Elections and Events 1898-1901


Stoner 1991: "Women represented 37 percent of the delegates to the PRC by 1898 and formed a membership of about 1,500" (page 24).


Aguilar 1993: "(E)arly in 1898 pro-Spanish elements in Havana launched violent demonstrations against General Blanco and Cuban autonomy" (page 33).

Chapman 1927: "The law for the autonomist government went into effect on January 1, 1898, and an executive council was appointed…The Autonomists and the Reformists (a Spanish group) accepted it, but the die-hard Spaniards in the Constitutional Unionist party were uncompromising in their opposition. They organized demonstrations against Blanco and home rule, and even against the United States and the Americans in Cuba. The American consul-general became alarmed, and requested that a war-vessel be sent to Havana to protect American citizens in case of an emergency…(O)rders were given for the 'Maine' to proceed to Havana, and in due time she came to anchor in the harbor of the Cuban capital" (page 84).

Pérez 1995: "With the end of 1897 and the start of 1898, all signs pointed to the imminent and inevitable dénouement: the triumph of Cuban arms. Preparations for the last desperate battles of the war had begun. Holding undisputed control over the Cuban countryside, the insurgent army command prepared for the final phase of the insurrection: the assault on the cities" (page 175).

Suchlicki 1997: Gómez "rejected any compromise with Spain. In January 1898 when the Spanish monarchy introduced a plan that would have made Cuba a self-governing province within the Spanish empire, Gómez categorically opposed it" (page 79).

Tarragó 1996: Describes the provisions of the 1898 constitution for forming a new Cuban government (pages 95-96). "En La Habana hubieron manifestaciones anti-autonomistas, pero el gobierno autonómico fue inaugurado el 1 de enero de 1898" (page 96).


Aguilar 1993: On February 15, 1898, the U.S. battleship "Maine" explodes in Havana harbor, killing 260 members of the crew. "The Spanish authorities spared no effort to help the survivors and determined that an internal accident had caused the disaster...On 25 February, Assistant Secretary of State Theodore Roosevelt issued orders placing the navy on full alert" (page 33).

Healy 1988: "The 'Maine's' dramatic death mobilized an already formidable feeling that 'something ought to be done about Cuba,' and fed a dangerously strong anger against Spain. It further coincided with a growing conviction that the United States must be more active in the Caribbean and increase its influence there. Rather than an isolated event, the 'Maine' disaster was the spark which lit a tinder already prepared" (page 40).

Pérez 1995: "For the better part of the nineteenth century the United States had pursued the acquisition of Cuba with resolve, if without results" (page 176). "The Cuban rebellion changed all this. Cuba was lost to Spain, and if Washington did not act, it would also be lost to the United States...If the United States could not permit Spain to transfer sovereignty over Cuba to another power, neither could the United States permit Spain to cede sovereignty to Cubans" (page 177).


Aguilar 1993: "On 9 April, yielding again to American pressure, the Spanish government offered the rebels an unconditional, immediate truce; the offer was rejected" (page 34). On April 15, the United States declares war on Spain. "The existence of a Cuban rebel government was totally ignored" (page 34).

Fitzgibbon 1964: The "Teller amendment" to the declaration of war "disclaimed 'any disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over' Cuba except for its pacification" (page 24).

Lockmiller 1969: "Before establishing military government in Cuba the United States Congress, on April 19, 1898, had adopted Section Four of the joint resolutions which was an amendment that had been introduced by Senator H.M. Teller" (page 9).


De Lima-Dantas 1987: "In June, 17,000 United States troops landed at Siboney and Daiquirí, east of Santiago de Cuba" (page 21).


Chapman 1927: "The Spanish fleet attempted to run the [U.S.] blockade on July 3, but was utterly destroyed. Two weeks later, on July 17, the Spanish army in Santiago surrendered" (pages 92-93).


Aguilar 1993: "On 10 December, with no Cuban representatives, a peace treaty was signed ending Spanish domination of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines" (page 36).

August 1999: "In December of 1898, Spain and the U.S. signed the Treaty of Paris (Cuba was not invited to attend the deliberations), in which the sovereignty of Cuba was transferred to the United States" (page 84).

Bray 1974: "Following 'independence,' U.S. investors descended on Cuba, taking advantage of the post-independence war economic prostration and overwhelming the meager capital resources of the bankrupt creole upper class. U.S. citizens owned one-fourth of the Cuban territory by 1905" (page 593).

