Chiaramonti 2000: "Población y electores de Perú (ca. 1870)" (page 246).
Klarén 2000: "(A) serious rebellion of Chinese coolies, the principal plantation labor force on the coast, occurred in Pativilca in 1870. Known as the ‘rebellion of the painted faces,' it involved some 1,200-1,500 Chinese...Order was quickly restored by the army, but not before some 300 Chinese were killed" (page 177).
Muecke 2004: "Manuel Pardo resigned from the office of mayor in October 1870, after persistent reports in Congress that the entire city council had contravened the law...(R)umors that Pardo would be running for [the] presidency probably played a major role. The city authority had an important function in all elections, as it determined which citizens were eligible to vote. Pardo's political opponents would therefore undoubtedly have wanted to ensure that a potential presidential candidate was not simultaneously mayor of the capital city" (page 61).
Forment 2003: "Electoral clubs organized mass demonstrations, thereby introducing Peruvians to a new type of political practice. During the presidential campaign of 1871, the Civilian Party held a march and rally in the Acho Plaza that was attended by 14,000 citizens" (page 377).
Klarén 2000: "(T)he political reaction to the faltering economy and the corruption and failed policies of the Balta regime was intense. Led by Manuel Pardo, who had become the popular mayor of Lima in 1869, the Civilistas mounted a strong campaign to end military rule and establish a civilian government based on respect for the law, republican institutions, and civil liberties. The key, as Pardo and his fellow Civilistas saw it, was to reduce sharply the bloated armed forces" (pages 178-179).
Marett 1969: "It was...against the sombre background of economic collapse that the elections for a new President were held in 1872. Colonel Balta, by his economic policies, had made many enemies, especially in the influential circle of the guano exporters. He had no political party behind him, apart from his friends in the army, and could think of no better candidate to support for the presidency than the conservative ex-President Echenique, who was now far past his prime" (page 103).
Muecke 2004: "The greatest cause for debate in the 1871 election campaign was the struggle for control of the voting list. This was the first stage of the election, in which parties tried to attract supporters for the election of delegates" (page 84). "The 1871 election campaign was not restricted to Lima but was conducted on all fronts throughout Peru" (page 88). Describes electoral clubs founded throughout the country (pages 86-94). "Regional distribution of the Partido Civil's electoral clubs, 1871" (page 91).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 24/4: "Se realiza una ‘Junta de Notables' en el domicilio de José Antonio García y García, de la que surge la candidatura presidencial de Manuel Pardo" (page 412).
Muecke 2004: "By the time the Partido Civil was founded in 1871, the new clubs and societies had changed Peruvian society profoundly. Together with the press, they had created a public sphere that now insisted that issues significant to society as a whole were no longer removed from public discourse" (page 61). "The Partido Civil was founded as the electoral club Sociedad Independencia Electoral...on 24 April 1871. The club's aim was to support Manuel Pardo in the forthcoming presidential elections, and its establishment was simultaneously an announcement of Pardo's candidacy" (page 62). "The former members of the 1869-1870 Lima city council, which went down in history as the Junta de los Cien, also formed a powerful group within the Partido Civil...With the Junta de los Cien, Lima's ruling class proved itself able to take full responsibility for carrying out matters of state" (page 80).
Palmer 1980: "While it espoused vaguely liberal economic and political principles, [the Partido Civil's] main concern was to establish a political order in which civilians rather than military officers held sway" (page 36).
Pike 1967: "There was something new on the Peruvian political scene when the presidential campaign got under way in 1871. For the first time an organized, cohesive party with a consistent and also practical political philosophy and a broad programme of action stood ready to seek the presidency of its candidate. The party bore the name ‘Civilista' (‘Civilianist' as opposed to militarist) and its candidate, named in April 1871 although Balta's term did not end until August of the following year, was Manuel Pardo" (pages 126-127).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 2/5: "Se lleva a cabo una asamblea política en el Teatro Odeón donde se presenta públicamente a la ‘Sociedad Independencia Electoral'" (page 412).
Muecke 2004: "The Club Universitario was founded on 31 May 1871...(T)wo-thirds of the membership of the new electoral club consisted of people who had not yet joined the ranks of the SIE" (page 85).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 9/7: "(S)e realiza la asamblea de los jefes de sección y de decena de la ‘Sociedad Independencia Electoral'" (page 412).
Pike 1967: "In July 1871...Piérola...resigned his cabinet post" (page 125).
Muecke 2004: "One association crucial to the electoral success of the Partido Civil was the Club Militar 2 de Mayo, founded on 1 October. This club consisted exclusively of officers of the ground forces who...had to give a solemn oath to work actively for Pardo's success in the forthcoming elections" (page 86).
October 15: election
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 15/10: "Se realizan las elecciones para la nominación de los ciudadanos que deben formar los Colegios Electorales" (page 412).
Hunefeldt 2004: "Elections took place, for the first time, from 1871 to 1872. It took almost a whole year to tidy up the electoral process" (page 122).
Klarén 2000: "Pardo won a resounding victory at the polls in the elections of 1871-72" (page 179).
Marett 1969: "(W)hen the time came to choose a new President the majority of the electorate cast their votes in favour of the new forces represented by the ‘civilista' movement" (page 103).
Muecke 2004: Manuel Toribio "Ureta made a second attempt in 1871, which meant that two civilian presidential candidates were competing in that year's election campaign...In the 1871 election campaign, however, it was Ureta who ran for the presidency under the ‘Partido Civil' banner, while Pardo's candidacy was usually called ‘Candidatura Pardo' or ‘Candidatura Civil'" (page 63). "The election led to the violence that everyone had expected" (page 105).
Pike 1967: "When elections to select the members of an electoral college were held in October 1871, Pardo won a spectacular triumph over the two rivals who had challenged him. Alarmed at the prospect of a civilian president who was committed to reducing the permanent army, Balta and some of his military cronies decided at this late stage to put forward a new candidate, Antonio Arenas" (pages 130-131).
Muecke 2004: "In contrast to those in October, the elections to the Chamber of Deputies in November passed peacefully" (page 106).
Muecke 2004: "The president had selected [Antonio] Arenas as the official government candidate in November 1871, and Echenique had given up his own candidacy in his favor" (page 106).
Dietz 2002: "Peru's first elected civilian president was Manuel Pardo (1872)" (page 198).
Forment 2003: "Peruvians created 390 new voting clubs between 1861 and 1885, almost all of them in preparation for the 1872 presidential election...(I)n the months before the 1872 election, Peruvians created roughly 320 new clubs, signaling the start of a new political era. The Chilean-Peruvian War, however, put an end to the electoral cycle and halted the spread of associative life. It would be three decades before Peruvian political life regained its civic momentum" (page 361). "The majority of Peruvians, elite and nonelite, in urban and rural areas, rarely participated in elections, since the ‘benefits' of voting were not worth the ‘risks.' Prior to 1872, voting clubs never succeeded in winning a single municipal or presidential election...The 1872 presidential election signaled the beginning of mass politics in Peru and encouraged a great many citizens to become politically active" (page 363).
Hunefeldt 2004: "(T)he Sociedad Independencia Electoral...became the Partido Civil in 1872, the political party through which Peru's coastal oligarchy remained in command of Peru until the beginning of the 20th century. In its inception the Partido Civil was a political counterforce to the military and caudillos...The ‘civilistas,' as the party members were called, were supported by big merchants, large financial interests, and many liberal intellectuals and professionals. Pardo's main opponent was Nicolás de Piérola and his followers, called ‘pierolistas.' In contrast to Pardo, Piérola was more oriented toward the provinces and looked after the interests of medium-sized landowners and small merchants" (page 122). "Disputes between ‘civilistas' and ‘pierolistas' would dominate the Peruvian political scene (and eventually the military scene) until the late 1910s" (page 123).
Klaiber 1992: "The Chinese came to Peru fundamentally in response to the demand for workers on the sugar haciendas in the north. When Great Britain abolished the trafficking in coolies in 1872, the northern hacienda owners had recourse to the Indians in the Andes" (page 175).
Klarén 2000: Manuel Pardo becomes "the [Civilista] party's first successful presidential candidate in 1872, thus breaking the hammerlock that the military had exercised on political power for almost five decades" (page 172). Pardo's policies "alienated the powerful institutions of the Church and the military. The former objected to his efforts to promote the expansion and secularization of education...As for the military, it could not tolerate the drastic reductions in its budget and personnel" (page 180).
Markham 1892: "Between 1861 and 1872, the number of Chinamen that arrived was 58,646. They contracted to serve for eight years, receiving wages and food. Unfortunately the business of emigration fell into the hands of private speculators whose sole object was to make money out of the traffic" (pages 375-376).
McClintock 1999: "A major effort to establish a liberal state was not made until 1872, a late date for Latin American countries. The initiative followed Peru's first export-led economic boom: the guano boom (1845-1870)" (page 313).
Peloso 1996: "By the time the leading merchants and landowners of Peru formed the Partido Civilista in 1872, tens of thousands of Peruvians in villages, towns, and cities had voted periodically, legally, and faithfully to produce single candidates for national and local offices. The conditions under which the elections took place, while providing valuable political experiences to the popular sectors, undermined their meaning. Managed elections provided few opportunities to alter the hardening social hierarchy in which they were embedded. Lacking the institutional vitality to serve as a vehicle for political power, fraudulent elections set the stage for social and political reform movements that would deny the liberal contribution to popular political consciousness" (page 205).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso 1872-1876. Senadores titulares" (page 199). "Congreso 1872-1876. Senadores suplentes" (page 199). "Congreso 1872-1876. Diputados titulares" (pages 200-201). "Congreso 1872-1876. Diputados suplentes" (pages 202-203).
May: election (Pardo)
Basadre 1980: "El caso de las elecciones de 1872" (pages 33-36).
Forment 2003: "This was the first time an antigovernment candidate (Manuel Pardo) had won-a victory made possible by the hundreds of political clubs that had been organized across the country" (page 363).
Marett 1969: "(T)he military were not prepared to give up their position without a struggle. The election had been a disorderly affair and Balta, using this as an excuse, declared it null and void. A new election was held, with a civilian, Antonio Arenas, standing as the ‘official' candidate in place of General Echenique. But the results were just the same. The ‘civilistas' triumphed at the polls for a second time" (page 103).
McClintock 1999: "In the 1872 ‘elections,' in which 3,778 voters participated, Pardo triumphed" (page 313).
Muecke 2004: "The organization of the presidential elections in May 1872 proved to be more difficult" (page 106). Gives details of the election (pages 106-112). "Results of the 1871-1872 presidential elections" (page 112).
Pike 1967: "(D)espite the support of Piérola and others, the Balta administration was not able to manipulate a victory for Arenas in the electoral college. Instead, that body in May 1872 decided in favour of Pardo" (page 131).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 13/7: "Las Juntas Preparatorias comenzaron a funcionar. Ellas estaban encargadas de calificar al tercio elegido de conformidad con la ley electoral de 1861" (page 412).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 22/7: "Golpe de Estado contra el Gobierno de José Balta. Una fracción del Ejército comandada por Tomás Gutiérrez asume el poder. El presidente Balta fue tomado prisionero y llevado al cuartel San Francisco" (page 413). 25-26/7: "Estallido popular en contra de la rebelión de los hermanos Gutiérrez. La turba enfurecida por el asesinato del presidente José Balta toma la justicia en sus propias manos y ajusticia a Tomás y a Silvestre Gutiérrez" (page 413).
