Elections and Events 1935-1951


Fitzgibbon 1936: "Miguel Mariano Gómez, inheritor of the Liberal party tradition of his father, had led an opposition wing which became popularly known as the Marianistas. In 1935, this group reorganized as the Acción Republicana, or Republican party…The Conservative party of the Menocal administrations…was reorganized in 1935 as the Conjunto Nacional Democrático. The party transitionary period in the summer of 1935 was one of great confusion-elements in it were the search for suitable candidates, tentative proposals of party alliance, and the effort to devise platforms acceptable to the greatest number" (page 728).


Fitzgibbon 1936: "Further delay [of elections] came with the adoption of a Cabinet resolution on February 19, 1935, postponing them until between July 30 and August 25. Still other delays were to come" (page 727).


Farber 1976: "After the defeat of the general strike of March 1935, the Communist party and its clandestine press continued their sharp attacks on the Batista dictatorship; and, under the auspices of the international Popular Front line, they tried to make an alliance with the other major opposition groups" (page 84). "After the defeat of the 1935 general strike, many of the Auténtico leaders went into exile, some of them joining Grau, who had left Cuba in early 1934" (page 87).

Fitzgibbon 1936: "Reforms made on March 4, 1935, in this provisional constitution provided that elections originally scheduled for delegates to a constitutional assembly should be for president, vice-president, and members of Congress instead. But four days later, on the pretext of a general strike, these reforms were suspended, along with the provisional constitution. There followed an interim of three months during which the government of Cuba operated without any constitutional basis" (page 726).

Pérez 1993: "In March 1935 momentum for revolutionary change assumed formidable proportions when an anti-government general strike plunged the island into crisis...The 1935 general strike was the last revolutionary surge of the republican generation. It collapsed after only a few days but its effects lasted through the decade. Most immediately, the severity of the military repression caused dissension in and then the dissolution of the ruling coalition. By the end of March, Mendieta found his support reduced to his own faction in the Unión Nacionalista and the military" (pages 73-74).

Sims 1992: "The struggle between the dictatorship and labor culminated in March 1935 in the greatest strike of Cuban history...The action was much larger than any Machado had faced-more than 200,000 workers went on strike. But the strikers were met by the combined military and police forces of the regime...Batista broke the strike, drowning in blood the final act of resistance to the regime. In the repression that followed, most labor unions were dissolved" (pages 219-220).


Fitzgibbon 1936: "A Cabinet decree on April 12, 1935, restored to legal status the old political parties, outlawed some months before, but afterwards prominent figures and office-holders of the Machado régime were excluded from candidacy in the approaching elections. The party situation in 1935 showed much confusion" (page 727). Describes the array of parties (pages 727-729).

Fitzgibbon 1964: "The government announced on April 30, 1935 that four of the most prominent political organizations in the island had agreed to the holding of general elections on November 1 under a modified form of the 1901 constitution...The arrangement modified previous plans by providing for the reestablishment of the Crowder electoral code, the granting of the vote to women, and the authorization of the new Congress to be elected to draw up a new constitution or make additional reforms in the 1901 constitution" (page 201).


Bonachea 1972: "After the failure of a general strike that he helped labor leaders to organize, Guiteras decided to go to Mexico to form an armed expedition. But as he sailed from the island on May 8, 1935, he was captured by Batista's henchmen and shot to death. With the death of Guiteras, the persistent rebel, the men of action lost the only person capable of channeling their revolutionary violence toward practical political goals" (page 14).

Farber 1976: "Guiteras was killed by Batista's troops on May 8, 1935, after which Joven Cuba declined in importance. Eventually most of its members joined the Auténtico party when the latter successfully persuaded various revolutionary groups to dissolve and merge into it" (page 64).


Fitzgibbon 1936: "Mendieta announced on June 1, 1935, the restoration of the 1901 constitution in modified form" (page 726). "When in June, 1935, it was decided that the coming elections were to be general rather than for delegates to a constituent assembly, the provisional government formulated a new electoral code in which the powers and duties of the Tribunal were set forth. Each existing political party was allowed one member of the Tribunal, but there were in addition a number of 'ex officio' members drawn from the various branches of the government" (page 727). "The Cabinet and the Council of State, on June 22, 1935, set general elections for December 15. This intensified party activity" (page 728).


Gellman 1973: "In early July a new electoral code was promulgated, and Mendieta later decreed that elections would be held on December 15, 1935" (page 134).

Riera 1955: "El Decreto-Ley 54 de 2 de julio de 1935 rige el desarrollo de los actos relacionados con los comicios generales de 1936. Por vez última han de elegirse los cargos presidenciales y los correspondientes al Senado por sufragio indirecto a través de Compromisarios. Créase el Voto Preferencial para la designación de representantes, consejeros y concejales" (page 435).