Healy 1988: There was "a deep ignorance of the nature of irregular warfare and of the military achievements of the Cubans during the previous three years. With the slenderest of resources, the Cuba Liberation Army had stalemated masses of Spanish regulars… Thus Cubans, then and later, resented the American assumption that it was solely United States efforts which evicted Spain from the island" (page 46).

Helg 1991: "Most soldiers of the Liberation Army, and especially Afro-Cubans, had resented the North American intervention of 1898 because it prevented them from achieving a victory over Spain. They also knew that many white Cubans (Autonomists as well as separatists) feared black and mulatto political participation and greeted the U.S. arrival with relief" (page 103).

Pérez 1993: "(T)he success of the Cuban military campaign did not produce the desired political results. Rather, it precipitated United States intervention, and at this point all the Cubans' plans went awry" (page 57).

Pérez 1995: "A Cuban war of liberation was transformed into a U.S. war of conquest...A set of developments, articulated in successive stages, would together provide the basis upon which the United States would proceed to establish its claim of sovereignty over Cuba" (page 178).

Pérez-Stable 1993a: "In 1898, when U.S. intervention brought the war to an end, the countryside lay in ruins. Most sugar mills were destroyed or inoperative, land lay fallow, and a large segment of the rural population was displaced or decimated. The planter class was bankrupt and lacked the capital to rebuild the mills and replant the cane fields" (page 15).

Tarragó 1996: "Tratado de paz entre Estados Unidos y España, firmado en París el 10 de diciembre de 1898 y ratificado en Washington el 11 de abril de 1899" (pages 247-253).


Aguilar 1993: "The American Military Government in Cuba (1899-1902) faced grave and urgent problems. After three years of war the island was devastated" (page 36). "Favored by US control over the island...American capital expanded its penetration in the sugar industry, and began to control railways, public utilities, tobacco and minerals. The immediate result of such growing dominance was the formulation of a powerful Washington lobby seeking better commercial relations with Cuba" (page 37).

Andrain 1988: "Between 1899 and 1902, the U.S. military commanders created a Rural Guard that allied with the landowners to protect their estates from rural bandits" (page 123).

Chapman 1927: The U.S. military government "was under instructions to prepare the people of Cuba for self-government, bring about conditions which would make the founding of a republic possible, and establish them in such a sound manner as to ensure an orderly and successful maintenance of Cuban rule" (page 99). "Nearly all the officials-ninety-seven percent, it has been stated--were Cubans" (page 100). "One of the important tasks was the reconstruction of governmental machinery. The military governor, supported by his Cuban Secretaries, was the supreme authority, and under him were other American generals at the head of affairs in the provinces…It was particularly necessary to set up governments in the municipalities, as a beginning in training the people to handle their own affairs. Pending elections, to be held later, a number of Cuban officials were put into office, with more power than their predecessors had possessed under the centralized system of Spain" (pages 103-104).

Fitzgibbon 1964: "Order in Cuba was maintained chiefly through the agency of the rural guard. This succeeded a similar organization which had functioned under Spanish rule; the Cuban guard was composed largely of officers and soldiers of the revolutionary army" (page 57).

Healy 1988: "The United States occupation of Cuba was to last for over three years, from the beginning of 1899 to May 20, 1902. It was embodied in a military government, run by officers of the United States Army and directed by the president of the United States through his secretary of war. While Cubans made up the mass of bureaucrats and functionaries who carried on its work, they acted wholly under United States authority" (page 50).

Langley 1983: "After the Spanish surrender, the War Department created a Division of Cuba and divided the island into seven military departments, corresponding to old Spanish jurisdictions; in mid-1899 it consolidated these into four-the city of Havana, Havana province and Pinar del Río, Matanzas and Santa Clara, Santiago and Puerto Principe, each headed by an American general" (page 14).

McDonald 1989: "In the decade following independence, won in 1898, two new but essentially indistinguishable parties, the Conservatives and Liberals, dominated Cuban party politics. Neither offered a coherent governmental program and both were divided into competing, personalist factions. In search of the best route to power, Cuban politicians often switched back and forth between the two parties" (page 24).

Saxberg 1989: "Cubans chafed under a U.S. occupation that curtailed their participation in the country's political, economic and social development. There was little room for Cuban men in the new power structures; there was no room for blacks or women. The women who had fought so valiantly beside their men were forced to retire to family life and political isolation. Racial and sex discrimination, social relations that had been challenged during the struggle, became the norm once again" (page 9).