Hunefeldt 2004: "During the last days of July 1872 War Minister Tomás Gutiérrez, backed by his brothers, all of whom were army colonels, arrested President José Balta and declared himself president. The so-called rebellion of the colonels failed in large measure because it lacked popular support in Lima, and the Peruvian navy and key elements of the army sided with the ‘civilistas'" (page 123).
Klarén 2000: Pardo "was prevented from assuming office by a military coup against Balta, led by Balta's minister of war, General Tomás Gutiérrez and his brothers Marceliano and Silvestre...Balta was arrested and then murdered by his guards; Pardo was rescued by the warship ‘Huascar'...; and Tomás Gutiérrez was seized and killed by an enraged mob of citizens...In the end, the failed coup further disgraced the military and legitimated Pardo's fledgling Civilista government" (page 179).
Markham 1892: "The satisfactory aspect of the affair is the promptitude with which all classes of the people rose on the side of law and order" (page 373).
Muecke 2004: "When the Gutiérrez brothers, the commanders of the armed forces, attempted to prevent Pardo from taking power in July 1872, their uprising collapsed within a few days. Although the brothers were in command of all the armed forces stationed in Lima, they were unable to secure the troops' loyalty" (page 76).
Pike 1967: "The immediate effect of the ill-fated attempt of Gutiérrez to seize power was to justify in the popular mind all Pardo's campaign of criticism of military intervention in politics...More than ever Pardo was the hero of the hour" (page 132).
Astiz 1969: "(T)he Partido Civilista took the presidency away from the ‘caudillos' in 1872. Once its ruling elite occupied the seat of government, the coastal upper class proceeded to counter the influence of the military by creating a National Guard and various military schools, which were to unify and professionalize the armed forces. Now in direct control of the governmental machinery, the traditional upper class was interested in subordinating the armed forces to the civilian authorities (itself) and in converting them into an effective and reliable fighting force" (page 134).
Chiaramonti 2000: "(E)n 1872, al comienzo del gobierno de Manuel Pardo y en el marco del primer intento fallido de modernizar y liberalizar el Estado peruano, el Senado debatió y aprobó una nueva ley de censo, registro cívico y elecciones" (page 235).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 2/8: "Manuel Pardo inaugura su período presidencial" (page 413).
Hunefeldt 2004: Pardo "decentralized state administration, giving more power to municipalities" (page 123).
Marett 1969: "(B)y means of an outburst of mob violence, provoked by an attempt of the military to go against the will of the people as expressed in two successive elections, the ‘civilista' movement triumphed over militarism, and Manuel Pardo became the first civilian President of Peru" (page 104).
Markham 1892: "Don Manuel Pardo was inaugurated as constitutional president of Peru on the 2nd of August, 1872" (page 373). "He was the first civilian who became president" (page 374).
Masterson 1991: "Attacking the negative influence of militarism and ‘caudillismo,' a civilian, Manuel Pardo, won the presidency in 1872 and promptly set out to subordinate the army to civilian control" (page 24).
Muecke 2004: "When Manuel Pardo took up the post of president in August 1872, his presidency was not universally accepted. Almost forty uprisings took place during his term in office...(T)he number of rebellions demonstrated that many of Pardo's opponents did not believe that his election victory in 1872 legitimized his power. Pardo was therefore forced to seek the support of old and new party followers throughout his four-year term" (page 153).
Pike 1967: Balta "had saddled Peru with a foreign debt of some forty-nine million pounds sterling, approximately ten times the amount it had been when he assumed office" (page 125). "Commanding a widespread and even frenzied popular support not enjoyed by any previous executive, Pardo was inaugurated in a metropolis that on the surface seemed as gay, bustling and affluent as at any time in its history" (page 132). "Soon, however, the people of Lima were to feel the pinch of the worst depression that the republic of Peru had suffered, and Pardo was to find his initial popularity barely adequate to enable him to weather the economic storm" (page 133).
Masterson 1991: "Pardo tried to cut the army's manpower and neutralize its influence by strengthening the more reliable ‘Guardia Civil'" (page 24).
Muecke 2004: "The national guard, created by law of 7 November 1872, helped increase the central government's power...Although it was planned that the national guard would operate throughout Peru, to all intents and purposes the new institution was limited to Lima. The national guard was closely associated with the Partido Civil there, and almost all the officers in Lima and Callao were Partido Civil members or supporters...The party had created an organization that enabled it to stand its ground against its opponents, who were often linked to the military" (page 38).
Pike 1967: "Choosing to rely on an armed citizenry organized in a national guard, Pardo reduced the standing army to 2,500 men, thereby driving into at least temporary unemployment some 75 per cent of those previously enlisted in the military service" (page 137).
Hunefeldt 2004: "(T)he Peruvian government had anticipated the need to replace guano with exports of nitrate...In 1873 President Manuel Pardo created the state nitrate monopoly (Estanco del Salitre)" (page 143).
Markham 1892: "The Chileans looked upon the wealth derived from the nitate deposits with a jealous and greedy eye. Their threatening encroachments alarmed their neighbors, and in February, 1873, a treaty was signed between Peru and Bolivia, guaranteeing the integrity of their respective territories against aggressors" (page 375).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 7/4: "La administración estatal fue sustituida por la de empresa particular" (page 414).
Muecke 2004: "One of the most important measures employed to integrate the regional and provincial elites was a local government law, passed in 1873, which defined the organization, revenue, and tasks of the district, provincial, and departmental authorities down to the very last detail" (page 38). The "ley orgánica de municipalidades" "stipulated that the leaders of provincial and departmental authorities should be elected by councils that in turn were to have been selected by the delegates from the preceding election" (page 182).
Markham 1892: "(I)n October, 1873, congress enacted that all contracts for coolies should be registered in the prefecture of Lima" (page 376).
Muecke 2004: "The executive power did not conduct itself in a neutral manner in the 1873 [election campaign]...During election week in mid-October 1873...[troops were] called in [and sent] into the provinces in which...government opponents [were believed] to be particularly influential" (pages 165-166).
Hunefeldt 2004: "Between 1840 and 1874, 100,000 Chinese immigrants, mainly men, arrived in Callao...Since it was the landowners who provided the Chinese immigrants with the money to pay for the trip from China to Peru, these workers were indebted to and completely dependent on their employers" (page 131).
Klarén 2000: "In 1874, the coolie trade, which had enriched a group of traffickers known as ‘Chineros,' was terminated by the government after strong and persistent protests by the Chinese government and the international community" (page 164).
Pike 1967: "The Dreyfus contract expired in 1874 and Peru was free to seek other arrangements for disposal of its guano. However, the price of this fertilizer was declining and its reserves were nearly depleted. To make the situation worse, guano was competing in the international market with nitrates, a newly-popular source of fertilizer which was just beginning to be exploited in Peru" (page 133).
Markham 1892: "The treaty between Peru and China was signed on June 26th, 1874. Free emigration was allowed under certain conditions" (page 377).
Pike 1967: "By the middle of his term, Pardo had alienated the clergy and the army, two groups that had long since proved their skill in revolutionary plotting. On 22 August 1874, he was given a good indication of the dangers inherent in this situation [in a failed assassination attempt]" (page 137).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 10/10: "Nicolás de Piérola, junto con 48 hombres, inició una expedición subversiva en el ‘Talismán.' Su finalidad era derrocar al Gobierno de Manuel Pardo" (page 415).
Muecke 2004: "(T)he only serious threat to Pardo's presidency was Nicolás de Piérola's ‘Operation Talismán' toward the end of 1874" (page 153). "However, even this rebellion was an undertaking limited to a specific region. Although the few men who entered the country with Piérola had enough financial resources to be able to enlist soldiers, they found little support elsewhere" (page 186).
Markham 1892: "Pardo made considerable reductions in the army for the sake of economy. Whereas in 1870 it numbered 12,000 men, in 1875 the nominal strength was 4,500 men" (page 380).
McClintock 1998: "The cultivation of sugar and cotton products, which were grown on Peru's coast, did not require a large displacement of Peru's indigenous peoples, whose communities lay primarily in the Andean highlands. Until 1875 on the coastal cotton and sugar haciendas, landowners imported Chinese coolie labor rather than recruit indigenous workers from the highlands. Accordingly, there was no major role for the military or for private armies in the establishment of these haciendas" (page 98).
Pike 1967: "(B)y 1875 some eighty thousand Chinese embonded workers had been brought to Peru" (page 112).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 18/1: "Finaliza el Gobierno interino del vicepresidente Manuel Costas iniciado el 28 de noviembre del año anterior, con motivo de la partida del presidente Pardo al sur del país para debelar la sublevación de Nicolás de Piérola" (page 416).
Loayza Orihuela 2005: "Prado retornó el 14 de marzo...de Chile...en donde había estado residiendo desde la caída de la dictadura de 1867" (page 432).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 14/5: "Se reúnen en el Teatro Odeón de Lima los artesanos y obreros con la finalidad de proclamar la candidatura de Mariano Ignacio Prado para las elecciones presidenciales de 1876" (page 417).
Loayza Orihuela 2005: "(E)l gobierno convocó a elecciones el primero de mayo de 1875" (page 427).
Muecke 2004: "It would be far from the truth to call Pardo's national network of relations a political party. Until the mid-1870s, therefore, the term was used in its old definition, when it had characterized either the entirety of an electoral club or more generally a political movement or the supporters of a particular politician. This situation changed in the second half of the 1870s, when Pardo was no longer of such importance and a more complex network called the ‘partido civil' took his place. It was not president Pardo, but the ‘Junta Directiva' of the Sociedad Independencia Electoral electoral club that signed the 1875 declaration recommending Prado to the electorate" (page
Loayza Orihuela 2005: "El 13 de junio de 1875 tuvo lugar en la plaza de Acho la primera gran concentración de las fuerzas políticas que apoyaban la candidatura de Prado" (page 433).
Loayza Orihuela 2005: "(L)as elecciones primarias se llevaron a cabo a partir del segundo domingo del mes de octubre" (page 427). "Los comicios primarios se iniciaron el domingo 17 de octubre, en un ambiente de suma agitación. Ya desde el día anterior, los partidos habían desplegado sus fuerzas y tenían tomado los alrededores de las plazuelas parroquiales" (page 438). "(L)a gran sorpresa en esta elección no fue tanto la violencia sino los altos niveles de ausentismo electoral. De acuerdo a los datos del registro cívico, se inscribieron 17,080 ciudadanos, de los que sólo acudieron a recoger sus cartas de ciudadanía 4,912; es decir, un poco menos de la tercera parte de los ciudadanos con derecho a sufragar" (page 439).
Loayza Orihuela 2005: "(L)os electores o delegados, por su parte, eligieron a los nuevos diputados y senadores en noviembre de ese mismo año" (page 427). "En un clima de tensión, los actos previos a la conformación del colegio electoral provincial se iniciaron el 15 de noviembre" (page 442). Describes the process (pages 442-443). "El 22 noviembre se eligió a los miembros de la mesa permanente, contándose para la ocasión con la participación de 26 electores suplentes y la admisión de los electores duales...El lunes 22 de noviembre también se celebró la elección de senadores y diputados" (page 443).