Riera 1955: "El 4 de octubre de 1935 ha de formalizarse el pacto electoral de Acción Republicana y Unión Nacionalista...La referida alianza decide presentar de candidatos a la Presidencia y Vice de la República al doctor Miguel Mariano Gómez, jefe de AR y al líder del PUN en Las Villas, doctor Féderico Laredo Brú" (page 436). The Liberal party later joins them to form the "Coalición Tripartita" (page 437).


Gellman 1973: "By the beginning November four definite parties had emerged. The largest and best organized, the Conjunto Nacional Democrático, nominated its leader Mario Menocal for the presidency on October 12. His main competition came from two political parties that had decided to combine their forces [Acción Republicana and Unión Nacionalista]...The third most powerful force was the Liberal Party...Finally and least significantly, Conjunción Centralista Nacional chose the ousted ex-president Céspedes to try again for the presidency" (page 134). "This kaleidoscopic political picture became even more confusing on November 19 when the supreme electoral tribunal ruled that the triparty pact between the Gómez forces and the dissident Liberals was invalid, since the Liberal Party's members must vote for their own presidential nominee" (page 135).


Gellman 1973: Harold Dodds, as consultant to Mendieta, suggests "that elections be rescheduled for January 10, 1936, and that the fusionist presidential ticket be allowed to stand in those provinces where the Liberal Party ahd approved it. Later in the day, the government accepted his proposals" (page 135). "On December 8 Menocal and Céspedes announced jointly that they would not participate in the elections while Mendieta was in office because of his favoritism toward the fusionist ticket...Faced with virtually no opposition to Gómez and possible rebellion from other antagonistic factions, Mendieta stated in a manifesto on December 9 that, in order for elections to be held on schedule, he would resign" (page 136).

Hargrove 1979: "With Mendieta out of office, José A. Barnet, secretary of state (and fifth president since Machado's overthrow) assumed the presidency" (page 37).

Pérez 1993: The collapse of the Mendieta government "created a political vacuum filled by Batista and the armed forces. Virtually every branch of government passed under army control. Military supervisors replaced provincial and municipal officials...The army emerged as the most important source of patronage and public employment. Batista was now the single most dominant political force on the island" (page 74).


Del Aguila 1993: "In a position paper issued in 1936, the [PRC-A] analyzed Cuba's development level, holding that financial imperialism, traditional politicians subservient to foreign interests, and the army accounted for the country's lack of development...From that point on, the PRC-A became the dominant party on the left, espousing moderate nationalism and virourous economic reforms" (pages 26-27).

January 10: general election

De Lima-Dantas 1987: "In January 1936 Miguel M. Gómez (son of former president José Miguel Gómez) won the presidential election, in which women were allowed to vote for the first time" (page 32).

Domínguez 1978: "The five-times-postponed presidential elections were finally held in January 1936. A large share of the opposition, including Grau, the Communists, and the ABC, refused to participate, but there were still several opposition parties" (page 99). Describes the parties involved in the election.

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "10 enero, primeras elecciones generales después de la caída de Machado; los más importantes partidos revolucionarios (PRC y ABC) se abstienen de participar en los comicios y sus líderes permanecen en el exilio; por primera vez la mujer cubana emerce el derecho de sufragio; se anuncia que los candidatos de la Coalición Tripartita (Partido Unión Nacionalista, Partido Acción Republicana y Partido Liberal)…resultan vencedores frente a los candidatos del Conjunto Nacional Democrático y del Partido Unionista…; los candidatos del Partido Centrista Nacional…se decidieron por la abstención" (page 525). "Los partidos nacidos de la revolución contra Machado, el PRC y el ABC se abstuvieron de concurrir a ellas…De un total de 1.675.813 electores inscritos ejercieron el voto, según informó el gobierno, 1.123.848 en 5.117 colegios electorales que dieron la victoria a la candidatura Gómez-Laredo Bru por 343.289 votos contra 256.606 la de Menocal-Cuervo Rubio…Las elecciones se efctuaron bajo un Código electoral exigente del 'voto convoyado' mediante el cual el elector votaba automáticamente por la candidatura presidencial, senatorial y alcaldicia cuando lo hacía por un representante, consejero provincial o concejal en la columna de un partido o coalición de ellos. El Senado quedó compuesto por 24 coalicionistas y 12 conjuntistas. La Cámara por 90 coalicionistas, 70 conjuntistas y 2 unionistas de Asbert. Sesenta y siete alcaldías fueron a la Coalición, 56 al Conjunto y 2 a los Independientes de Pinar del Río" (page 530).

Fitzgibbon 1936: Describes the campaign and candidates involved, the election, and the results. "It was early discovered that the Democrats would have no members at all in the newly elected Senate. This led, about a week after the elections, to a suggestion…that the defeated Democrats be given seats in the Senate in proportion to their voting strength in the elections" (page 732).