Whitney 2001: "Some 50,000 poor and destitute army veterans desperately needed land and employment, yet there were no institutional structures in existence that could satisfy these needs. At the same time, thousands of Cubans, many of them professionals and educated people, had spent years in exile in the United State and other countries; they returned to Cuba with high expectations that their skills, political connections, and often their command of English would open the door to appointments to neocolonial structures" (page 19).


Chapman 1927: "General Blanco did not remain to the end of Spanish rule, but turned over his command to General Adolfo Jiménez Castellanos, who formally surrendered the government to the American military governor, General John R. Brooke, on January 1, 1899" (page 97).

Langley 1989: "When the Spanish formally surrendered Havana on New Year's Day 1899, they turned over the city to an American general, John R. Brooke, not to a small group of rebel commanders watching the ceremony. Spain's formal surrender invested the United States, not the Cuban republic, with formal custody of the island…The weary Cuban generals, deprived by their ally of the honor of receiving the Spanish capitulation, watched the proceedings in humiliation" (pages 17-18). "In assuming power, Brooke retained much of the Spanish administrative structure, modifying it to meet current requirements; he even kept a number of Spanish bureaucrats. The Spanish had published no uniform code of laws, and instead of writing a new one, the American proconsuls merely adapted the existing regulations to meet their special needs" (page 19).

Lockmiller 1969: "Upon the withdrawal of the Spanish General, Adolfo Jiménez Castellanos, the government of Cuba devolved upon the army of the United States. General John R. Brooke was appointed military governor and entered upon his duties January 1, 1899. Aside from treating with Tomás Estrada Palma as minister, the United States did not recognize the insurgent Cuban government. All claims made by Cuban leaders to the effect that Cuba was an independent nation were ignored, and when General Brooke took charge a new revolt was feared. All such fears were allayed and United States control was firmly established when General Máximo Gómez agreed to have his troops lay down their arms and accept three million dollars from the United States in payment for their services" (page 5).

Riera 1955: "Gobernadores y alcaldes nombrados por la primera intervención" (pages 12-16).

Riera Hernández 1968: Gives the names of the Cuban and U.S. provincial officials named by Brooke (page 32).

Riera Hernández 1974: "Gobernadores de 1899" (page 2). "Alcaldes de 1899" (pages 3-6).


Lockmiller 1969: "United States business interests, disappointed at the failure of their country to annex Cuba outright, determined to make their economic interests and control dominant on the island...To prevent irregularity at the expense of the Cubans, Congress passed the Foraker Amendment to the military appropriation bill of March, 1899. This amendment prohibited the granting of franchises or concessions of any nature during the occupation of Cuba by the United States" (page 7).

Riera 1955: "Alfredo Zayas crea en la región habanera el 'Partido Nacional Cubano' y allí lo dirige. Surge el 11 de marzo de 1899 teniendo su matriz en la llamada 'Liga Nacional Cubana'" (page 45).


Chapman 1927: The Assembly of delegates of the Cuban army "met for the last time on April 4 [1899], and dissolved itself" (page 103). "This body [had] claimed that it was the only legal government in Cuba, and [had] wanted an immediate withdrawal of the United States authorities. It was not supported by conservative opinion in Cuba, however, and when it deposed [Máximo] Gómez on account of his attitude over the [military] bonus issue it lost all standing…and dissolved itself" (pages 128-129).

Lockmiller 1969: Máximo Gomez's agreement with General Brooke "so provoked the insurgent assembly that it deposed Gómez as commander-in-chief and disbanded on April 4, 1899" (pages 5-6).


Healy 1988: "In November 1899, rumors swept Cuba that the avowedly temporary military occupation was to be replaced by a permanent civil colonial regime" (page 52).

December 1

Healy 1988: U.S. Secretary of State Elihu "Root published the text of his annual report on December 1, setting forth in it assurances for the Cubans…The military government's recent census of Cuba must be tabulated in order to provide correct data on suffrage and representation for the coming elections. Further, no elections could properly be held until after April 11, 1900, when the year of grace expired during which residents of Cuba could elect either Cuban or Spanish citizenship. Once the census was completed, however, and it was known who the citizens of Cuba were, municipal elections could be held, followed by the choosing of a constituent assembly to write a constitution for the new government" (page 52).

December 13

Chapman 1927: "General Brooke was at the head of Cuban affairs during almost all of 1899, until succeeded by General Wood in December" (page 101). "On December 13, 1899, President McKinley appointed General Wood to succeed General Brooke as head of the United States military government in Cuba" (page 105).

Langley 1983: "In December 1899 the president named Wood military governor of Cuba and instructed him to prepare the Cubans for independence" (page 15).