Klarén 2000: "When efforts to refinance the foreign debt failed in January 1876, Peru was forced into bankruptcy...With civil and military unrest on the rise, Pardo paradoxically saw no alternative but to persuade the Civilista Party to turn to a military leader, former president-dictator General Mariano Ignacio Prado (1876-79) as its candidate in the 1876 elections" (pages 180-181).
Muecke 2004: "The search for Manuel Pardo's successor put the unity of the Partido Civil to a severe test, as the two most promising candidates came from the liberal camp and both had close ties to the party...Lizardo Montero...fought his campaign under the slogan ‘Candidatura Nacional,' and the party did not officially support him but rather Mariano Ignacio Prado" (page 130).
Pike 1967: "Prado, as the ‘Civilista' candidate, was opposed by Admiral Lizardo Montero. In the elections, marred by violence, the General, supported by the outgoing administration, easily prevailed over the Admiral" (page 139).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso 1876-1878. Senadores" (page 194). "Congreso 1876-1878. Diputados titulares" (pages 195-196). "Congreso 1876-1878. Diputados suplentes" (pages 197-198).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 14/5: "Se realiza el primer censo poblacional y se obtiene la cifra de 2'704.998 habitantes" (page 423).
Klaiber 1977: "The general census of 1876 indicated that of Peru's 2,699,106 inhabitants, some 1,554,678, or 57.6 percent, were Indian. The mestizo population accounted for 24.8 percent of the total, while only 10.04 percent was listed as ‘white.' Together Asiastics and Negroes made up 4 percent of the total...The white-mestizo population tended to be concentrated on the coast or in the provincial cities and towns, while the great bulk of the Indians lived in the central mountain valleys and the southern ‘altiplano' around Lake Titicaca" (page 46).
Loayza Orihuela 2005: "Para elegir al nuevo Presidente, los electores tendrían que volverse a reunir el primer domingo de mayo de 1876" (page 427). "De acuerdo con la ley, los colegios electorales de provincia volvieron a reunirse el 7 de mayo de 1876. Correspondía en esta ocasión elegir al presidente y a los dos vicepresidentes. En Lima, el colegio electoral no lograba reconstituirse y el retiro de los electores civilistas afectaba notablemente la legalidad de los actos electorales. Las elecciones serían nulas si no sufragaba dos tercios o más del electorado provincial...Prado obtuvo 111 votos a favor y uno en blanco...El triunfo de Prado no sorprendía, pues era el candidato favorito del gobierno y de las otras fuerzas políticas...Las noticias que llegaban a través del telégrafo informaban que la elección de Prado había sido unánime en la mayoría de las provincias de la república" (page 449).
Markham 1892: "A census was taken in 1876 on a better system and with more care than had ever been attempted before. The result gave the population at 2,673,075 souls" (page 377).
Loayza Orihuela 2005: "(E)l Congreso calificaría las elecciones a partir del mes de julio" (page 427). "El 13 de julio de 1876, se instalaron las juntas preparatorias en ambas cámaras del Congreso. Debían, de conformidad con la Ley Electoral, calificar las actas electorales y proclamar al Presidente, los vicepresidentes y al tercio de representantes elegido" (page 450).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 2/8: "Transmisión pacífica de mando del presidente Manuel Pardo al general Mariano Ignacio Prado" (page 424).
Loayza Orihuela 2005: "La comisión auxiliar de poderes presentó su dictamen al pleno del Congreso el 1 de agosto de 1876. El dictamen fue elaborado sobre la base de 79 actas provinciales dado que las demás presentaban múltiples irregularidades. Los resultados desagregados a nivel de las circunscripciones electorales muestran que hubo una gran participación; de los 5,376 electores correspondientes a las 95 provincias, sufragaron 3,606. En la mayoría de los colegios electorales triunfó la candidatura del general Prado, quien obtuvo en total 3,418 votos" (page 451). "El 2 de agosto de 1876, ante el pleno del Congreso, juró como nuevo presidente de la república el general Prado. Después de catorce años, la patria volvía a presenciar una transición pacífica del mando" (page 452).
Markham 1892: "Colonel Don Mariano Ignacio Prado became constitutional president of Peru on the 2nd of August, 1876, with General Don Luis de la Puerta as first, and Don José F. Canevaro as second vice-president" (page 381).
Muecke 2004: "The national guard was dissolved when the government changed hands in 1876" (page 39).
Pike 1967: "Prado assumed his presidential duties in August 1876" (page 139).
Muecke 2004: In 1877, "the campaign for the election of a third of the members of Congress was conducted under the name ‘Partido Civil,' with a joint list of candidates" (page 65). Discusses the party's selection of candidates for the 1877 election (pages 132-134). "For it to be successful in the elections, the Partido Civil needed to nominate a candidate for every congressional seat being contested. This meant it had to put forward candidates all over the country and simultaneously prevent two or more party candidates from running for the same seat" (page 133). "Because the Partido Civil was organized at a national level, party candidates were put forward in all provinces in which elections were being held, with candidates generally running against those backed by the government" (page 134). "During the 1877 election campaign, opponents of the Partido Civil did their best to appeal to the lower class's sense of social resentment, calling for the death of the ‘Whites,' the ‘thieves,' and the ‘bankers' at their demonstrations" (page 154).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 28/5: "Nicolás de Piérola encabeza una rebelión desde Chile" (page 424).
Muecke 2004: "In early 1877, the Partido Civil found itself in the throes of a crisis...The party's main problem was its stance toward President Prado, as some party members wanted to continue working with him, but others viewed him as an opponent. This group attempted to oust Prado in June 1877, and their ill-prepared coup received almost no support and failed within a few hours without claiming any casualties. Although Pardo had not been personally involved in the coup, he still had to leave the country" (pages 131-132).
Muecke 2004: "The Partido Civil tried to end its confrontation with Prado...However, the attempt ended in failure in September 1877, as Prado did not trust the Partido Civil and continued trying to hinder the election of the party's candidates" (page 134).
Muecke 2004: "The October 1877 elections led to clashes similar to those that had taken place in 1871" (page 134).
Muecke 2004: "Again there were two electoral colleges in Lima, which had to meet in mid-November to elect four deputies and a senator" (page 134). Discusses the process.
Klarén 2000: "Prado was unable to quell the deepening political antagonism between Piérola and the Civilistas, particularly after the assassination in 1878 of Pardo" (page 181).
Pike 1967: "The situation improved slightly when in February 1878 Piérola, abandoning for the moment his plots and schemes, left Chile and went to Europe" (page 140).
Muecke 2004: "The confrontation between the government and the Partido Civil had led to parallel elections all over the country. In July 1878 therefore Congress had to decide which electoral colleges had operated legally" (page 134). "The new Congress was to convene as usual on the Peruvian national holiday on 28 July. All the members of the old Congress who had not retired from office were to assemble on 13 July and decide on the legality of the various electoral colleges and the composition of the new Congress" (page 136). Discusses the proceedings (pages 136-137). "The [Partido Civil] had a clear majority in both chambers of the new Congress" (page 137).
Pike 1967: In "September Pardo returned to Peru, having been elected senator for Junin" (page 140).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 16/11: "Manuel Pardo, quien ejercía la Presidencia del Congreso, es asesinado al ingresar al local de éste" (page 425).
Markham 1892: Pardo "was elected, by congress, president of the senate. On the 16th of November, 1878, he was assassinated, by an obscure wretch, on the steps of the senate house...The first civilian who had been elected head of the state, Pardo was the best president that Peru has ever known. He achieved a great social and political object in developing public spirit among the working classes in Peru. Before his time political interests had been controlled by one class of the community only" (page 380).
Muecke 2004: "When Manuel Pardo was assassinated in November 1878, the party's leaders had to decide what should be done with the former electoral club. The core of the party was in Congress, as a large number of congressmen were members of the Partido Civil and coordinated its political activities" (page 65).
Pike 1967: "The tragic death of the man who was as great a statesman as Peru has produced sealed the political doom of the country for years to come" (page 141).
Werlich 1978: "Ex-President Manuel Pardo was assassinated in November 1878 by an army sergeant who blamed his failure to gain a promotion on the Civilista leader" (page 97).
Clayton 1999: "For Peruvians the War of the Pacific (1879-83), fought by Peru and her ally Bolivia against Chile, was a seminal event in Peru's development as a nation. By the end of the war Peru and Bolivia had lost huge chunks of their national territory to the victorious Chileans...The war's immediate cause was the fierce competition between Chile, Bolivia, and Peru for the guano- and nitrate-rich Atacama Desert region shared by all three countries" (page 51).
Hunefeldt 2004: "One of the most destructive events in modern Peruvian history was the nation's ill-advised and ultimately catastrophic involvement in the War of the Pacific from 1879 to 1885. Not only did Peru lose militarily, it suffered a prolonged and aggressive invasion and occupation by Chilean forces, which in turn fragmented the Peruvian political leadership and economy even further" (page 144).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso 1879-1881. Senadores" (page 189). "Congreso 1879-1881. Diputados titulares" (pages 190-191). "Congreso 1879-1881. Diputados suplentes" (pages 192-193).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 14/2: "Toma de la provincia boliviana de Antofagasta por Chile, sin mediar declaratoria de guerra" (page 426).
Muecke 2004: "At the beginning of February 1879, the congressmen and senators met again to discuss what organizational form the [Partido Civil] should take. The parliamentary term had finished, and presidential elections were approaching...The assemblies that took place in February 1879 can...be regarded as the rebirth of the Partido Civil because they completed its metamorphosis from electoral association to political party" (page 65). Gives details of their discussion and describes the organization of the party (pages 65-68).
Pike 1967: "Chile's legal justification for initiating warfare lay in the fact that the Bolivian President, Hilarión Daza, had, in violation of treaty agreements, raised taxes on nitrate exports. Most of Bolivia's nitrate industry was at the time in the hands of Chilean investors and they justifiably refused to pay the increased imposts...If Peru chose to honour its ‘secret' alliance of 1872 with Bolivia, then automatically it would become involved in the war" (page 142).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 5/4: "Chile declara la guerra al Perú" (page 426).
Klarén 2000: "The outbreak of the War of the Pacific in 1879...ended all prospects for economic recovery" (page 181).
Markham 1892: "(T)he Chilean government declared war upon Peru on the 5th of April, 1879. The Chilean minister afterward confessed the truth that ‘the nitrate territory of Tarapaca was the real and direct cause of the war'" (page 386).
Pike 1967: "At the last minute...Peru failed to disavow its treaty with Bolivia. As a consequence Chile declared war on Peru on 3 April 1879. The fundamental cause of the War of the Pacific was the mounting power and prestige, the economic and political stability of Chile on the one hand and the weakness, the political and economic deterioration of Boliva and Peru on the other. Both Bolivia and Peru had valuable nitrate lands which they seemed unable to utilize effectively because of internal disorder" (page 142).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 28/11: "El presidente Mariano Ignacio Prado regresa a Lima y nombra al contralmirante Lizardo Montero Jefe Superior, Político y Militar de los departamentos del Sur" (page 429).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 18/12: "Viaje del presidente Prado a los Estados Unidos y Europa para acelerar personalmente la compra de armamento y de una escuadra. El vicepresidente general Luis la Puerta asume la Presidencia" (page 429). 22/12: "Nicolás de Piérola se apodera del puerto del Callao, luego de vencer, en Lima, al general Manuel González de la Cotera. El 23 de diciembre fue reconocido como Jefe Supremo" (page 429).