Gellman 1973: "Not only was this the first presidential race since Machado's election in 1924, but the voters were also choosing congressional and gubernatorial candidates. The 1936 contest featured one other innovation: for the first time in the island's history, women cast ballots...The early returns assured the fusion ticket's victory, and when the final results were tabulated, they showed that with 1,650,598 registered voters, Gómez received 515,749 votes and Menocal 420,681. The coalition had triumphed, but even in victory, some ominous signs appeared. Only 61 percent of the eligible voters had exercised their franchise. Although the opposition factions that had not joined in the elections were still a minority, they could use these statistics to support their contention that almost two-fifths of the voting public had given a vote of no confidence to the government backed by Batista's military might" (page 139).

Hargrove 1979: "The general elections were held as scheduled on 10 January 1936. Miguel Mariano Gómez' 'fusion' parties won both the presidential and congressional elections. They also won at least 60 percent of the mayoralties, with the remaining 40 percent going to ex-President Menocal's Democratic party. The Democrats' showing was so poor that they failed to elect any of their members to the Senate" (page 38).

Riera 1955: "Las elecciones generales señálanse primeramente para el 15 de diciembre de 1935. La fecha ha de posponerse para el 10 de enero de 1936. Han de elegirse los cargos de presidente y vicepresidente de la República; totalidad del Congreso-36senadores y 162 representantes--; 54 consejeros provinciales, 6 gobernadores; concejales y 126 alcaldes municipales...La votación comienza a las 7 de la mañana, finalizando a las 3 de la tarde" (page 435). "Elecciones generales de 10 de enero de 1936" (pages 444-466). Gives results by province.

Riera Hernández 1974: "Elecciones de 1936" (pages 24-26).

Saxberg 1989: "When the elections finally took place, the first showing of female candidates for the House of Representatives was impressive. In all seven women were elected" (page 31).

Valdés 2000: "1936: por primera vez, las mujeres ocupan cargos en la Cámara de Representantes" (Anexo: Participación política femenina hasta la década del 60: Cuba).


Fitzgibbon 1936: "Cuba's new Congress met on April 6…The coalition held 24 of the Senate seats and the Democrats the remaining 12. Of the 162 members of the House, the Democrats claimed 70, the Unionist party two, and the coalition the other 90" (page 732).


Farber 1976: By "1936, a less extreme policy on the part of Cuba's conservative forces had become predominant. When President Miguel Mariano Gómez took office in May 1936, after an election that was boycotted by practically all revolutionary parties and groups, he called for amnesty for political exiles, autonomy for the University of Havana, and some social reforms" (pages 81-82).

December 22

De Lima-Dantas 1987: "In a maneuver engineered by Batista, the president was impeached in December 1936 for having vetoed a bill to create rural schools under army control" (page 32).

Domínguez 1978: Gives the roll-call votes on Gomez's impeachment in the house and senate by party (page 100).

Gellman 1973: Describes the impeachment proceedings (pages 151-153).

Hargrove 1979: "On 22 December [1936] the House impeached Gómez by a vote of 111 to 45, and two days later the Senate convicted him by a vote of 22 to 12" (page 53). "Vice President Federico Laredo Brú became president, at least in name" (page 54).

Langley 1989: "To finance [rural schools] Batista sought a nine-cent tax on every bag of sugar. Gómez challenged him, and Batista brought about Gómez's impeachment by the simple expedient of informing congress that failure to do so would lead to its dissolution by the military. After Gómez's impeachment, most Cubans thought Batista would simply take over as president, but he again looked for a puppet and found his man in Federico Laredo Brú…In the next few years Laredo Brú stood by unobtrusively as Batista pushed his latest schemes" (page 135).

December 24

Gellman 1973: "For the first time since Machado's ouster there was no question about the presidential succession. Twelve hours after Gómez's removal, Vice-President Federico Laredo Bru took the oath of office at noon on December 24, 1936. Roosevelt assisted this reasonably smooth transfer of political authority by permitting automatic American recognition because the new chief executive had assumed his duties in the constitutionally prescribed manner" (page 159).

December 30

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "30 diciembre, reconsiderado el veto por el Congreso, entra automáticamente en vigor la ley que establece el impuesto de los nueve centavos por cada saco de azúcar, origen de la destitución presidencial" (page 559).


Ameringer 2000: "In 1937 [Guiteras'] followers…formed the Guiteras Revolutionary Action (ARG), a clandestine revolutionary organization that focused on the trade unions, doing battle with Batista's police and the Communists" (page 12).

Farber 1976: "It is not known when the first contacts took place between Batista and the Communists, but in 1937 the Partido Unión Revolucionaria, a Communist front group, was founded and allowed legal existence by the government" (page 85). "In many ways, the Auténtico policy was abstentionist rather than either revolutionary or collaborationist (like the Communists). This abstentionism did not last very long, however, particularly after Batista adopted more conciliatory policies toward the opposition. By early 1937, Grau was announcing his willingness to return to Cuba 'if there is a free and sovereign Constituent Assembly'" (page 87).

