco] their chief" (page  228).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  20/1:  "El general Manuel Ignacio Vivanco toma el poder en Arequipa y se proclama Supremo Director" (page 379).

Pike 1967:  "After a series of incredibly complex insurrections and insurrections within insurrections, in the course of which Torrico was one of several men to serve briefly as president, Vivanco succeeded in seizing power early in 1843" (page 87).

March

Chambers 1999:  "(B)y March [Vivanco] was established in Lima as the self-titled Supreme Director of Peru.  Vivanco's ‘Regeneration' movement opposed Gamarra and the 1839 constitution not out of disdain for authoritarianism, for the supreme director would also claim strong executive control.  Rather, vivanquistas wanted government ‘in the hands of the capable and cultured'" (page 228).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  16-20/3:  "El general Vidal entrega el poder al segundo Vicepresidente del Consejo de Estado, Justo Figuerola.  Al entrar en Lima las fuerzas del general Vivanco, Figuerola se despoja de la banda presidential" (page 379).

April

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  7/4:  "Manuel Ignacio Vivanco entra en Lima e instala el Directorio" (page 379).

Markham 1892:  Vivanco "entered Lima on the 8th of April, 1843 [and] was proclaimed supreme director of Peru.  He did not fulfill his promise to convoke a congress.  He nominated his own council of state, made new laws of his own, and committed other unconstitutional acts" (page 337).

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  Manuel Vivanco "creó el Tribunal de Seguridad Pública, usado exclusivamente para juzgar a sus enemigos políticos.  En su afán de conservarse en el poder, Vivanco instauró, el 9 de abril de 1843, un vínculo de servidumbre entre el gobierno y la población a través del ‘juramento de obediencia'" (page 235).

June

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  15/6:  "El general Juan Crisóstomo Torrico organiza una Junta de Gobierno en el Sur" (page 379).

August

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  29/8:  "Las fuerzas gobiernistas son derrotadas en Pachía por las de Castilla y Nieto" (page 379).

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  Domingo "Elías asumió el cargo prefectural de Ica en agosto de 1843" (page 237).

September

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  3/9:  "Se forma en Tacna una Suprema Junta de Gobierno Provisorio de los Departamentos Libres...Era Secretario el coronel José Féliz Iguaín, y Presidente el mariscal Domingo Nieto" (pages 379-380).

1844

Chambers 1999:  "After Gamarra's return to power, Arequipeños rebelled several times under the banner of Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco.  When Vivanco was defeated militarily in 1844 by Ramón Castilla, his supporters turned to the polls" (page 42).

Klarén 2000:  "In 1844 no fewer than four ‘caudillos' from various parts of the country claimed the presidency" (page 156).

Pike 1967:  "In the final analysis it was lack of moderation that caused Vivanco's downfall...The longer in office, however, the more he resorted to arbitrary actions and used the firing squad to rid himself of men whose loyalty [was] suspect.  Moreover, he was an inefficient dictator...The inevitable reaction against him began early in 1844, centring in southern Peru, and was directed primarily by Domingo Nieto...and Ramón Castilla.  Calling their armies the constitutionalist forces, Nieto and Castilla demanded obedience to the 1839 constitution" (page 88).

February

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  17/2:  "Muere el gran mariscal Domingo Nieto.  Ramón Castilla asume el mando de la revolución contra el Directorio" (page 380).

June

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  17/6:  "Domingo Elías, nombrado prefecto de Lima por el Supremo Director, proclama contra él la ‘Semana Magna' y se erige Jefe Político y Militar de la República" (page 380).

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  "En su plan, Elías mantuvo en secreto una aspiración personal que no develó sino cuando terminó la Semana Magna:  la Guardia Nacional también debía convertirse en el soporte electoral de su candidatura presidencial" (page 237).  "Cuando Elías hizo público su pronunciamiento del 17 de junio de 1844, desconociendo la autoridad del general Vivanco y autoproclamándose jefe accidental de gobierno, su soporte institucional basado en el fomento de una Guardia Nacional integrada por civiles estaba consolidándose apenas en cuatro provincias" (page 240).

Pike 1967:  "When Vivanco left the capital to try to suppress the constitutionalists, Domingo Elías, a wealthy landowner who professed politically liberal ideas, arose in Lima and pronounced against the dictator" (page 88).