Klarén 2000: "(A)s Peru began to experience [a] string of military reverses and a mounting political crisis, President Prado took the inexplicable act of secretly abandoning the country on December 18, 1879, to travel to Europe ostensibly in search of loans...Four days later, Nicolás de Piérola, his main political rival, overthrew the government and declared a dictatorship to save the country" (page 188).
Muecke 2004: "Piérola's main problem was that he was a young politician who lacked a closely woven network spanning the entire country, and so his uprisings remained individual enterprises. It was only at the end of 1879, when the government had lost most of its instruments of power due to the War of the Pacific, that one of Piérola's uprisings was successful and he became president" (page 187).
Pike 1967: "Suspicious that their president had fled the country in cowardice, the majority of the population of Lima supported an uprising on 21 December which proclaimed Piérola president of Peru. Installed two days later in the national palace, Piérola promptly declared Prado a traitor to his country" (page 145).
Davies 1974: "The 1880 decree of President Nicolás de Piérola...[created] the Protectorate of the Indian Race...Piérola decreed himself Protector of the Indian Race...Nothing was ever done for the Indians by the protectorate" (page 33).
Markham 1892: "On the 10th of April, 1880, the Chilean fleet commenced the blockade of Callao, which was kept up for nine months" (page 401).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 22/10: "En la Bahía de Arica, a bordo del barco estadounidense ‘Lackawanna,' se reúnen delegados de los tres países contendientes con los ministros norteamericanos en el Perú, Bolivia y Chile los días 22, 25 y 27 para discutir las bases de un Tratado de Paz, pero Bolivia y el Perú rechazan la cesión territorial" (page 432).
Forment 2003: "Expressions of patriotic nationalism were...rare among Chinese-Peruvians in Lima. Racial and ethnic hatred was especially intense among plebians, and the war provided them an opportunity to express these sentiments with a ferocity uncommon during peacetime. In the summer of 1881, several days before the Chilean army occupied Lima, the Chinese community celebrated the defeat of the Peruvian army" (page 383).
Klaiber 1992: "The coast became a melting pot of races and cultures during the heyday of the oligarchy. At times the mixture was explosive, producing bitter racial conflicts such as a riot that broke out in the Cañete valley in 1881 during which blacks massacred one thousand Chinese. On other occasions the exploited groups revolted against the system itself. Between 1880 and 1881 the Chinese workers left the haciendas en masse and followed the victorious Chilean armies as they headed toward Lima" (page 175).
Klarén 2000: "Lima fell on January 15, 1881...Piérola abandoned the city for the central sierra to try to rally Peruvian resistance. Piérola's abandonment of Lima, however, left no government with which to negotiate a peace, so the Chileans constructed a rump government headed by Francisco García Calderón, a prominent Civilista, who convened remnants of the 1879 Congress in the Lima suburb of La Magdalena. This Congress ratified García Calderón as interim president" (page 189).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Asamblea Nacional de Ayacucho 1881. Representantes titulares" (pages 186-187). "Asamblea Nacional de Ayacucho 1881. Representantes suplentes" (pages 187-188).
Clayton 1999: "As the Peruvian political system weakened under foreign presence, social order collapsed. Race riots (aimed especially against Chinese shopkeepers and petty merchants in Lima) broke out along the coast, and Indian rebellions against white and mestizo masters erupted in the highlands" (page 66).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 15-16/1: "Al regresar a Lima el Ejército derrotado, sin jefes, fueron alentados por turbas urbanas para tomar venganza de los chinos, que habían colaborado con los chilenos en el ataque a la capital. Después se produce el ataque e incendio de las propiedades asiáticas" (page 434). 17/1: "El Ejército chileno hace su entrada en Lima" (page 434). 20/1: "El jefe chileno de ocupación Cornelio Saavedra exige al alcalde de Lima Rufino Torrico convocar a una reunión de vecinos de las distintas tendencias políticas para elegir a un nuevo mandatario con el cual negociar la paz. Hecha la convocatoria, con mayoría pierolista, se niegan a formar un nuevo Gobierno porque subsiste la Dictadura. Esta respuesta endurece el control chileno en Lima" (page 434).
Hunefeldt 2004: "After peace talks arranged by the United States failed, the Chileans landed a large army south of Lima and advanced on the city, which surrendered in January 1881" (pages 146-147).
Clayton 1999: "The Chileans accepted a presumably compliant Francisco García Calderón as interim president in February 1881, but Calderón proved intractable in accepting harsh Chilean demands" (page 66).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 18/2: "Primeros pasos para la elección de un nuevo Presidente...(P)iden al general Luis La Puerta, vicepresidente del régimen del general Prado, que asuma la Presidencia, pero aquél se niega" (page 434). 22/2: "Última sesión [de la Junta de Notables]...que reúne a los participantes en las juntas anteriores y se elige Presidente a Francisco García Calderón, quien condiciona su aceptación a la vigencia de la Constitución de 1860 y a su ratificación por el Congreso" (page 435).
Hunefeldt 2004: "Since they did not want to negotiate with him the Chilean occupiers did not recognize Piérola's claim to the presidency. Instead, with the assistance of a group of ‘notables' from the Partido Civil, they designated the lawyer Francisco García Calderón (1834-1905) as the new president" (page 148).
Clayton 1999: "In March 1881 [U.S.] President James Garfield named James G. Blaine as his new Secretary of State. Blaine was clearly partisan toward Peru, not because he thought the Peruvians were necessarily right, but because he saw England as the hand behind Chilean aggression" (page 65). "More practically many U.S. investors in Peru...did not wish to see Peru lose its southern provinces to Chile-a country that might prove more difficult to deal with when it came to honoring contracts and deals for the exploitation of such natural resources as guano and nitrates" (page 66).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 12/3: "Instalación oficial del Gobierno Provisorio en el pueblo de Magdalena, localidad que tuvo el carácter de sede gubernamental" (page 435). Marzo: "Convocatoria a Congreso a los representantes en 1879" (page 435). 31/3: "Reinicia sus actividades el Concejo Provincial de Lima, y es elegido Alcalde el general César Canevaro" (page 435).
Hunefeldt 2004: "The Chilean generals declared the Lima barrio of La Magdalena as neutral territory and allowed García Calderón to set up a government there. García Calderón's nomination deepened civil strife: Piérola had widespread popular support as well as support from among the Civilistas. In the following months neither president showed much interest in facing the enemy" (page 148).
Pike 1967: "With the consent of the Chilean forces of occupation, García Calderón...was installed in temporary presidential quarters at Magdalena, a suburb of Lima. A short time later in the same month of March a congress was assembled in near-by Chorillos. Made up mainly of ‘Civilistas' who supported García Calderón, it declared null and void all acts and decrees of the Piérola dictatorship" (page 147).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 7/4: "Decreto de Piérola en Jauja contra el Gobierno de la Magdalena y quienes lo respalden" (page 435). 26/4: "Andrés A. Cáceres es nombrado por el dictador Nicolás de Piérola Jefe Político y Militar del Centro, donde organizó las fuerzas de la resistencia, que se prolongarían hasta 1883" (page 436). 30/4: "Piérola parte de Jauja a La Paz, donde se reúne con el presidente Campero" (page 436).
Hunefeldt 2004: Cáceres "had escaped to the central highlands in April 1881 to join Piérola. Piérola feared Cáceres as a rival for power but named him the military chief of the central departments before fleeing to Europe. Over the next two years Cáceres created a 5,000-man army and won a sequence of victories against the Chileans" (page 149).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 15/5: "Treinta y dos miembros del Congreso de 1879 se reúnen...; en sesiones secretas autorizan a García Calderón para firmar la paz sin cesión territorial, y facultan a un Diputado para gestionar la adhesión de Cáceres sin lograrlo" (page 436). 29/5: "El presidente García Calderón, por decreto, declara restablecida la Constitución de 1860" (page 436).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 24/6: El general Patricio "Lynch, nuevo jefe de la ocupación, nombra un intendente chileno para Lima" (page 437).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: "(E)l número de parlamentarios llega a 72 (primera quincena de julio), quórum máximo para la validez de sus acuerdos" (page 436). 25/7: "García Calderón dicta un decreto para organizar la Guardia Urbana de Lima" (page 437). 28/7: "Se instala en Ayacucho una Asamblea Nacional convocada por Piérola..., lo cual lo nombra general de división y Presidente Provisorio, y a Cáceres e Iglesias, generales de brigada" (page 437).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 23/8: "La autoridad de ocupación disuelve el Congreso peruano, por prescribir la no cesión territorial" (page 437).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 26/9: "El Ministro de Guerra de Chile ordena a Lynch que tome posesión de la Caja Fiscal y embargue los fondos nacionales en La Caja de Londres, para presionar al Gobierno Provisorio a firmar la paz con cesión territorial" (page 437). 27/9: "Piérola promulga su ‘Estatuto Provisorio'" (page 438). 28/9: "Mediante un bando, Lynch dispone la suspensión del ejercicio de toda autoridad no establecida por la autoridad de ocupación, y en carta privada comunica a García Calderón que ha cesado su Gobierno" (page 438). 29/9: "García Calderón convoca secretamente una reunión del Congreso en su casa para mantener la continuidad del Gobierno. Se designa como Vicepresidente al Contralmirante Lizardo Montero" (page 438). 30/9: "Respuesta de García Calderón a Lynch donde le niega el derecho a cesarlo como Presidente" (page 438).
Hunefeldt 2004: García Calderón "did manage to obtain diplomatic support from the United States, which offered to help him attain peace without territorial concessions to Chile. This offer mainly was prompted by the belief of the U.S. ambassador to Peru that the country might be ripe for U.S. annexation" (page 148).
Klarén 2000: "García Calderón tried to get the United States, which had generally been favorable to Peru's position in the conflict, to intervene to bring about a peace settlement. Chile reacted by abolishing the Magdalena government and exiling García Calderón to Santiago in September 1881" (page 189).
Markham 1892: "Hope was entertained that the United States would offer to mediate. To prevent this the Chileans abolished the government of Garcia Calderon on September 28th, 1881" (page 418).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 6/11: "El presidente provisorio Francisco García Calderón y su ministro Manuel María Gálvez son reducidos a prisión por las autoridades de ocupación y llevados al Callao" (page 438).
Hunefeldt 2004: "In response to García Calderón's hard line, the Chileans in November 1881 dissolved his government and exiled him to Chile" (page 149).
Pike 1967: "In a resolution issued in Tarma on 28 November [Piérola] renounced all claims to the presidency" (page 149).
Clayton 1999: After the assassination of U.S. president Garfield, "new president Chester A. Arthur came from a faction of the Republican Party hostile to Blaine's politics and suspicious of his aggressive policies in South America. In December Arthur replaced Blaine with Frederick T. Frelinghuysen" (page 68). "Peru now stood alone, and the Chileans moved purposefully to end the war on ‘their' terms" (page 71).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 7/12: "El Gobierno Municipal de Lima y el Callao es intervenido por el general Lynch" (page 438).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: El Partido Constitucional (1882) "surge de la fusión de los partidos Civil y Liberal, auspiciando la candidatura de Andrés Avelino Cáceres" (page 673).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 5/2: "Piérola y sus seguidores forman el Partido de la Reconstrucción Nacional" (page 439).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: "Iglesias convoca en Cajamarca a una asamblea con facultades extraordinarias de representantes provinciales del norte del país mediante elección directa para el 20 de octubre" (page 440).