Gellman 1973: "Capitalizing on the failures of the traditional parties [in 1937], the Auténticos and other opposition parties renewed their demand for the constituent assembly that had been promised by every regime since August 1933. As resentment at congressional ineptness grew, this idea began to gain a large and vocal following" (page 161).

Pérez 1995: "In 1937, the Communist party reorganized itself as the Partido Unión Revolucionaria (PUR), made peace with Batista, and turned to the task of developing an electoral apparatus" (page 277).

Sims 1992: "Like other populists, Batista sought to strengthen his government by attempting to bring organized labor under state control, a task that proved difficult until 1937 when he turned to the Cuban Communist Party...The Communists' Partido Unificado Revolucionario (PUR) began to reconstruct the labor movement with loyal party members at its head. Batista, labor, and the Communists all benefited from the new Popular Front atmosphere" (page 220).


Farber 1976: On "August 15, 1937, at a meeting in the city of Havana, representatives of the Auténticos, Joven Cuba, and other groups, and various independents took steps to reconstitute a unified Auténtico party, a process successfully completed in 1938" (pages 87-88).


Riera 1955: "El 1o de diciembre de 1937 apruébase el Código Electoral de Emergencia. Faculta a los Comités Ejecutivos de los partidos a realizar las postulaciones y autoriza a la Secretaría de Gobernación para la vigilancia e imprevisión de las Boletas Oficiales. La medida despertó suspicacias entre los elementos de la Oposición" (page 467).


De Lima-Dantas 1987: "In 1938 Laredo Bru created a powerful national union, the Confederation of Cuban Workers (Confederación de Trabajadores de Cuba-CTC)" (page 32).

Farber 1976: "Batista's power and attraction were sufficient to cause a split in the Auténtico party in 1937-38; the 'Realists,' under the leadership of such well-known figures as Sergio Carbó and Rubén de León, two leaders of the 1933 Revolution, supported Batista and broke with the 'Orthodox' majority, led by Grau, who refused to go along with them" (page 90).

Pérez 1993: "After 1938, the [Communist Party] adopted a reformist and openly collaborationist posture, consolidating control over the trade unions and gaining legal status in exchange for political support of the Batista-backed government" (page 74).

March: elections

Hargrove 1979: On March 5, 1938 "elections were held to fill 81 out of 162 seats in the House and 1 out of 36 seats in the Senate" (page 78). "Election returns...were delayed for more than five weeks; the opposition parties charged that this was so because Batista was hand-picking the new congressmen" (page 79).

Riera 1955: "A las elecciones de 1938 niéganse concurrir por mantenerse firme en la línea de la Oposición, los partidos Revolucionario Cubano (Auténticos), ABC, Acción Republicana, Agrario Nacional, Partido Comunista y Demócrata-Republicano. En 1938 reaparece el Partido Popular Cubano...Los comicios parciales de 1938 fueron viciados de escandalosos fraudes" (page 467). "Elecciones parciales de 5 de marzo de 1938" (pages 468-472). Gives results by province.


Farber 1976: "On May 1, 1938, the Communist daily newspaper 'HOY' started publishing legally" (page 85).

Gellman 1973: "Batista, Laredo Bru, and the leading government officials announced on May 10 that the government would shortly hold constituent assembly elections in which all parties could participate. After five years of bitter controversy, the opposition finally decided to accept the administration's offer and prepared for the upcoming contest" (page 165).


Alexander 1960: "The Communists threw themselves into the campaign for the election of a Constituent Assembly. In the party registration period in July, 1938, the Communists claimed to have registered 75,000 voters, and the P.U.R. some 73,000. However, election officials cut down this total to 90,000 for the two parties combined" (page 281).

Gellman 1973: "As more and more political exiles returned, Laredo Bru signed a new electoral census law on July 23, and anticipation of the assembly increased" (page 165).


Farber 1976: On "September 25, 1938, the Communist party, which had been declared illegal in 1935, was finally allowed to become a legal party…The position of the Communist party had changed in the meantime from moderate opposition to one of friendly support for Batista and his controlled regimes…(T)he membership of the party grew from only 2,800 members in January 1938 to 5,000 members in September 1938" (page 85).

Hargrove 1979: "The PCC was legalized on 15 September 1938, thus ending thirteen years of isolation from the political mainstream of Cuba" (page 91).


Gellman 1973: "Grau returned to Havana on December 9, 1938, ending his self-imposed exile of more than four years. All the local papers carried the news of the return and Grau's announcement that he had come back to participate in the elections for the constituent assembly. Faced with the demands of the United States for internal reforms, the uncertainty of the economic conditions, and the increasing demand for the assembly, Batista's popularity plummeted, and with it Cuba's stability" (page 169).


Bonachea 1972: In 1939 "Batista and the leaders of the PRC had reached an understanding, leaving the underground 'action groups' of the anti-Machado struggle without function or leaders…During the Batista administration (1940-1944), the insurrectionists found refuge at the University of Havana and in some labor unions, where they degenerated into mercenary gangs" (page 16).