July

Chambers 1999:  "(T)he Regeneration would be short-lived.  As rival caudillos rallied their forces throughout Peru, Vivanco retreated to his beloved Arequipa, where he was again defeated by his nemesis, Castilla, in July 1844" (page 228).

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  "(E)l 5 de julio de 1844 Elías procedió a declarar el ‘estado de asamblea' en Lima" (page 242).  "El 13 de julio de 1844 el gobierno de Lima ordenó el levantamiento del estado de asamblea" (page 245).  "La coyuntura política se presentaba propicia para lanzar la candidatura presidencial de Elías" (page 246).

Pike 1967:  "At the battle of Carmen Alto, 22 July 1844, Vivanco was defeated and fled directly into exile" (page 88).

Werlich 1978:  "In July 1844, Gen. Ramón Castilla defeated Vivanco...and Lima nervously awaited the arrival of the new ‘supreme chief'" (page 73).

August

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  16/8:  "Domingo Elías dimite del mando en favor de Justo Figuerola" (page 380).

Markham 1892:  "Don Manuel Menendez was restored to his post as acting-president, and on August 10th, 1844, he convoked a congress for the election of a constitutional president of the republic, for a period of six years" (page 342).

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  "Figuerola nombró a Elías ministro general primero y, luego, ministro de Guerra y Marina" (page 246).

October

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  7/10:  "Se restablece en el mando a Manuel Menéndez, para volver a la constitucionalidad y convocar a elecciones" (page 381).

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  "Sólo la renuncia de Figuerola por motivos de salud el 6 de octubre, cuando ya habían finalizado las elecciones de parroquia, apartó definitivamente a Elías del poder, al negarse el nuevo jefe de gobierno, Manuel Menéndez, a otorgarle cargo político alguno.  En consecuencia, los eliístas controlaron sólo la fase inicial de las elecciones; es decir, el sufragio parroquial" (pages 246-247).  Describes irregularities in the elections (pages 247-249).  "El 28 de octubre de 1844 el Colegio Electoral Provincial constituyó la mesa permanente, contándose para la ocasión con la asistencia de los 91 electores eliístas...La elección de diputados, senadores y del candidato por Lima a la presidencia con los dos tercios del electorado se puso en marcha sin más contratiempo" (pages 249).  Discusses the election (pages 249-250).

1845

Chambers 1999:  "Under President Castilla, Peruvians enjoyed their first period of stability since independence.  He took advantage of this space and the country's newfound wealth in guano to strengthen the state and extend its control over the national territory" (page 228).

Gootenberg 1989:  "General Ramón Castilla...by 1845 had set out to consolidate Lima's central rule, buttressed by his pacification of regional caudillos and an incipient pact with reborn civil elites and institutions" (page 12).

Klarén 2000:  "The first ‘caudillo' to tap into and benefit from the guano boom was General Ramón Castilla, who also proved to be one of the most adept soldier-politicians in the country's history...Castilla rose to become a dominant force in Peruvian politics between 1845 and his death in 1868.  During this period, he twice served as president, from 1845 to 1851 and again from 1854 to 1862" (page 161).

Marett 1969:  "In 1845 the Supreme Director, as Vivanco styled himself, was in his turn thrown out of the presidential palace.  A tough, practical-minded ‘mestizo' general, Ramón Castilla, who had distinguished himself in the battle of Yungay and later served as Gamarra's Minister of Finance, took his place" (page 91).

Peloso 1996:  "Early Peruvian elections were relatively private rituals conducted in the capital of each province among the friends and family of the candidates who observed while the electors performed the voting ritual.  Before 1845 deputies typically represented the highland provinces where they were born" (page 188).  "Between 1845 and 1872, especially once the Castilla-era reforms got under way, disputed elections became a sign of social change and conflict in Peru as the electorate grew and became more contentious.  Claims of electoral fraud rose dramatically in number and type.  Provincial colleges felt overwhelmed by all the claims" (page 192).

February

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  "A pesar de que el Consejo de Estado proclamó a los senadores electos por el Colegio Provincial de Lima en febrero de 1845, la Junta Calificadora de la Cámara de Diputados revocó la medida, declarando nulas las elecciones parroquiales limeñas a principios de abril" (page 250).