Pérez 1983: "The electoral imperative" (pages 303-314). "The decision in late 1899 to proceed with preparations for self-government in Cuba presented American policymakers a new set of problems. Ultimately, Cubans favored by the United States to lead the island into independence and govern the new republic and, eventually, promote annexation would be subject to the vagaries of electoral politics, forced to compete for public office against political opponents, and be required to appeal for the support of an uncertain if not perhaps unsympathetic electorate" (page 304).


Healy 1988: "(D)uring the first occupation of 1898-1902, the North Americans organized a Rural Guard, modeled after that of Mexico and designed to serve as a reliable police force. After separate beginnings in several provinces, Military Governor Leonard Wood consolidated the guard into a uniform national constabulary in 1900" (page 221).


Fitzgibbon 1964: In February 1900, Wood decided "to hold municipal elections throughout Cuba the following June for the choice of 'alcaldes,' members of the 'ayuntamientos,' municipal treasurers, municipal judges, and correctional court judges" (page 60). Describes the commission appointed by Wood and the reports it prepares (page 60).


Chapman 1927: "(O)ne of the early acts of General Wood was to decree a law of elections, promulgated in April 1900. Several political parties had already been formed, but up to this time they had had no real life…Now, however, the parties attained to a new-born vigor, and in casting about for an issue hit upon the duration and character of the American occupation" (page 129). "General Wood had called an informal meeting of notables, prior to the enactment of his election law…The majority favored a most sweepingly democratic law as regards grant of the suffrage, but the governor adopted the opinions of the minority, which accorded with his own. It was provided that all native-born Cuban men who were at least twenty-one years old might vote, if they could read and write, or had $250 worth of property, or had served in the Cuban army during the war. The secret ballot and other familiar American features were also called for in the new law" (page 130).

Hitchman 1971: "Wood selected the commission's minority plan, which with its greater detail and broader specifications carried the marks of the American lawyers. [The plan] became Civil Order 164 of April 18, 1900" (page 76). Describes the procedures it specifies (pages 76-77). Describes the results of the census (page 79).

Pérez 1983: "In early spring the military government announced the suffrage requirement…Protest was immediate" (page 310). Describes the suffrage requirements. "By early spring, the military government had completed the work of the census" (page 311). Gives the results.

Pérez 1986: "In early 1900 the United States undertook a census of the island before fixing final suffrage requirements for municipal elections scheduled for June. The decision to restrict suffrage had already been made in Washington" (page 37). Describes the suffrage requirements (page 38).

Pérez 1995: "All voters were required to be Cuban males over the age of twenty and in possession of one of the following: real or personal property worth $250, or an ability to read and write, or honorable service in the Liberation Army. All Cuban women and two-thirds of all adult Cuban men were excluded from the franchise. Suffrage restrictions reduced the Cuban electorate to 105,000 males, approximately 5 percent of the total population" (page 182).

Riera Hernández 1968: The Partido Republicano is founded April 21, 1900 (page 37).

Thomas 1998: "The electorate of 1900 was based on male literacy. Of the total number of males of voting age (418,000), or 26% of the population, of these 200,631 or a little less than half were able to read, of whom just under 70% were white and just over 30% coloured. Of the Negroes of voting age (237,398), 96,463 could not vote since they could not read...The total Negroes who could vote in 1899-1900 amounted to only about 31,000" (page 461).

June: municipal election

Aguilar 1993: "The following year [1900] municipal elections were held in Cuba. Much to the disappointment of the Americans, nationalistic candidates won almost everywhere" (page 38).

August 1999: In the municipal elections held in Cuba in June, 1900, "despite the narrow base of those who had the right to vote, many fighters for the independence of Cuba were elected. They won the majority" (page 102).

Chapman 1927: "The first trial of the law was set for the municipal elections to be held in June 1900. Among numerous parties in the field, three were especially prominent. Two were immediate independence parties, differing only in leadership and locality, though one of them, the Nationalists of Havana, professed to favor a centralized republic, while the Republicans of Santa Clara came out for states' rights. The former were supposed to represent the friends of Máximo Gómez, while the latter were charged with being affiliated with his enemies in the now defunct Cuban Assembly…The third party, the Union Democratic of Havana, represented something quite different from the other two, worthy of special note as indicative of the fact that not all Cuban society was impatient for immediate independence. Many of the members of this group were one-time Autonomists" (page 130). "(T)here was great bitterness against this group on the part of the more radical Cuban elements,--so much so, that the Union Democratic party presently withdrew, expressing its disapproval of the election laws and alleging corrupt practices on the part of its opponents. The elections were held on June 16, 1900, and were peaceful enough. There were some claims of fraud, but, on the whole, the result was probably reasonably fair. The Republicans elected every one of their candidates in Santa Clara and Matanzas, but lost to the Nationalists in Havana. Elsewhere regional tickets prevailed" (page 131).