Farber 1976: "By 1939, the Auténticos, who were now the largest single party in the country, had adopted a political program that was significantly more moderate than anything they had previously offered…(B)y this time the distinguishing characteristic of the Auténticos was not so much that they were the broad party of the Left as that they had become the party that advocated a civilian and democratic version of reform rather than a militarist and authoritarian one…The Auténticos were able to appeal to the very powerful anti-Batista and antimilitarist tradition in the country, a tradition that had retained its strength" (pages 88-89).

Riera 1955: "Jefes nacionales y provinciales" (page 473). Gives the names of leaders in each political party. "Hay 1.940,434 electores en la reorganización de 1939, afiliándose 1.613,184." Gives the number affiliated with each party (pages 473-474).


Gellman 1973: "While Batista tried to regain his lost prestige, the opposition groups acted to form a united front. On January 5, 1939, Grau, Menocal, Gómez, and Martínez Saenz met and publicly declared that the only way to solve Cuba's domestic problems was to hold elections for the constituent assembly" (page 169).

Riera 1955: "La Ley Electoral promulgada el 15 de enero de 1939, rehabilita los partidos que han perdido la condición de nacionales, como el Realista, Agrario y Popular. La mencionada Ley fija en 4 años la duración de los cargos a designarse. Por vez primera se da a los senadores candidatos suplentes. En 1940 por vez última elígense consejeros provinciales" (page 483). "En 1940 desaparece la práctica de elegir los cargos presidenciales y senatoriales por medio de Compromisarios. Se prohibe la reelección presidencial" (page 484).

Whitney 2001: "Batista's next move was...shocking for traditional politicians. After obstructing union organizing for years, in January 1939 Batista permitted the founding meeting of the Confederation of Cuban Workers (CTC) to take place" (page 169). When "Batista allowed 1,500 delegates to attend the CTC founding congress in January 1939, it was further proof of his populist pretensions. This move also encouraged the communists in their belief that Batista was moving to the left" (page 170).


Farber 1976: The membership of the Communist party grew to 23,300 in February 1939 (page 85). "71 per cent of the members were workers and only 8.2 per cent were peasants. Batista's successful alliance with the Communists had ensured the continuation of a profound split in the Cuban Left, which in fact was by now becoming almost permanently divided into two quite distinct political traditions: the 'populist' one of the Auténticos and that of the Communists" (page 87).


Gellman 1973: "On April 17 Laredo Bru signed a new electoral code law" (page 169).


Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "(E)l 23 el Tribunal admite como partido al ABC y el 27, conforme a la ley del día anterior que ordena la inscripción oficial de los nuevos partidos y modifica el Código Electoral recién promulgado, se admite al Partido Unión Revolucionaria, al Partido Agrario Nacional, al Partido Laborista Cubano, al Partido Nacional Revolucionario (Realistas), al Partido Organización Auténtica y al Partido Comunista de Cuba" (page 565).


Hargrove 1979: "By August 1939 Batista had tacitly accepted the presidential nomination from the pro-government parties, including the 'Realist' Auténticos and the Communist party" (page 104).

November: constituent assembly elections

Alexander 1960: "The Communists and P.U.R. parties ran a joint slate in all six provinces of the republic...The Communists, with their two parties now united under the name Unión Revolucionaria Comunista, won six seats in the Constitutional Convention, elected late in 1939" (page 181).

Ameringer 2000: "Batista believed he could risk playing the democratic statesman and restore legitimate government. He convoked elections in November 1939 for a constituent assembly to draft a new constitution, and the Auténticos abandoned their previous abstentionist tactics and agreed to take part. In fact, they won a plurality of seats, allying next with other oppositionist elements to control the assembly and elect Grau initially as presiding officer" (pages 13-14).

Del Aguila 1993: "In 1939 Batista, feeling politically secure and wishing to improve his image in the United States and to align with reformist tendencies emerging in Latin America at the time, allowed elections for a new Constituent Assembly. Facing a politically heterogeneous opposition with varying degrees of internal unity and programmatic coherence, Batista overestimated his own labor and mass strength and could not control the assembly. For example, forty-one of the seventy-six delegates elected came from opposition ranks, including eighteen from the PRC-A, sixteen from the Liberal party, and six Communists" (page 27).

Domínguez 1978: "The elections for the constitutional convention in 1939 provided another opportunity for a partisan clash and political defections" (page 100). Lists the parties in the government coalition and in the opposition. "To general surprise, the opposition garnered forty-five delegates; the government, only thirty-six."