April

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  20/4:  "El Congreso elige Presidente al general Ramón Castilla" (page 381).  27/4:  "Al ser nombrado Arzobispo de Lima, Francisco Javier Luna Pizarro adopta posturas más moderadas" (page  381).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "The Castilla regime, which coincided with a timely European demand for guano from islands off the Peruvian coast, provided Peru with two decades of relative economic growth and political stability.  Castilla led Peru through most of the guano age" (page 122).

Marett 1969:  "With Congress re-established after two decades of virtual suppression, the civilian politicians-both liberal intellectuals and conservative clerics-could once again lift their voices in public debate...During his first term Castilla managed to steer a middle course between the contending factions" (page 96).

Markham 1892:  "The congress met on the 16th of April, 1845, and on the 20th Grand Marshall Don Ramon Castilla was elected President of Peru" (page 342).

Masterson 1991:  "While the particularly astute ‘caudillo' Ramón Castilla dominated Peruvian affairs in the two decades after 1845, the nation enjoyed internal order and economic prosperity.  Castilla acquired modern arms, improved military training, and built a navy" (page 24).

Peralta Ruiz 1999:  "(S)e volvió a convocar a los vecinos de la capital para sufragar" (page 250).  Discusses the election (pages 250-251).  "Los resultados del sufragio provincial confirmaron nuevamente el triunfo relativo de los liberales elitístas.  Se revalidó la nominación de la mayoría de los diputados y senadores de la elección anterior...Los electores limeños apoyaron al general Castilla, por lo que fue proclamado jefe de Estado con 2592 votos de un total de 3151 electores de todo el país, quedando Elías en segundo lugar con 258 votos.  La derrota no cortó la carrera política de Elías, ya que éste volvería a postularse a la presidencia en las elecciones de 1850" (pages 251-252).

Pike 1967:  "As a mixed-blood, [Castilla] has often been pointed to as a symbol of the racial fusion upon which the emergence of a Peruvian nation depends, while the success of his administration has generally been referred to as an important factor in winning acceptance for the ‘mestizo' in even the highest circles" (page 92).

Stein 1980:  "Beginning in 1845 under the astute leadership of President Ramón Castilla, considered the founder of the Peruvian nation, powerful elements of the upper classes began to build a centrally administered state with an executive and a congress designed to represent the diverse interests within the elite...Castilla channeled a large portion of guano profits into the creation of a national army to insure order and the establishment of a growing public bureaucracy to service his large personal clientele among the country's elite" (page 23).

Werlich 1978:  Castilla "inaugurated a thirty-year epoch of increased political stability, significant reform, and economic growth.  For the first time since independence, the country enjoyed extended periods of constitutional government" (page 78).

July

Forment 2003:  "In July 1945, after nearly a decade and a half of authoritarian rule, Lima's citizenry, with the aid of several militia units from nearby towns, successfully defended the capital against an attack from General Echenique's army, signaling a decline in militarism and the rise of civilian rule" (page 177).  "The ‘Semana Magna,' as contemporaries came to call the eventful week...represents the first time in the country's history that citizens defeated the national army.  The Semana Magna demilitarized public life and initiated a period of relative political stability that was to last for two years" (page 178).

October

Markham 1892:  Congress "was dissolved on the 22nd of October" (page 342).

1846

Gootenberg 1989:  "The triumph of centralized caudillismo under Castilla and Echenique after 1845-with their increasingly professionalized and nationalized army-moved apace with the availability of guano funds" (page 81).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Congreso 1846-1848.  Senadores titulares" (page 237).  "Congreso 1846-1848.  Senadores suplentes" (page 237).

1847

Peloso 1996:  "Liberals in the Chamber of Deputies took the initiative:  they debated the first systematic electoral reforms in 1847-1849 and implemented them in the congressional election of 1850.  The reforms held firm to the idea that the provincial electoral colleges should be responsible for verifying the election of each deputy, but they broadened voter qualifications to include all taxpayers" (page 194).

August

Markham 1892:  "A congress was sitting from August, 1847, to March, 1848" (page 344).

October

Davies 1974:  "Regarding Indian citizenship and voting rights, seemingly settled by previous legislation, the Congress felt obliged to enact still another law in 1847.  While retaining the tribute requirements, it conferred citizenship on those Indians who were married or twenty-five years of age.  This group was given the right to vote whether they were literate or not.  The passage of the law once again confirms that previous legislation had been neither implemented nor enforced" (pages 27-28).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  11-12/10:  "Se promulga la ley electoral que otorga la ciudadanía y sufragio a los indios y mestizos analfabetos casados y mayores de veinticinco años" (page 383).