Fitzgibbon 1964: Describes the municipal elections of June 16, 1900 (pages 60-61).

Hitchman 1971: "Registration, which proceeded without disturbance, was high. But because of apathy, habit and the feeling that any election must be rigged to favor the government, the actual vote (68 percent) was not particularly heavy. Of the 150,648 who were eligible (almost one-third of the adult males in Cuba), 110,316 voted…The revolutionary element, represented by various regional parties, won the elections. The conservatives…foresaw defeat and withdrew from the contest, despite the fact that the minority representation provision of the electoral law allowed them to hold office" (pages 79-80).

Pérez 1986: Describes the elections of June 1900 (pages 38-39).

Riera 1955: "Han de elegirse por el voto del pueblo los cargos de alcaldes, tesoreros y jueces municipales. La duración de dichos cargos se ha fijado en 1 año, tomando posesión los candidatos electos para unos y otros cargos el 1ro.de julio de 1900" (page 17). "Ejercen el derecho de sufragios un total de 110,816 de los 150,648 electores empadronados" (page 18). "Alcaldes electos el 16 de junio de 1900" (pages 19-22).

Rowe 1904: "From the beginning of American occupation until July first, 1900, municipal officials were appointed by the military governor. In June, 1900, the first local elections were held. These elections were interpreted by the people to mark the beginning of municipal autonomy" (page 168).

Simons 1996: On "16 June 1900 municipal elections, the first in Cuba, were held with three contesting parties (the Republicans, who wanted immediate independence; the Nationalists, who also wanted independence; and the conservative Unión Democrática, who favoured annexation)" (pages 207-208).

Thomas 1998: "The result was an expected one: Nationalists won in Havana, Republicans in Santa Clara and Matanzas. Elsewhere, regional candidates won" (page 448).


Aguilar 1993: "On 25 July 1900, General Leonard Wood, the American Military Governor, published a civil order for the provision of elections of delegates to a Cuban constitutional convention. According to the electoral law established by the American authorities, the right to vote was restricted to males over 21 years of age who had become Cuban citizens under the terms of the peace treaty, and who fulfilled at least one of three alternative requirements: ability to read and write, ownership of property worth US$250 in American gold, or service in the Cuban rebel army" (page 38).

Fitzgibbon 1964: "Municipal officials before July 1, 1900 had been appointed, in effect, by the governor general, or, after United States occupation, by the military governor" (page 60).

Riera 1955: The Unión Democrática party is founded on July 19, 1900 (page 45).

September: constituent assembly election

Chapman 1927: "Naturally, the requirement for determining upon the nature of relations with the United States 'as a part' of their own Constitution did not escape the notice of the Cuban politicians, and many of them announced that they and their parties would have nothing to do with the election of delegates. Before election day, on September 15, 1900, they had changed their minds, however, having in the meantime received assurance that the terms of the order would be modified. Thirty-one delegates were elected, apportioned among the provinces according to population, with Havana getting eight, Santa Clara and Oriente seven apiece, Matanzas four, Pinar del Río three, and Camaghey two. All the delegates but one were members of the more radical revolutionary elements, the men who were prominent in the Nationalist and Republican ranks" (page 132).

Hitchman 1971: Describes the election (pages 98-100). "Out of a possible 185,501 eligible and registered, 131,627 Cubans voted; only 150,648 had been eligible to vote the previous June" (pages 99-100).

Riera 1955: "Las Juntas Provinciales de Escrutinios, tras de totalizar los sufragios emitidos, proceden a proclamar 31 Delegados a la Asamblea de Constituyentes con sus respectivos candidatos suplentes. Los partidos Republicano Federal, Unión Democrática y Nacional eligieron los referidos cargos" (page 23). "El cupo electoral de la Isla de Cuba en las elecciones concernientes a la integración de la Asamblea de Constituyentes ascendía a 185,501 electores. Hacen uso del sufragio 131, 627" (page 24). "Elecciones de constituyentes de 15 de septiembre de 1900" (pages 28-29). Gives by province and political party the winning candidates and the number of votes they received.