Pike 1967: "Miguel Iglesias, a former minister of war for Piérola...realized that Peru must bow to reality and sign a treaty with Chile based upon loss of territory...A congress of the northern departments convoked by Iglesias in Cajamarca proclaimed him president of Peru" (page 149).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 9/11: "El Consejo de Ministros del presidente Montero borra del escalafón militar al general Miguel Iglesias, quien es sometido a un Consejo de Guerra por traición a la patria" (page 441).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 25-30/12: "Se reúne una Asamblea Legislativa en Cajamarca-la ‘Asamblea de Montán'-donde se nombra al general Miguel Iglesias Presidente Regenerador del Perú para firmar la paz con Chile" (page 441).
Klarén 2000: "(I)n December 1882, [General Miguel] Iglesias convened an Assembly of the North...which ‘elected' him president" (page 190).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Asamblea de Montán 1883. Representantes titulares" (page 184). "Asamblea de Montán 1883. Representantes suplentes" (page 185).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: "El vicepresidente Lizardo Montero propone su canje en Chile por el presidente García Calderón, para que éste vuelva a Lima a negociar la paz, pero no se acepta" (page 442).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 22/4: "Se instala el Congreso de Arequipa, que ratifica la elección de García Calderón como Presidente y la de Montero como Vicepresidente. Elige a Cáceres como Segundo Vicepresidente y le reconoce el grado de general" (page 442).
Markham 1892: "The congress of Peru met at Arequipa, and on June 6th, 1883, elected Dr. Garcia Calderon president, Admiral Montero first, and General Caceres second vice-president" (page 419).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 20/10: "Se firma el Tratado de Paz de Ancón en Lima, entre el representante chileno Jovino Novoa y el peruano José Antonio Lavalle. El Perú cede Tarapacá, y las provincias de Tacna y Arica quedan bajo administración chilena por diez años. Luego, por plebiscito, se decidirá su destino final" (page 444). 24/10: "El Ejército chileno, al frente del general Lynch, desocupa Lima, pero la desocupación del resto del territorio se termina en agosto de 1884" (page 444). 24/10: "El presidente Miguel Iglesias convoca una Asamblea Constituyente" (page 444). 28/10: "El ejercicio presidencial es delegado en el segundo vicepresidente, general Andrés A. Cáceres" (page 444).
Hunefeldt 2004: "(I)n October 1883 Iglesias signed the Treaty of Ancón, which technically ended the War of the Pacific. Under the terms of the treaty Peru gave up Tarapacá province immediately. Chile was to administer Tacna and Arica for 10 years, at which point a vote of the people of these provinces would determine which country they belonged to; the loser would receive 10 million pesos as compensation" (page 149).
Markham 1892: Iglesias "declared himself president of the republic, and he entered Lima on the 25th of October...The Chilean occupation of Lima had lasted for two years and nine months...The Chileans proceeded to hand over Peru to their nominee...Admiral Montero was forced to retire into Bolivia, leaving General Caceres as constitutional head of the state, on October 25th, 1883" (page 423).
Pike 1967: "At the time the treaty was signed three men claimed to be president of Peru: Iglesias, Cáceres and Montero" (page 149).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: diciembre: "Francisco García Calderón y el general Andrés Avelino Cáceres manifiestan su rechazo al Tratado de Ancón" (page 445).
Astiz 1969: "The relative success of the Civilista party encouraged the formation of a competing political organization, the Democratic party, organized in 1884 by a rival faction within the traditional upper class. The Democratic party...was essentially an electoral machine created for the purpose of getting Nicolás de Piérola back to the presidency by any possible method" (page 91).
Davies 1974: "In 1884, Nicolás de Piérola formed the Democratic party (Partido Demócrata) and Andrés A. Cáceres founded his Constitutionalist party (Partido Constitucionalista)" (page 47).
Pike 1967: "In 1884 [Cáceres's] partisans in Lima organized the Constitutionalist Party. Its platform was simple: the restoration of the 1860 constitution, mostly ignored by Iglesias, and the elevation of Cáceres to the presidency. During the same year...the followers of the absent Piérola came together in Lima and established the Democratic Party. And, in the same politically eventful year, the the ‘Civilistas,' out of power since their leader, García Calderón, had been deposed by the Chilean occupation forces, began to regroup under the direction of Aurelio Denegri...Although disagreeing acrimoniously on many issues, [the three parties] found accord in the conviction that Iglesias must be deposed from the presidency" (page 152).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Asamblea Constituyente 1884. Representantes titulares" (pages 180-181). "Asamblea Constituyente 1884. Representantes suplentes" (page 182-183).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 1/3: "Se instala la Asamblea Constituyente, ante la cual renuncia al mando el general Iglesias, quien es nombrado Presidente Provisorio el 2 de marzo. A fines de ese mes termina sus labores la Asamblea" (page 445). 8/3: "La Asamblea ratifica el Tratado de Ancón y, casi sin discusión, la ley respectiva, el 11 de marzo" (page 445). 26/3: "La Asamblea Constituyente restablece la Constitución de 1860, introduciendo modificaciones que permiten declarar válidos los actos realizados por Iglesias desde el 1 de enero de 1883" (page 445).
Pike 1967: "In June 1884 Cáceres at last accepted the validity of the Treaty of Ancón, but prepared to challenge Iglesias for the presidency" (page 150).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 8/7: "Miguel Iglesias convoca a elecciones" (page 446). 16/7: "Por decreto, el general Andrés A. Cáceres asume la Presidencia de la República y se desencadena la guerra civil" (page 446). 30/7: "Nicolás de Piérola manifiesta al Partido de la Reconstrucción Nacional su rechazo al Tratado de Ancón. Él y cierto número de partidarios funda el Partido Demócrata" (page 447).
Klarén 2000: "(O)nce the Chilean invaders withdrew from the country in August 1884, Iglesias lost the main instrument for maintaining his control of the government. Likewise, he suffered politically for being seen in popular eyes as having collaborated with the enemy" (page 193).
Pike 1967: "On 27 August 1884, guerrilla warriors under [Cáceres's] direction launched an assault against Lima and almost fought their way into the national palace" (page 152).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 4/9: "Piérola es elegido jefe del Partido Demócrata" (page 447). 24/9: "Nicolás Piérola reitera su negativa a una alianza o acuerdo con Miguel Iglesias" (page 447).
Gow 1981: "Without the aid of the southern Indian army of 3,000, Caceres would never have marched on Lima, defeated General Iglesias and won the Civil War. Yet Indians received no recognition for their services. Rather they lost the means of their livelihood and existence: their lands, herds and labor. Nevertheless the...War was important in training and organizing the Indian armies. Thus by 1885, Indian communities were highly prepared militarily" (page 124). "From 1885-1896, the area from Ancash in northern Cajamarca to Puno in the south was torn by revolts, uprisings and guerrilla attacks in protest against excessive taxation and labor obligations" (page 125).
Hunefeldt 2004: "Despite attempts, the Indian tribute was not replaced with a more efficient and ethnically neutral taxing system. To the contrary, the same Indian tribute abolished in 1854 was reintroduced in 1885. Between 1854 and 1885, however, abolishing the tribute had long-term consequences for mining and agriculture in the highlands. It also at least partially explains why coastal plantation owners could not use Indian labor and resorted to importing Chinese laborers to work on their fields" (page 129).
Klarén 2000: Cáceres "finally succeeded, with considerable popular support in the streets of Lima, in taking the capital and forcing Iglesias to resign and go into exile in December 1885. Cáceres became provisional president for a year" (page 193).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 26/2: "El régimen de Iglesias aprueba la propuesta del contrato Grace en todas sus partes...Surgió gran oposición" (page 448).
Klaiber 1977: "In late February, 1885, some forty Indian mayors (‘alcaldes pedáneos') of the villages around Huaraz signed a memorial of complaints and sent it to [prefect] Noriega" (page 60). Describes his response, including imprisoning mayor Pedro Pablo Atusparia.
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 4/3: "Se instala la Asamblea Constituyente, que posteriormente ratifica los poderes conferidos a Iglesias" (page 448).
Klaiber 1977: "The storm broke on the morning of March 2 when some 8,000 Indians...rushed upon...Huaraz...The proclaimed leader of the revolution was Atusparia...News of the uprising in the Callejón de Huaylas touched off Indian uprisings in neighboring departments. By the end of March the greater part of the department of Ancash was under the sovereign power of Pedro Pablo Atusparia and his Indian followers" (page 61).
Klarén 2000: Cáceres takes "office on June 3, 1885" (page 195).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 28/11: "El general Cáceres ingresa a Lima sorpresivamente" (page 449). 29/30/11: "Batalla en las calles de Lima entre cacerístas e iglesistas" (page 449).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 1/12: "El Círculo Literario inicia sus actividades" (page 449). 3/12: "El poder es asumido por una Junta Transitoria integrada por representantes de las facciones políticas para convocar a elecciones" (page 449).
Markham 1892: "On December 1st, 1885, Caceres entered Lima, was joined by many influential citizens, and sent an appeal to Iglesias to refrain from useless resistance" (page 427). "On the 5th a decree was issued calling for elections of a president, vice-presidents, senators, and deputies, and congress was ordered to meet at Lima on the 30th of May, 1886" (page 428).
Pike 1967: "In December 1885...when the Cáceres forces returned to the outskirts of the capital city, large numbers of Limeños joined them. At last realizing the full degree to which he lacked popular support, Iglesias decided to avoid further bloodshed, renounced his claims on the presidency, and departed from Peru" (page 152).
Astiz 1969: "The military was unwilling to be left outside the political arena and, under the leadership of General Cáceres while he was still in the presidency, organized the Constitutional party with the support of some civilian elements. In spite of its name, the Constitutional party has also been considered an electoral machine for the purpose of promoting the interests of the military establishment in the political field" (page 91).
Clayton 1999: "In 1886 [Michael] Grace formed a syndicate, the Cerro de Pasco Syndicate, to exploit railroad and mining concessions he had acquired from Henry Meiggs's heirs" (page 77).
Hunefeldt 2004: "(I)n 1886 a provisional government called for elections" (page 151).
Klarén 2000: Cáceres "founded the [Partido Constitucional] under whose banner he would run and easily win the ensuing election for president. Meanwhile, the Civilistas, who had allied with Cáceres against Iglesias, had regrouped around the leadership of Aurelio Denegri, a wealthy merchant and miner, and Piérola and his [Partido Demócrata] abstained from voting" (pages 193-194).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso 1886-1889. Senadores" (page 175). "Congreso 1886-1889. Diputados titulares" (page 176). "Congreso 1886-1889. Diputados titulares" (page 177). "Congreso 1886-1889. Diputados suplentes" (pages 178-179).
March: presidential election (Cáceres)
Pike 1967: "'Civilistas' now joined with Constitutionalists in giving enthusiastic support to Cáceres. In impressive numbers they flocked to the polls in March 1886 when Cáceres ran unopposed for the presidential office. Piérola's partisans in the Democratic Party, unwilling to join their votes with those of the hated ‘Civilistas' and aware that the time had not yet come when they could hope to elevate their own caudillo to power, boycotted the polls. Despite this Cáceres received one of the largest votes yet to have been cast for a Peruvian presidential candidate" (page 153).
Werlich 1978: "Cáceres owed the unanimity of his election to his military reputation and his professed goal of restoring Peru's republican institutions" (page 119).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 2/6: "El general Andrés A. Cáceres es proclamado Presidente Constitucional" (page 449).