1848

August

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  19/8:  "Ocurre una rebelión de esclavos (aproximadamente 150) en el valle de Chicama" (page 384).

1849

Chambers 1999:  Vivanco's "1849 platform retreated even further from his earlier authoritarianism and included more measures to attract popular support, such as the establishment of direct elections, widespread suffrage, and the protection of civil liberties" (page 229).

Klarén 2000:  "Between 1849 and 1874, some 100,000 Chinese coolies were shipped to Peru as indentured servants, mainly from southern China through the port of Macao...Those who survived [the trans-Pacific passage] were immediately deployed to replace slaves on the coastal sugar and cotton plantations; to labor on the guano islands, along with a small number of Polynesians and convicts; and later to build the railroads that became the developmental panacea of the governing elites" (page 163).

Monsalve 2005:  "In 1849, the executive power presented before Congress a proposal to further delay the implementation of the requirement [to be able to read and write in order to have a right to vote] until the elections of 1850" (page 10).

Muecke 2004:  "The Peruvian bourgeoisie was in general agreement about the positive consequences of European immigration, the only point of debate being which European states were the most preferred countries of origin" (page 40).  "Between 1849 and 1875, only between 15,000 and 20,000 Europeans came to Peru" (page 41).

Pike 1967:  "(I)n 1849 the British succeeded in cutting off Peru's supply of Africans" (pages 65-66).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Congreso 1849-1850.  Senadores titulares" (page 234).  "Congreso 1849-1850" (page 234).   "Congreso 1849-1850.  Diputados titulares" (pages 235-236).  "Congreso 1849-1850.  Diputados suplentes" (page 236).

June

Markham 1892:  A congress was sitting "from June, 1849 to March, 1850" (page 344).

November

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  6/11:  "Debate en el Congreso entre Bartolomé Herrera y Pedro Gálvez sobre el sufragio indígena" (page 386).  17/11:  "Se promulga la Ley de Inmigración, con apoyo estatal.  En la práctica, la ley favorecerá la inmigración china" (page 386).  25/11:  "Incidentes en Arequipa por la cercanía de elecciones entre vivanquistas y echeniquistas y actitud inadecuada del Prefecto" (page 386).

Klaiber 1992:  "The liberals had proposed a law by which Indians and mestizos were exempted from the requirement of being able to read or write in order to vote.  Gálvez, though a former student of Herrera, was a doctrinaire liberal who defended the motion.  Herrera opposed the measure because, in his opinion, conceding the right to vote to illiterates would not give rise to a real democracy in Peru.  What Peru needs, said Herrera, is to abolish illiteracy itself" (page 67).

Monsalve 2005:  "The debate in the 1849 Congress around the suffrage rights of the illiterate indigenous and mestizo populations was, most of all, a rhetorical exercise that contributed to the definition of the political identity of both the conservatives and liberals in a political sphere where there were no political parties" (page 10).

December

Gamboa Balbín 2005:  "Ley Reglamentaria de Elecciones del 22 de diciembre de 1849" (page 213).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  22/12:  "Se promulga la Ley Electoral que mantiene los requisitos de saber leer y escribir para ser parte de los colegios electorales" (page 386).

Monsalve 2005:  "The Electoral Regulations of 1849 excluded women, minors who were single, beggars, domestic servants, local authorities (prefects, subprefects and governors), and the stationed soldiers" (page 14).  "In Lima, the exclusion of domestic servants from the electoral system implied necessarily the exclusion of the population of African descent from the political community...However, the issue of the exclusion or inclusion of ‘Afro-peruvians' in the political community did not become a source of political identity for the conservatives or for the liberals" (page 15).  "Due to the legislation's ambiguity and the approval of exonerations, the main problem faced by Peruvian officials was to determine who was legally authorized to vote.  The Peruvian Congress did not establish a National Civic Registry Board in the ‘Electoral Regulations of 1849.'  Therefore, the elaboration of a list of possible voters was left in the hands of the local authorities" (page 16).  Gives details of process (pages 16-17).