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "Las elecciones se celebraron sin problemas mayores ganando la oposición 45 delegados que correspondieron 18 al PRC, 17 al Demócrata Republicano, 6 a Acción Republicana y 4 al ABC. Por su parte los gubernamentales obtuvieron 36 delegados repartidos en la forma siguiente: 17 del Liberal, 9 de Unión Nacionalista, 6 a Unión Revolucionaria-Comunista, 3 al Conjunto Nacional Democrático y 1 al Partido Nacional Revolucionario (Realista)" (page 554). "15 noviembre, sin la menor sombra de irregularidad, tienen efecto las elecciones para delegados a la Asamblea Constituyente; triunfo rotundo del Frente de Oposición que obtiene 541.914 sufragios en proporción de 225.223 el PRC (A); 170.681 el PDR; 80.168 el AR y 65.842 el ABC, en tanto que el Bloque Gubernamental sólo alcanza 538.090 votos, representados por 182.246 el PL; 152.189 el PUN; 97.944 el URC; 77.527 el CND; 37.933 el PNR (R) y 10.251 el PPC; el PAN (Partido Agrario Nacional), que figuró como independiente, logró 9.359 votos" (page 566).

Farber 1976: "On November 15, 1939, Cubans went to the polls to elect delegates to the Constitutional Convention which was to take place the following year" (page 93). Describes the delegates elected (page 94).

Gellman 1973: "The election revealed some interesting developments in Cuban politics. Out of an electorate of 1,611,583, there were 1,044,043 votes cast, or 65 percent of the total" (page 172). Describes the elections and gives other statistics (pages 172-174). "The Constituent Assembly elections of 1939" (page 173). Gives party, leading figure, political leaning, vote, and number of delegates elected.

Halperin 1970: "In the elections to the Constituent Assembly in November 1939 the opposition coalition headed by the Auténticos prevailed over Batista's heterogeneous 'Socialist Democratic Front,' but in the actual Assembly Batista again maneuvered successfully to draw one of the smaller opposition groups over to his side and thus to obtain a majority" (page 23).

Hargrove 1979: "Elections took place as scheduled on 15 November...The Grau Auténticos led all the other parties; the Liberal party came in second, the Partido Demócrata Republicano placed third; the pro-government Nationalist party was fourth in the polling; the Communist party was fifth. Miguel Mariano Gómez' Acción Republicana and Joaquín Martínez Sáenz' ABC party, both opposition parties, were sixth and seventh. The pro-government Democrats placed eight. About fifty to sixty percent of the electorate voted. The opposition bloc elected 41 to the government coalitions' 35 delegates to the constituent assembly" (page 105).

Riera 1955: "Los partidos Liberal, Conjunto Nacional Democrático, Unión Nacionalista, Realista, Popular Cubano y Unión Revolucionaria-Comunista organizan el 'Frente Gubernamental' contra el 'Block Oposicionista' que reúne a los partidos Revolucionario Cubano, ABC, Acción Republicana y Demócrata-Republicano...El Frente de Oposición ha de totalizar 541,914 sufragios contra 538,090 sumados al Block Gubernamental. Los partidos oposicionistas eligen 41 constituyente frente a 35 que corresponden al Block Gubernamental, que más adelante ha de ser mayoría al sumársele 15 Delegados electos por el Partido Demócrata-Republicano que dirige Menocal. Las 76 actas de la Asamblea se distribuyeron en la cuantía siguiente: auténticos, 18; liberales, 16; menocalistas, 15; nacionalistas, 9; comunistas, 6; abecedarios, 4; marianistas, 4; conjuntistas, 3 y la última de los realistas" (page 476). Gives total votes cast for each party (page 477). "Elecciones de constituyentes de 15 de noviembre de 1939" (pages 478-482). Gives results by province.

Riera Hernández 1974: "Convención de 1940" (pages 41-46).

Stoner 1991: "The election of delegates to the Constituent Congress followed strict guidelines designed to provide for the broadest political representation. Fair elections took place on November 15, 1939, with a large voter turnout. Delegates with progressive leanings composed the majority of the congress, while radical activists made up the largest minority faction…Only two of the delegates were women" (page 190).

Suchlicki 1997: "With only fifty-seven percent of the eligible voters participating in the election for the constitutional convention, government parties won 558,000 votes, but only thirty-five delegates; the opposition parties won 551,000 votes and placed forty-one delegates. Several leaders of the generation of 1930, including Eduaro Chibás and Carlos Prío Socarrás, were elected as delegates" (page 120).

Whitney 2001: "When congressional elections were finally held on November 15, 1939, political alignments did not correspond to ideological differences between left and right. Rather, two electoral coalitions emerged during 1939, each with its own broad vision of how to strengthen the Cuban state after the revolution of 1933" (page 173). Describes the composition of each coalition.


De Lima-Dantas 1987: "At the end of 1939 Batista resigned his post as commander of the armed forces and ran for the presidency, under a coalition supported by the Communist Party of Cuba (Partido Comunista de Cuba-PCC) and the Revolutionary Union Party (Partido Unión Revolucionario-PUR; the two were merged to form the Communist Revolutionary Union (Union Revolucionario Communista-URC)" (page 32).

Gellman 1973: "On December 26, 1939, [Laredo Bru] ended his silence by announcing that he would meet with both sides to devise an acceptable schedule for the general elections" (page 177).