Markham 1892: "General Caceres was inaugurated as constitutional president of Peru on the 3rd of June, 1886; with Colonel Bermudez as first, and Don Aurelio Denegri as second vice president" (pages 430-431).
Werlich 1978: "(T)he new regime quickly lost hits broad base of support and degenerated into an ironhanded dictatorship that would endure for nearly a decade" (page 119). Cáceres Constitutionalist "party became almost entirely an electoral vehicle for the dictator's friends in the armed forces" (page 120).
Pike 1967: "On 3 July 1886, [Cáceres] was inaugurated at the age of thirty-three" (page 153).
Markham 1892: "Iglesias and his family left Peru on December 25th, 1886, while many exiles, including General Prado and Admiral Montero, returned joyfully to Lima" (page 428).
Clayton 1999: "When opposition members of the Chamber of Deputies had stormed out of one session in early 1889, Cáceres-frustrated by the chamber's intransigence in approving the [Grace] contract-simply declared their posts vacant and held new elections. With a majority of supporters, Cáceres rammed through the contract" (page 83).
Hunefeldt 2004: "In 1889 President Cáceres signed a remarkable document, the Grace Contract, the result of three years of hard and intense negotiations" (page 152).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso 1889-1891. Senadores titulares" (page 169). "Congreso 1889-1891. Senadores suplentes" (page 170). "Congreso 1889-1891. Diputados titulares" (pages 171-172). "Congreso 1889-1891. Diputados suplentes" (pages 172-174).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 1/4: "Se hace pública la "Declaración de Principios' del Partido Demócrata, redactada por Nicolás de Piérola" (page 453). 8/4: "El Ejecutivo declara la vacancia de las curules de los opositores al contrato Grace, al haber recurrido éstos al ausentismo. Se convoca a elecciones complementarias" (page 453).
Hunefeldt 2004: "President Cáceres encountered stern congressional opposition to these propositions, so he dissolved congress and continued his negotiations with Grace" (page 153).
Clayton 1999: "The negotiation of the Grace Contract, which was signed and ratified in 1889, was complicated and aroused considerable passion in Peru. In effect Peru's future as a modern nation came to depend in part on decisions by foreign capitalists and diplomats in the boardrooms and chancelleries of Europe and North America" (page 77).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 25/10: "El Senado aprueba el contrato Grace reformado" (page 453).
Pike 1967: "However justifiable it appeared to be on many grounds, the Grace Contract was bitterly opposed by many of Peru's leading political and intellectual figures. President Cáceres had to convene four extraordinary sessions of congress and, finally, to get rid of recalcitrant senators and deputies, replacing them with docile individuals selected by carefully-manipulated special elections, before he could win legislative ratification for the Grace Contract. Not until October 1889 did the contract finally enter into effect" (page 154).
Astiz 1969: "The only quasi-ideological party which appeared in Peru in the nineteenth century was Unión Nacional, organized by groups of reformist intellectuals in 1890 as an expression of their unhappiness with the political processes. Their political thinking was based on the writings and speeches of Manuel González Prada" (page 92).
Davies 1974: "In 1890, the Congress reexamined the question of suffrage. Deputy Isaac Alzamora from Lima introduced a bill which would reimpose the qualifications of literacy and payment of the Contribución...Alzamora argued [that] disenfranchisement of the Indians would break the power of those ‘latifundistas' who used their Indian servants as a power base. Following a short debate, the bill passed Congress...Although Indians were denied the vote, the apportionment of representatives still reflected their presence, giving the ‘latifundistas' even greater control in the Congress" (page 35).
Klaiber 1992: "Until 1890 Protestantism in Peru was not a major concern of the Catholic church. The first Protestant missionaries in Peru worked mainly with the English colony and other foreigners, most of whom lived in Lima and Callao. In general, these first groups did not carry out proselytizing activities...(T)he real initiator of modern Protestantism in Peru was Francisco Penzotti, a Uruguayan citizen born in Italy" (page 93). "In 1889 [Penzotti] was arrested in Arequipa as a consequence of his proselytizing, and a year later he was imprisoned... in Callao for the same reason. His detention provoked a public scandal that led to his being freed. But this incident had a more important consequence: it created a climate that favored the nonapplication of article 4 of the constitution, which prohibited the practice in public of non-Catholic cults or religions. After Penzotti's victory, many other Protestant missionaries began arriving in Peru" (page 94).
Klarén 2000: "Constitutionally prevented from ‘reelection' in 1890, Cáceres chose as his successor a loyal lieutenant, Colonel Remigio Morales Bermúdez" (page 200).
Pike 1967: "By 1890 discussion of the presidential succession had become bitter, producing what Piérola had been impatiently waiting for and working towards: a split between ‘Civilistas' and Constitutionalists. The ‘Civilistas' had decided that one of their most distinguished members, Francisco Rosas...should become president. The Constitutionalists, responsive to the wishes of Cáceres, maintained that the country should continue to be ruled by a military man and nominated Colonel Remigio Morales Bermúdez as their candidate" (page 155).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 5/4: "Se apresa al candidato presidencial Nicolás de Piérola" (page 454).
Pike 1967: "Because of the campaign of violence to which he resorted, Piérola was arrested and imprisoned by the Cáceres government on 5 April" (pages 155-156).
April 13: presidential election (Morales Bermúdez / Partido Constitucionalista)
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 13/4: "Se celebran las elecciones presidenciales y se proclama como Presidente Constitucional al Coronel Remigio Morales Bermúdez" (page 454).
Pike 1967: "(T)o the surprise of no one, Colonel Morales, with the backing of the army and the administration, was declared the winner...At the same time, however, the out-going president drove from the Constitutionalist Party the vast majority of its civilian leaders and imposed upon the country one of the most completely military régimes which it had ever endured" (page 156).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Elecciones generales 1890. Resultado nacional" (page 612). Gives votes for presidential candidates, "votos válidos," "votos nulos y blancos," and "votos emitidos."
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 10/8: "Se instala el Gobierno del general Morales Bermúdez" (page 454).
Markham 1892: "On the 10th of August, 1890, General Caceres resigned the office he had held for the legal period of four years, and on the same day Colonel Don Remijio Morales Bermudez was inaugurated as President of Peru, with Dr. Pedro Alejandrino del Solar as first, and Colonel Don Justiniano Borgoño as second vice-president" (page 439).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 5/10: "Nicolás de Piérola escapa de la prisión y sale del país el 14 de abril de 1891" (page 454).
Klaiber 1977: "Proclaiming their party to be one of principles and not ‘caudillos,' the reformers presented the Unión Nacional as an alternative to the petty personalist politics of the postwar years. The party program called for a radical reform of Peruvian institutions, universal suffrage, decentralization of the government, and the end of graft and corruption in politics" (page 28).
Klarén 2000: "González Prada...organized ‘El Círculo Literario,' whose members not only discussed literary themes, but debated political and economic topics...(I)n 1891...González Prado turned ‘El Círculo' into a political party that he call ‘La Unión Nacional.' Originally, the party espoused a number of Civilista ideas" (pages 198-199).
Davies 1974: "In May [of 1891, the National Union Party] issued a Declaration of Principles...It called for the establishment of a federal republic, emphasized the responsibilities of both the president and the Congress, called for direct and universal male suffrage which included foreigners...and demanded the return of Indian lands that had been illegally seized" (page 40).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 20/12: "Reaparece el Partido Civil con el nombre de Constitucional" (page 455). "Manuel González Prada funda el partido Unión Nacional" (page 456).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso 1892-1894. Senadores titulares" (page 162). "Congreso 1892-1894. Senadores suplentes" (page 163). "Congreso 1892-1894. Diputados titulares" (pages 164-166). "Congreso 1892-1894. Diputados suplentes" (pages 166-168).
Pike 1967: "With revolutionary activity intensifying and with the general political situation deteriorating steadily, Cáceres returned to the country in May 1892 and began to set the stage for his re-election to the presidency. Elections were still two years off, but Cáceres wanted to leave nothing to chance. At once the ‘Civilistas' organized to oppose the Cáceres candidacy, selecting as their standard bearer Mariano Nicolás Valcárcel" (page 156).
Chiaramonti 2000: "(L)a ley de municipalidades de 1892...separó las elecciones administrativas de las políticas" (page 231).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 14/10: "Ley de Municipalidades que establece el sufragio directo para las elecciones de alcaldes y regidores. La legislatura de 1893 aplaza su cumplimiento. Aparece el partido Unión Cívica, formado por el Círculo Parlamentario y el Partido Civil" (page 456).
Nickson 1995: "The first municipal code was passed in 1892 and remained in force for over ninety years" (page 238).
Gamboa Balbín 2005: "Ley Electoral del 17 de diciembre de 1892" (page 213).
Pike 1967: "The plebiscite to determine the final disposition of [Tacna and Arica] had not been held in 1893, despite the provisions of the Treaty of Ancón. Peru had insisted that only natives of Tacna and Arica be allowed to vote, while Chile maintained that all residents should do so. When the two countries were unable to resolve their disagreement, the plebiscite was cancelled" (page 172).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 14/10: "Nueva Ley de Inmigración, en la cual se establece una Junta Central de Inmigración y Colonización" (page 457). 24/10: "El Congreso promulga una ley observada por el Ejecutivo sobre el Registro Cívico y crea una Junta Suprema Central con facultades revisoras" (page 457). 30/10: "Resolución legislativa que declara a los indígenas de toda la República legítimos propietarios de los terrenos que poseían en virtud de las leyes de 1824" (page 457).
Astiz 1969: The Constitutional party "took over the government again in 1894" (page 91).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: "El segundo vicepresidente de la República, coronel Justiniano Borgoño, suplanta al primer vicepresidente, Pedro Aejandrino del Solar, y asume el poder por muerte del presidente Morales Bermúdez. Asimismo, realiza las elecciones presidenciales, suprime el Congreso y reemplaza a las municipalidades por juntas de notables" (page 458).
Hunefeldt 2004: "In 1894 a law to encourage immigration was passed, but the results were dismal. Few European immigrants reached Peruvian shores...Europeans wishing to immigrate to the Americas had better options in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile" (page 156).
Klarén 2000: "Morales...proved to be an indecisive leader and died unexpectedly in April 1894. Dissatisfied with the elevation of a civilian first vice president to the office, Cáceres carried out a coup in favor of the more pliable second vice president, another military officer who agreed to engineer Cáceres's ‘reelection' in 1895. This move did not stop the main civilian political parties from jockeying for position for the upcoming presidential succession" (page 201).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 30/3: "Se forma una coalición entre los partidos Unión Cívica (Mariano Nicolás Valcárcel), el Civil (Francisco Rosas) y el Demócrata (Carlos González Orbegoso y Manuel Pablo Olaechea) en defensa de elecciones libres. Preside la coalición Nicolás de Piérola" (page 459).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 1/4: "Elecciones y muerte del Presidente en ejercicio coronel Remigio Morales Bermúdez" (page 458).
Pike 1967: "The political situation grew more strained and confused when President Morales died on the first of April. According to constitutional provisions he should have been succeeded by the first vice-president, Pedro Alejandrino Solar. Military officers, however, lacked confidence in Solar who was suspected of harbouring pro-‘Civilista' sentiments. Hence a military ‘coup' displaced Solar and elevated the second vice-president, Justiniano Borgoño, to the presidency. As Borgoño, like Morales before him, was little more than the obedient servant of Cáceres, it appeared that nothing could prevent [Cáceres's] re-election" (page 156).