Riera Hernández 1968: Describes the election and deliberations of the constituent assembly (pages 38-40).


Aguilar 1993: "On 5 November 1900, in the Teatro Martí in Havana, 31 delegates representing six Cuban provinces met to begin the sessions of the Cuban Constitutional Convention" (pages 38-39).


Chapman 1927: "Under Spain the municipalities had enjoyed no autonomy in fact, but had been managed from Havana…General Wood issued an order, in 1901, to the effect that municipalities must henceforth pay their own officials and police…As part of the work, fifty-six unnecessary municipalities were suppressed. In this connection it must be borne in mind that the term 'municipality' in Cuba is more nearly equivalent to 'county,' as used in English, than it is to 'city' or 'town'" (page 110).

Pérez 1983: "In early 1901 the military government announced plans to proceed with municipal elections" (page 369).

Riera 1955: "El poeta Diego Vicente Tejera hace surgir en 1901 el primer partido de raíz socialista que opera en Cuba. Se trata del 'Partido Popular Obrero'. Gastón Mora, Agustín de Zárraga y Eligio Bonachea crean en La Habana por ese año el 'Partido Nacionalista', mientras en Occidente el coronel Sobrado y Alfredo Porta organizan un partido de ideología conservadora bajo el nombre de 'Unión Patriótica'" (page 45).


Aguilar 1993: "At the end of January 1901, after the completion of a constitution based on the American model, the delegates began working on the delicate subject of Cuban-American relations" (page 39).

February 21

Chapman 1927: "The Constitution was declared ready, and was signed by the delegates on February 21, 1901. It was received without great enthusiasm, for many felt that the United States would not accept it" (page 134).

Helg 1991: "The new constitution…granted Cuban citizenship to the African-born…Universal male suffrage was accepted with some reluctance…With suffrage, Afro-Cubans became an essential factor in the elections. Yet at the same time they could not decide their own vote. Both Liberal and Moderate political programs ignored the race issue and worked to attract black and mulatto voters through the clientele networks established by…Afro-Cuban leaders" (page 104).

Pérez 1995: "The outcome of the 1900 elections served to underscore the perils attending independence. By failing to elect the candidates approved by the United States, Cubans had demonstrated themselves ill-suited to assume the responsibility of self-government" (pages 183-184). "The [U.S.] administration was prepared, and even anxious, to end the occupation, but not without first securing guarantees necessary to United States interests" (page 185).

Problems of the new Cuba: report of the Commission on Cuban Affairs 1935: "Under the 1901 Constitution the system of administration rests on the national government centered in Havana. This administration is headed by a President and a Council of Secretaries or Cabinet Ministers. The Cuban President and congressmen must answer to the electorate at an election held every four years…Cuba was divided into six provinces, each with a governor and provincial council elected by popular vote…Cuba was also divided into 'municipios,' covering not only a city but a rural area" (page 6). "In the Constitution of 1901 Cuba attempted to adopt the decentralized municipal régime of the United States. The Constitution separated the legislative and administrative functions of the council, and provided that the mayor and council should both be popularly elected. No legislation, however, was enacted to carry these provisions into effect until after the 1906 revolution" (page 7).

Rowe 1904: "The most important changes introduced by the new constitution were : (1) the provision for the election of mayors, and (2) the more definite limitation of the administrative powers of the provincial governors and of the President of the Republic over municipal affairs" (page 169).

February 25: Platt Amendment

Domínguez 1978: "The Platt Amendment had been drafted by United States Senator Orville Platt, approved by the United States Congress, and signed into law by President William McKinley" (page 13).

Hitchman 1971: Gives full text of the Platt Amendment (pages 221-222).

Pérez 1995: "In its essential features, the Platt Amendment addressed the central elements of United States objectives in Cuba as determined over the course of the nineteenth century, something of an adequate if imperfect substitute for annexation" (page 186).

Suchlicki 1997: "On February 25, 1901 Senator Orville H. Platt introduced in Congress the famous amendment bearing his name" (page 81). Gives the text of the amendment (pages 81-82).


Chapman 1927: "(O)n May 28, 1901, the Convention accepted the Platt Amendment by a vote of fifteen to fourteen, but added an interpretation of its own to the document. The authorities in Washington came back with a statement that the acceptance must be without qualifications" (pages 142-143).

June 1: municipal election

Chapman 1927: "(M)unicipal elections had again been held in which 'the issue' was the Platt Amendment. There were a number of frauds committed" (page 143).

Fitzgibbon 1964: "The second annual municipal elections occurred June 1,1901" (page 61).