Hargrove 1979: "On 11 December Batista formally accepted the presidential nomination of the newly renamed Socialist Democratic Coalition" (page 108).


Whitney 2001: "The central importance of the elections of late 1939, the presidential elections of 1940, and the Constitutional Convention of 1940 was that they represented the culmination of seven years of authoritarian rule. These events signified a new phase in the relationship between the state and society in Cuba" (page 173).


Hargrove 1979: "In January 1940 the Constituent Assembly still had not met. The Socialist Democratic Coalition and the opposition bloc had to...decide whether the 1940 general elections would be held before or after the convocation of the Constituent Assembly" (page 111).

February 4

Gellman 1973: "(P)oliticians presented numerous proposals, and finally, on February 4, 1940, they reached an acceptable compromise. The Assembly would be allowed to draft the new constitution and transitory provisions, but until the new president took office, the Congress would continue to legislate. The date for general elections was later postponed from February 28, to July 14, and Laredo Bru, whose term expired on May 2, agreed to remain in office until the inauguration on October 10. Finally, congressmen would be allowed to serve their full terms even though the new constitution reduced the size of the Congress; thus, the new one would be composed of the incumbents plus the new members, and its inflated membership would slowly be reduced in future congressional elections" (pages 177-178).

February 9

Hargrove 1979: "On 10 February 1940, the Constituent Assembly was inaugurated in the House chamber of the National Capitol" (page 114).

Pérez 1993: "A constituent assembly representing the full spectrum of political affiliation, from old 'machadistas' to the PRC and Communists, convened in 1939 [should be 1940] to draft a new constitution. It provided the forum for renewed debate over virtually all the key issues of republican politics" (page 77).

Riera 1955: "El 9 de febrero de 1940 comienza a funcionar la Asamblea de Constituyentes. Se elige presidente a Ramón Grau San Martín" (page 476).

July 1

Ameringer 2000: "The Cuban Constitution of 1940 has been described as 'one of the most liberal and progressive ever written in the American hemisphere'…It strengthened representative democracy by extending the suffrage to all citizens and restricting the power of the presidency" (page 14).

Hargrove 1979: "On 1 July 1940...the new Cuban Constitution was signed. It went into effect on 10 October 1940" (page 124). "The President was...to be elected by universal suffrage and could not serve a two-four year consecutively-there had to be an eight year lapse before a person previously elected to the presidency could run again" (page 129). "The Superior Electoral Tribunal, which would consist of three justices from the Supreme Court and two justices from the Havana Court of Appeals all chosen by their respective members, was given ultimate responsibility in electoral disputes" (page 130).

Pérez 1993: The Constitution of 1940 "provided for the use of referendum, universal suffrage and free elections" (page 77).

Simons 1996: "The resulting document emerged as essentially an agenda of goals: universal suffrage, free elections, political and civil liberties-all in the absence of mechanisms for enforcement" (page 255).

July 14: general election

Alexander 1960: "In the elections which were held in July, 1940, following the completion of the work of the Constitutional Convention, the Communists supported the candidacy of Fulgencio Batista for the presidency of the republic, forming part of his Socialist Democratic Coalition. This collaboration of the Communists with Batista paid off very handsomely for the Unión Revolucionaria Comunista. The Communists elected not only ten members of the Chamber of Deputies, but more than one hundred members of city councils throughout the island" (page 282). Gives more details on the election.

Bonachea 1972: "In 1940 Batista was elected president with the backing of communists, conservatives, and the armed forces" (page 15).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "El día 20 de julio el TSE dio por terminados los escrutinios de acuerdo con los partes recibidos de los colegios, informando que la candidatura Batista-Cuervo Rubio había triunfado sobre la de Grau-de la Cruz por la suma de 805.125 votos contra 573.526; que la CSD había obtenido mayoría senatorial en cinco de las seis provincias; todos los gobiernos provinciales y 95 actas de representantes en proporción de 23 el Partido Liberal, 21 el Partido Unión Nacionalista, 22 el Partido Demócrata Republicano, 13 el Conjunto Nacional Democrático, 10 la Unión Revolucionaria-Comunista, 4 el Partido Nacional Revolucionario y 2 el Partido Popular Cubano; y que el Block Oposicionista había logrado 67 actas de representantes a razón de 39 el Partido Revolucionario Cubano, 16 la Acción Republicana y 12 el ABC. En cuanto a las alcaldías el TSE hizo conocer que la CSD había ganado 93 y el BO las 33 restantes y que la primera había obtenido 31 cargos de consejeros provinciales y 23 el segundo" (page 557). Gives additional statistics (page 574).

Gellman 1973: Describes the election of July 14, 1940 (page 183).

Halperin 1970: Presidential and congressional "elections were held in July 1940. They were reasonably fair by Cuban standards, though by no means above suspicion, and resulted in a sweeping victory for Batista, who defeated the Auténtico leader Grau San Martín in the presidential contest, and in a comfortable majority for his Socialist Democratic Front in both houses of Congress" (page 24).