August: election (Cáceres)
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 10/8: "El general Andrés A. Cáceres, en elecciones a las cuales no concurren los otros partidos políticos, es declarado electo Presidente Constitucional" (page 458).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Elecciones generales 1894. Resultado nacional" (page 612). Gives votes for Andrés Avelino Cáceres, "votos válidos," "votos nulos y blancos," and "votos emitidos."
Werlich 1978: "(T)he adminstration staged grossly fraudulent elections and Cáceres again claimed the presidency for himself" (pages 120-121).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: "Nicolás de Piérola lanza un manifiesto y asume el título de Delegado Nacional, en Chincha" (page 459).
Astiz 1969: "In 1895 the army was defeated by bands of civilians that put Piérola in the presidential palace. And, as they had done with the military before, the coastal upper class influenced the civilian ‘caudillo,' who continued the attempts of the Partido Civilista to control and improve the armed forces" (pages 134-135).
Klaiber 1977: "That the clergy served government interests by pacifying the Indians is...evident in the series of uprising that broke out in the department of Puno between 1895 and 1897" (page 57). "Judging by the reports emanating from the areas affected by rebellions, both the government officials and the local white and mestizo citizenry looked upon the priest as the key liaison man between themselves and the Indians...Furthermore, in some cases the army looked upon the priest as a potentially dangerous enemy of the government because of his influence over the Indians. In other cases, and these are probably more typical, the invading force saw the priest as a key instrument for placating the Indians" (page 57).
Klarén 2000: "While Cáceres, with the support of his presidential ally, prepared to carry out his own ‘reelection,' the Civilistas and Democrats...agreed to a historic rapprochement. The ensuing coalition set the stage for Piérola's return from exile in Chile to rally a broad-based popular movement against Cáceres's planned fraudulent reelection, known as the ‘Revolution of 1895'" (page 201).
Klarén 2000: "Peru now entered a unique period in its modern history, marked by rare political consensus; widespread political stability; and, at least initially, autonomous growth and development. Generally known in Peruvian historiography as the ‘Aristocratic Republic,' it was to last, with short interruptions, from 1895 until after the end of World War I in 1919. The consensus derived, in part, from the pact between the Civilista and Demócrata parties that had major advantages for both sides" (page 203).
Klarén 2000: "No lover of the Civilista power elite, [Guillermo] Billinghurst supported the Demócrata Piérola in the ‘revolution of ‘95' and was rewarded by being appointed first vice president. His aspiration to succeed to the presidency was dashed, however, by Piérola's own future political ambitions. Hoping to position himself for a later return to office, Piérola continued his alliance with the Civilistas by choosing as his successor the noncontroversial southern sugar planter Eduardo López de Romaña, who was acceptable to his allies" (pages 222-223).
Marett 1969: A "turning-point came in 1895 when General Cáceres tried to manipulate an election to get back into the presidency for a second term...Public feeling, already running strongly against Cáceres, was outraged to the point of revolt by his cynical attempt to perpetuate his military régime. Ranged against the dictator were not only his erstwhile supporters, the ‘civilistas' (representing the new and more conservative generation of the party which Manuel Pardo had founded), but also the ‘democratic' supporters of that arch-rebel, Nicolás Piérola" (page 122).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "Augusto Durand...era un acaudalado propietario de tierras en la sierra central peruana que se inició en la vida política ingresando en el Partido Demócrata. En 1895 su elección como diputado no sólo lo convirtió en una personalidad influyente, sino que Piérola asumió su protección directa" (page 87).
Stein 1980: "The alliance of [the Partido Civil and the Partido Demócrata] in 1895 to support the presidential candidacy of Nicolás de Piérola constituted the closest political consensus on the national level since independence" (page 27).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso 1895-1900. Senadores titulares" (page 155). "Congreso 1895-1900. Senadores suplentes" (page 156). "Congreso 1895-1900. Diputados titulares" (pages 157-159). "Congreso 1895-1900. Diputados suplentes" (pages 159-161).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 27/1: "Rebelión de Arequipa a favor de Piérola" (page 459).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "Emergiendo como triunfador de un acto electoral amañado, el general Andrés Avelino Cáceres asumió la Presidencia en febrero de 1895. El líder del Partido Constitucional, sin embargo, iba a disfrutar poco tiempo del poder. La abstención electoral de la coalición formada por los partidos civil y demócrata, se transformó en una rebelión armada en las provincias del norte y sur del país" (page 77).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 15/3: "Ingreso de Piérola y sus fuerzas en Lima" (page 459). 29/3: "Por iniciativa de Piérola, en Arequipa se celebra un comicio popular luego del cual se reconoce a la Junta de Gobierno" (page 460).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "Cáceres, finalmente, fue derrocado por las montoneras lideradas por Nicolás de Piérola un mes después de asumir el mando...Piérola...aceptó la formación de un gobierno provisional presidido por Manuel Candamo, que de inmediato convocó una nueva elección presidencial" (page 77).
Werlich 1978: "A bloody revolution that cost more than 10,000 lives ousted Cáceres in March 1895" (page 121).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 8/4: "Renuncia el primer vicepresidente Pedro Alejandrino del Solar" (page 460). 14/4: "La Junta de Gobierno convoca a elecciones presidenciales" (page 460).
July: election (Piérola)
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "La coalición cívico-demócrata secundó esta vez la candidatura de Piérola...Las elecciones parroquiales se convocaron para el primer domingo de julio de 1895, participando por última vez los indígenas en el sufragio. El control de las mesas de votación por miembros de la coalición cívico-demócrata se produjo sin problema alguno al estar excluidas las fuerzas del exiliado general Cáceres" (page 77).
Pike 1967: "The civilian intellectuals of the 1890's...joined with the ‘montoneros' to bring about the fall of Cáceres and...turned out ‘en masse' to vote for Piérola, running unopposed, in July 1895. In Piérola they hoped, although not with total confidence, in view of some of his past actions, to find a man who would be responsive to new currents of thought, and would co-operate with them in the reconstruction of Peru" (page 159).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Elecciones generales 1895. Resultado nacional" (page 611). Gives votes for Nicolás Piérola, "votos válidos," "votos nulos y blancos," and "votos emitidos."
Clayton 1999: "Attracted by the friendly investment climate created by the government of Nicolás de Piérola, which came to power in 1895, hundreds of Americans turned south to seek their fortunes" (page 87).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 12/8: "Nicolás de Piérola es proclamado Presidente Constitucional por el Colegio Electoral de Lima" (page 460). 26/8: "Nicolás de Piérola asume el cargo de Presidente Constitucional" (page 460).
Palmer 1980: "(I)t was a much chastened and reduced Peruvian state that the ‘civilistas' finally inherited in the 1890s...The government's hitherto profitable guano monopoly, dating from the 1840s, had been mortgaged for a generation to pay war debts of over $150 million contracted abroad. Nitrate mining concessions in the Atacama desert province of Tarapaca had been irretrievably lost to the victorious Chileans. The national railroads, built at great cost in the 1860s and 1870s, were turned over to British creditors for 66 years. Peru had shifted in the space of a few years from being the wealthiest state in Spanish America in terms of government revenues to one of the poorest" (pages 36, 41).
Werlich 1978: "The Civilistas and Piérola's Democrats, the most important political parties of the period, had few important ideological differences. Both groups advocated constitutional government and civilian control over the military...Viewed as ‘the rich man's party,' leading Civilistas belonged to the most prestigious social clubs and were grouped within the often-mentioned but ill-defined ‘oligarchy.' The Democrats also recruited their top leadership from the ranks of wealthy or socially prominent families, but they relied upon the less affluent portions of the national society for electoral support" (page 128). "The Democratic-Civilista coalition forged to oust Cáceres continued throughout Piérola's term, giving Peru a much needed recess from partisan strife. The president hoped to preserve this tranquillity and strengthen the democratic process by removing some of the sources of revolution" (page 129).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "Piérola confirmó como uno de sus actos prioritarios la aprobación de una nueva ley electoral. Es así que el 1 de octubre de 1895 Piérola encomendó a su ministro de Gobierno la sustentación de dicho proyecto en la Cámara de Diputados. Entre las novedades se hallaban la introducción del sufragio directo, la creación de un gran jurado electoral con sede en Lima, así como el establecimiento de jurados departamentales y provinciales dependientes del órgano de la capital" (page 78).
Werlich 1978: "Elected municipal governments, suppressed under the previous dictatorship, reappeared after 1895. A constitutional amendment provided for the direct election of the president, replacing the electoral college. The administration established an autonomous national board to supervise elections and adjudicate disputed contests" (pages 129-130).
Chiaramonti 1995: "El 12 de noviembre de 1895 el entonces presidente de la república peruana Nicolás de Piérola promulgó una ley que modificaba el art. 38 de la constitución en vigor desde 1860. En su redacción original el artículo atribuía el derecho de sufragio a todos los peruanos mayores de veintiún años o casados que supieran leer y escribir, o fueran titulares de una empresa artesana, o poseyeran alguna propiedad raíz, o pagaran el tesoro público algún impuesto, a condición de que estuvieran en todos los casos inscritos en el registro cívico del lugar de residencia. La modificación introducida en 1895 exigió como único requisito para ejercer el derecho de voto en las elecciones políticas el de la alfabetización" (page 315). "La nueva ley modificaba de modo sustancial el proceso de formación de la representación, pues introducía el sistema directo en lugar del indirecto, vigente durante casi todo el siglo, y creaba un organismo central, la Junta Electoral Nacional, formada por representantes de los tres poderes" (page 316).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "(E)l 12 de noviembre de 1895 se reformaba el artículo 38 de la Constitución de 1860 que había permitido a los indígenas ejercer el voto gracias a su condición de contribuyentes, exigiéndose entre los requisitos para sufragar la condición de ser alfabeto" (page 78).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 24/12: "El Congreso promulga una nueva ley para abolir la contribución personal indígena" (page 460).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "En realidad, la participación de los indígenas en un sistema de elección directo se consideraba peligrosa, lo que se prueba porque el 24 de diciembre de 1895 el gobierno abolió la contribución indígena" (page 78).
Astiz 1969: "President Piérola hired a French military mission in 1896..., supported a Law of Obligatory Military Service, and rationalized somewhat the system of promotions...These developments altered the political thinking of the military officers, who apparently realized that they were unable to oppose successfully a popular leader who was backed by the upper class-specifically, by the coastal plutocracy" (page 135).
Basadre 1980: "El sistema del sufragio hasta 1896" (pages 28-32).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 19/10: "Por ley se pone fin a las juntas de notables para el 1 de abril y se restauran los concejos municipales, que se eligen según la ley de 1892" (page 463).
Pike 1967: "On the level of local politics, the reforms of Piérola were in some ways more effective. The central government relinquished its control over local appointments, and re-instituted municipal elections" (page 173).
Chiaramonti 2000: "(L)a reforma electoral aprobada en noviembre de 1896...sustituyó a la que regía, con sus avatares, desde 1861" (page 231).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 20/11: "Ley electoral que suprime los colegios electorales y establece el sufragio directo y público y la Junta Electoral Nacional" (page 463).
Klaiber 1992: "On November 22, 1896, in the convent of San Francisco in Cuzco, the first of these ‘Catholic' parties was born [the Conservative Party of Cusco]" (page 86).