Pérez 1983: "The results of the June 1901 elections disabused American authorities of whatever hopes remained that the 'better classes' could successfully compete against the revolutionary element in national politics" (page 370).

Riera 1955: "El dia 1ro de junio de 1901 hay nuevas elecciones municipales. En ellas han de elegirse alcaldes, concejales y tesoreros de Ayuntamientos por el plazo de 1 año...Al celebrarse las elecciones municipales de 1901 el cupo electoral de la Isla asciende a 185,411 electores" (page 31). "Contendieron en los comicios municipales de 1901 los partidos Republicano Federal, Nacional Cubano y Unión Democrática" (page 32). "Elecciones municipales de 1o. de junio de 1901" (pages 37-41). Gives the number of electors in each province and the names of the elected mayors by town.

June 2

Hernández, José M. 1993: A "heterogeneous group of politically unaffiliated 'independents' that included a number of ranking liberators...published a manifesto on June 2, 1901, nominating Masó for the presidency of the republic. The members of the group had very little in common except their personal allegiance to Masó and their opposition to the [Platt] amendment" (page 99).

June 12

Chapman 1927: On "June 12, 1901, by a vote of sixteen to eleven, with four members absent, the Convention adopted the Amendment…It now remained for a Cuban government to be elected which could take over control of the island's affairs. General Wood issued an order for the holding of a presidential election on December 31, 1901" (page 143).

Domínguez 1978: "The United States government's intervention in the internal affairs of the republic [through the Platt Amendment] prevented the early consolidation of a strong and capable central government in Cuba and fostered the rise and entrenchment of opposition groups by increasing political uncertainty" (page 13).

Pérez 1993: "The Platt Amendment denied the new republic treaty-making authority, established limits on the national debt and sanctioned North American intervention" (page 57).


Hernández, José M. 1993: "In late June 1901, some time after the final vote on the amendment by the convention, [Máximo] Gómez announced that he would not run for the presidency himself but that he would support the election of Estrada Palma" (page 98).


Riera Hernández 1968: The Partido Republicano Independiente is founded July 22, 1901 (page 37).


Riera 1955: "El 23 de septiembre de 1901 efectuánse las designaciones de las Juntas de Escrutinios. Nacionales y republicanos afines a Estrada Palma, se atribuyen arbitrariamente la representación de mayoría y minoría en la integración de las Juntas, copando en esa forma a los masoístas. En Santa Clara los estradistas abultaron escandalosamente las Listas de Electores" (page 53).

December 20-21

Hernández, José M. 1993: "(A)s the day of the election...drew nearer, the Masoístas began to realize that the followers of Estrada Palma had the capability of padding their own vote while lowering that of their opponents. The possibility was real because the Masoísta alliance had not coalesced until relatively late in the electoral process, and for that reason its members were not represented in the Junta Central de Escrutinios or any of the other electoral institutions charged with preparing the voter lists, watching the polling places, counting the ballots, and generally monitoring election procedures. That the Masoístas had reason to worry was warranted by the known fact that the results of voter registration had been illegally altered in Las Villas. They therefore decided to appeal to Wood, requesting among other things that the Junta Central be reorganized so as to include at least one supporter of Masó. They got nowhere. Wood..., in his effort to prevent [Masó's] election had even gone so far as to dismiss, early in the campaign, a number of mayors who backed his candidacy...Charging that the United States intended to rig the vote, Masó refused to participate further in the campaign and formally withdrew his candidacy. He made the announcement on December 21, a week before the scheduled election" (page 101).

Riera 1955: "El 20 de diciembre de 1901 la 'Coalición Por Masó' acuerda el abstencionismo" (page 54).

December 31: general election (Estrada Palma)

Aguilar 1993: "Once the constitution was promulgated it was necessary to proceed with presidential elections. When Máximo Gómez, the revered leader of Independence, refused the nomination, two other candidates emerged: General Bartolomé Masó, a prestigious military leader of limited talent, and Tomás Estrada Palma, who had been president of the 'Republic in arms' in the Ten Years' War, and had replaced Martí as the head of the Cuban Revolutionary Junta in exile" (page 39). "When Wood appointed five supporters of Estrada Palma to the electoral commission, General Masó withdrew from the race in protest" (page 40).

August 1999: "Initially there were three candidates, representing three parties: Máximo Gómez, carrying popular prestige as a result of the war against Spain; Bartolomé Masó, second in prestige whose eminence had also been further built up as a result of his stands against U.S. interventionist policy and the Platt Amendment; and lastly, Tomás Estrada Palma, the former head of the PRC until he liquidated it after the U.S. intervention in the 1898 war" (page 105).