Marett 1969: "The popular basis of the electorate was too narrow-less than 10 per cent of the people had the right to vote-for the development of anything like real democracy...Moreover, the members of the ruling class, although they possessed the right to vote, proved unwilling to abide by the spirit of the constitution and conduct elections honestly. Successive governments could not resist the temptation to use their control over the electoral machine in order to impose upon the country candidates of their own choosing...90 per cent of the population were illiterate and therefore disfranchised. Under the electoral law of 1896, the ‘Junta Electoral Nacional' was so composed that the majority of its nine members were invariably supporters of the government and manipulated the results accordingly" (page 123).
Monsalve 2005: "(T)he electoral processes in Peru were governed by an indirect suffrage system until 1896, when universal direct suffrage was established for adult males who could read and write" (page 9).
Paniagua Corazao 2003: "(L)a Ley de Elecciones del 20 de noviembre de 1896...fundó...nuestro régimen electoral...Acabó con los colegios electorales y consagró el sufragio directo, público y en doble cédula que rigió hasta 1931. Hizo obligatoria la inscripción en el Registro Electoral, que se creó como un organismo técnico e independiente, y centralizó la administración electoral. La Junta Electoral Nacional, a través de juntas electorales departamentales y juntas provinciales de registro y de escrutinio, que designaban, a su vez, las mesas receptoras de sufragios, controlaba todo el proceso electoral" (page 44).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "La ley finalmente aprobada [en noviembre de 1896] confirmó el sufragio directo, público y alfabeto de los varones mayores de 21 años. La Junta Electoral Nacional fue convertida así en la instancia suprema de un complejo sistema centralista...Un punto importante de la ley de 1896 fue que estableció que todos los órganos electorales debían estar integrados por ciudadanos sorteados entre los mayores contribuyentes. Así se produjo la institucionalización de la influencia de los electores con mayor poder económico, por ejemplo, en las estratégicas juntas de registro y juntas escrutadoras de provincia...(L)a ley respetó otros procedimientos incorporados en la Constitución de 1860. Entre éstos estaba la renovación del Parlamento por tercios cada dos años, la presencia en el Congreso de representantes propietarios y suplentes y, por último, la elección de candidatos por circunscripciones provinciales" (page 79).
Pike 1967: "Piérola in 1896 secured the enactment of a law that eliminated the electoral colleges and provided for direct suffrage. To supervise all elections and resolve disputes that might arise, the new law created a nine-man National Electoral Junta (‘Junta Electoral Nacional'). Each house of congress appointed two members of the junta, choosing one from majority and one from minority representatives; four members were named by the judiciary, and one by the executive. The electoral reforms did not create an ideal situation, in part because they did not provide for the secret ballot. Thus landowners and industrialists were able to herd their peons and labourers to the polls and insist that they vote as instructed" (page 173).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "No se presentaron problemas entre las tres agrupaciones de la coalición al constituir en diciembre de 1896 la Junta Electoral Nacional. Los dos miembros que correspondía proponer al Senado, los dos de Diputados, los cuatro del Poder Judicial y el último, que designaba el gobierno, asumieron el encargo por consenso" (page 80).
Hunefeldt 2004: "Japan established diplomatic representation in Peru in 1897" (page 174).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "(L)as elecciones para la renovación del tercio legislativo de 1897...transcurrieron con la máxima normalidad, sin registrarse actos de violencia. Pese a ello, el resultado electoral le fue adverso al grupo político que lideraba Valcárcel, conocido como ‘los cívicos', por lo que su representación experimentó un descenso en el Congreso" (page 80).
Pike 1967: "With justifiable pride [Piérola] noted in an address in 1897 that he had returned to the municipalities the rights of self rule of which they had been deprived by the military administration of 1892" (page 173).
Gardiner 1975: "A presidential decree [in 1898] permitted Japanese immigration and led to a four-year contract...The agreement called for labor on sugar plantations" (page 24).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "Las primeras fisuras en la Coalición se hicieron públicas con motivo de las elecciones municipales de 1898, cuando los cívicos, todavía afectados por su derrota en las elecciones legislativas, se separaron de los demócratas y civilistas, acudiendo a dicha contienda política en alianza con el Partido Constitucional. Aunque el triunfo correspondió a la coalición civil-demócrata, lo más resaltante de estas elecciones fue el control que ya ejercían los mayores contribuyentes y las burocracias locales en la orientación de la votación" (page 80).
Pike 1967: "In 1898 a renewal of the Argentina-Chilean boundary dispute led Piérola to hope that Chile might be induced to settle the Tacna-Arica matter. He dispatched his close friend, Guillermo Billinghurst, to Santiago to attempt to wrest a favourable settlement...Billinghurst negotiated in Santiago the Billinghurst-La Torre Protocol. Favourable to Peru in that it permitted only natives of Tacna-Arica to vote in the still-pending plebiscite, the protocol was ultimately rejected by the Chilean congress after the boundary dispute with Argentina had been amicably settled" (page 172).
Werlich 1978: "After 1898, [the Chinese laborers] were joined by Japanese brought to Peru under contracts between colonization companies in the mother country and Peruvian employers" (page 127). "The nation's first Military Code of Justice was promulgated in 1898, and more than ever before, merit rather than political considerations became the basis for promotion" (page 130).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 24/11: "Los partidos Demócrata y Civil firman un pacto y proponen como candidato común a Eduardo López de Romaña" (page 467).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "Al aproximarse la elección presidencial, civilistas y demócratas firmaron en noviembre de 1898 un pacto conocido como ‘el concierto electoral.' Por este acuerdo, el Partido Civil retiraba la candidatura presidencial de Manuel Candamo y cedía al demócrata la facultad de designar al candidato oficial, mientras aquél se reservaba la designación de la primera vice-presidencia. Tácitamente, el pacto otorgaba al civilismo la elección del candidato para la contienda subsiguiente. Este entendimiento entre los partidos aseguraba una alternancia en el poder al estilo del régimen español de la Restauración. Pero el estallido de la crisis interna del Partido Demócrata asestó el primer golpe a dicho acuerdo" (page 80).
Klarén 2000: "Because of the labor shortage after the War of the Pacific, the flow of contract labor from both China and Japan resumed in 1899 although it was much more regulated by the government than before" (page 231).
Klarén 2000: "After Piérola's four-year term came to an end in 1899, [the Civilistas] cleverly outmaneuvered their Demócrata rivals by gaining control of key governmental positions, particularly the electoral apparatus, that enabled them to capture the presidency in 1900" (page 203). "In 1899, both parties were able to compromise on a candidate to succeed Piérola-the southern planter and Demócrata Eduardo López de Romaña (1899-1903). However, during López de Romaña's administration, the Civilistas gained control of most important political offices, including the crucial electoral apparatus of the Junta Electoral Nacional. This control enabled party leader Manuel Candamo to win the presidency in 1903" (pages 217-218).
Pike 1967: "Piérola...undermined the prestige of the Electoral Junta when he ignored one of its decisions in 1899" (page 173). "As the time for the 1899 electoral campaign approached, many of Piérola's partisans quite understandably approached him with the suggestion that he should alter the constitution in order to permit his immediate re-election...While refusing to change the constitution to permit immediate re-election, the president was not at all adverse to using his vast popularity and influence-even though it meant flaunting a decision of the Electoral Junta-to secure the election in 1899 of his hand-picked successor, Eduardo López de Romaña...Probably Piérola looked forward to succeeding his friend four years later in the presidency, as the constitution permitted re-election after an intervening term" (page 175).
Pike 1967: "The 1899 elections of Eduardo López de Romaña, arranged by Piérola with the support of both Democrats and ‘Civilistas,' quickly touched off an abortive revolutionary uprising, led by Guillermo Billinghurst and Augusto Durand...Billinghurst could not forget old political prejudices and insisted that his party should not continue to cooperate with the ‘Civilistas'" (page 186). "Billinghurst and Durand in 1899 sought the support of Cáceres, still in exile in Buenos Aires, for their insurrection...[He] replied with a plea that Peruvians of all political persuasions should support López de Romaña as the constitutional president. Shortly thereafter the revolutionary movement collapsed" (page 187).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 22/2: "Convocatoria a elecciones generales" (page 467).
Gardiner 1975: "In April 1899, 790 Japanese settlers arrived at Callao aboard the ‘Sakura Maru'...From Callao the ‘Sakura Maru' began a coastwise voyage to distribute laborers to the contracting plantations" (page 24).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 3/4: "Llegan 790 colonos japoneses al puerto del Callao" (page 467). 24/4: "El Gobierno pide un decreto para inhabilitar a la Junta Electoral Nacional por entredicho con el Poder Ejecutivo" (page 468).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "Aunque la Junta tenía concluido el organigrama electoral y sólo le restaba el sorteo de los miembros de las juntas escrutadoras, la ley impedía la culminación de dicho acto si sus nueve miembros no estaban constituidos. El veto que ejerció la oposición sobre el nombramiento del noveno miembro obligó a Piérola a disolver la Junta Electoral Nacional el 24 de abril de 1899" (page 81).
May: general election (López de Romaña / Partido Civil)
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: 25/5: "Se realizan elecciones generales" (page 469).
Hunefeldt 2004: "In 1899 Eduardo López de Romaña (1847-1918) became president based on a coalition between ‘pierolistas' and ‘civilistas.' Election results in those days were usually decided well before election day. Candidates and their supporters would rally people, often imposing their candidacies by force, blackmail, or outright intimidation. Under the new electoral law passed in 1895, illiterate citizens could not vote. Thus, in 1899, only 108,597 people, or around 2.5 percent of Peru's population, were eligible to vote. Only about half of these eligible voters actually voted, and López de Romaña got the most votes by a very large margin" (page 158).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "Las elecciones de 1899 hicieron visible la intervención del gobierno en la elección de López de Romaña. Facilitó aún más este triunfo el hecho de que la alianza formada por los cívicos y los constitucionales desistiera en presentar candidatura. Estos se limitaron a presentar candidatos para la elección del tercio legislativo. El sufragio transcurrió sin incidentes y López de Romaña fue ungido Presidente al sobrepasar con facilidad, tal como exigía la ley, el ochenta por ciento de los votos del electorado que oficialmente había concurrido a las urnas" (page 81).
Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Elecciones generales 1899. Resultado nacional" (page 611). Gives votes for presidential candidates, "votos válidos," "votos nulos y blancos," "votos emitidos," "ausentismo," and "total de inscritos."
Werlich 1978: "Piérola's alliance of Democrats and Civilistas secured the presidency for Eduardo López de Romaña in 1899, but a revolt of dissident Democrats led by Guillermo Billinghurst marred the election. A man who had fought beside Piérola in the old struggles against the Civilistas, Billinghurst disapproved of the partnership with his old adversaries and chafed at being bypassed as the administration candidate. Piérola had favored López de Romaña, Peru's first minister of development, because he pledged to continue the coalition" (page 131).
Pike 1967: "Fifty-two years of age when he assumed office on 8 September, López de Romaña was the first engineer to serve as a Peruvian president" (page 187).
Historia cronológica del Perú 2006: "Se restaura la Junta [Electoral Nacional] por la ley del 10 de octubre de 1899" (page 468). 23/10: "Se modifica la Ley Electoral" (page 468).
Peralta Ruiz 2005: "Una de las primeras acciones del nuevo mandatario fue restablecer la Junta Electoral Nacional" (page 81).