Azicri 1988: Estrada Palma "had been chairman of the Cuban Revolutionary Party in New York City. He had not lived in Cuba for years...The people's choice, however, was General Bartolomé Masó, a hero of the revolution since the Ten Year War. The American government's opposition to his candidacy..., as well as that of the Cuban propertied and wealthy classes, forced him to withdraw from the race" (page 19).

Chapman 1927: Describes the candidates, the campaign, and the election (pages 143-146). The "vote was large, though General Wood later remarked that the conservative elements took too little interest in the election and therefore had very slight representation in congressmen and other officials of the new government" (page 146).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "Estrada Palma venció por amplio margen al recibir 158.970 votos de los 213.116 votantes. Esta última cifra representaba el 64 por 100 de los 335.699 electores inscriptos. De éstos, el 47 por 100 había otorgado sus sufragios al nuevo Primer Mandatario, una proporción relativamente alta" (page 6). In the elections of December 31, 1901, "los Republicanos de Las Villas…concurrieron como aliados de los Nacionales, eligiendo 13 de los 14 candidatos a representantes" (page 85).

Fitzgibbon 1964: "The new electoral law provided for a general election on December 31, 1901, which was declared a legal holiday, for the choice of presidential and senatorial electors, members of the House of Representatives, governors, and members of provincial councils" (page 86).

Healy 1988: Estrada Palma "had played a prominent part in the Ten Years' War of 1868-78, been captured by the Spanish, jailed, and released into exile. He returned to prominence by heading the Cuban junta in New York during the war of 1895-98. When he returned to Cuba in 1902, he had been out of the country for twenty-five years, mostly in the United States" (page 127).

Hernández, José M. 1993: "(O)ut of 335,699 registered voters 213,116 cast their ballots, a significantly larger number than voted in the constitutional convention election. Regardless of the lack of opposition, therefore, Cubans were not totally indifferent to the outcome of the election" (page 101).

Hitchman 1971: Gives the results of the elections for presidential electors, senators, representatives, and governors (page 194).

Musicant 1990: "On the last day of 1901 Cuba held a general election for the government of the soon-to-be republic. The Nationalists turned to Tomás Estrada Palma, an aging wisp, nearly seventy years old, who had spent the past quarter-century in American exile. Honest, patriotic, if a bit too friendly toward the United States, and free of factional strife, he garnered widespread support" (page 51).

Pérez 1983: Discusses the election of December 31, 1901 (pages 371-373).

Riera 1955: "El 31 de diciembre de 1901 celebranse las primeras elecciones generales en Cuba...Elígense los cargos de presidente y vice-presidente de la República; integración total del Senado, --24 curules-y de la Cámara, --63 escaños--; Consejos Provinciales, --89 cargos entre las 6 provincias-y 6 gobernadores...En la integración de la Alta Cámara no se reconoce el derecho de las minorías electorales, la que ha de acordarse por vez primera en las elecciones de 1930" (page 43). "Tres partidos políticos participan en la contienda electoral de 1901" (page 44). "En la campaña electoral de 1901 no existen partidos de carácter nacional. Se trata de grupos políticos que funcionan en provincias bajo la égida de caciques electorales" (page 45). "Las elecciones generales celebránse el 31 de diciembre de 1901, sin la presencia física del candidato electo para la Presidencia de la República, Tomás Estrada Palma. No hay adversarios en la urna al retirarse previamente su antagonista Bartolomé Masó. Estrada Palma es electo por la Coalición Nacional-Republicana, llevando de Vicepresidente al doctor Luis Estévez Romero" (page 54). "Elecciones generales de 31 de diciembre de 1901" (pages 56-66). Gives the results of all the elections, including the number of registered voters, the number who voted, the votes for president, and by province the votes for governors, senators, representatives, and councillors.

Riera Hernández 1968: Gives the names of senators and representatives elected in 1901 (pages 48-51).

Riera Hernández 1974: "Elecciones de 1901" (pages 8-9).

Simons 1996: "As provided in the new Cuban constitution, presidential elections were held in December 1901…(T)he franchise was designed to exclude Afro-Cubans, women and those with less than $250-worth of assets…Tomás Estrada Palma was elected president…[He was] José Martí's successor as the head of the Revolutionary Party. But he had lived most of his life outside Cuba, and had a deep admiration for the United States" (page 212).