Hargrove 1979: "The elections were held on 14 July. There were 25,394 candidates running for 2,343 offices. Even so, Batista swept the election-winning over three-fifths of the total vote, with the Communists winning 73,000 votes. The Socialist Democratic Coalition won both houses of Congress, the provincial elections and many local races. Raúl Menocal, son of ex-President Menocal, even defeated ex-President Gómez for mayor of Havana. The opposition bloc claimed massive fraud, but impartial observers said there was evidence of little fraud or other irregularities that would make a difference in the outcome" (page 137).

Pérez 1993: "Batista stepped out of uniform and Grau San Martín returned from exile to challenge his old rival. The campaign was vigorously waged, and the election was certainly among the most honest in the nearly four decades of the republic's history. Batista secured more than 800,000 votes to Grau's 575,000" (page 77).

Riera 1955: "Elecciones generales de 14 de julio de 1940" (pages 491-512). Gives results for all races by province.

Riera Hernández 1974: "Elecciones de 1940" (pages 26-27).

Simons 1996: "Batista won more than 800,000 votes, Grau 575,000, and the Communists 73,000" (page 256).


Alexander 1960: In 1941 "the Socialist group which had formed part of the Unión Revolucionaria, and then of the P.U.R.C., broke away to re-form a Partido Socialista de Cuba" (page 282).

Sims 1992: "A faction broke away from the Communists, the Auténticos, and Joven Cuba to form Acción Revolucionaria Guiteras (ARG)" (page 225).


March: elections

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "Las elecciones parciales celebradas en 1942 conservaron la mayoría gubernamental en la Cámara, pues de las 57 actas en pugna 21 correspondieron al Demócrata, 21 al Liberal y 3 al Comunista, todos de la CSD, en tanto que fueron al Auténtico 10 y al ABC 2 que fueron estas últimas luego a sumarse a la CSD" (pages 668-669).

Gellman 1973: "Although 431 candidates filed to run for fifty-eight seats, the public showed little interest in the campaign, since no significant issues were at stake. On March 15, 1942, approximately 50 percent of the eligible voters went to the polls. In what the embassy described as remarkably quiet, generally honest, and impartial elections, the government bloc won forty-six of the contests" (page 197).

Hargrove 1979: "On 15 March 1942 partial elections were held for Congress. Batista's coalition easily defeated the opposition bloc and thus increased its already large majority in Congress" (page 157). Describes the results (pages 157-158).

Riera 1955: "Elecciones parciales de 15 de marzo de 1942" (pages 516-520). Gives results by province.


Simons 1996: In 1943 "it had been possible for Batista to legalise the (reformist) Communist Party and to establish diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, then an ally of the United States" (page 256).

Sims 1992: "Partly to symbolize their cooperative attitude and continuing 'moderation' during the war..., the PUR changed its name in 1943 to Partido Socialista Popular (PSP)" (page 226).


Ameringer 2000: "Batista's vice president…bolted the Democratic Party (which was part of the government coalition) and formed the Republican Party when Batista chose Saladrigas over him" (page 17).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: Describes the new electoral code promulgated May 31, 1943 (pages 649-650). Gives more information on the electoral code and gives the membership of the major parties (page 670).

Hargrove 1979: "In May 1943 Cuervo Rubio...formed a new right wing party [Partido Republicano] which consisted of a few disgruntled politicians from the Socialist Democratic Coalition" (page 166).


Gellman 1973: "On Jun 1, 1943, [Congress] passed the new electoral code, requiring all eligible Cubans to vote and to carry an identification card. Besides the enfranchisement sections, the act set June 1, 1944 as the date for elections and October 10 for the president's inauguration" (page 208).


Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "(E)n julio de 1943 se efectuó un censo de la Población y Electoral" (page 670). "El número de electores ascendió a 2.330.021, o sea, el 48,8 por 100 de la población total" (page 670).

Gellman 1973: The census "determined that 2,259,514 of Cuba's 4,624,998 citizens were eligible voters. Each citizen was then given the opportunity to register with one of the various political parties. When the registration ended, the government factions claimed twice as many members as the opposition forces. The government claims of numerical superiority did not disturb Grau's supporters for they believed that Batista's officials had interfered in both the census and the affiliations to ensure the government's victory in the presidential elections" (pages 208-209).


Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: Gives the results of a survey of memberships in the various political parties (page 650).

Riera 1955: "Reorganizacion de 1943" (pages 521-522). Gives the number of registered voters and the number registered with each party. "El coronel Carlos Mendieta regresa a la política en la reorganización de 1943. En esa fecha organiza el Partido Nacional Cubano...Los partidos afines al presidente Batista organizan la Coalición Socialista-Democrática que llega a 1.404,527 afiliados, frente a 703,869 inscripciones realizadas por los partidos de la Alianza Auténtico-Republicana (PRC y PR)" (page 522).



Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "3 enero, el Partido Unión Revolucionaria Comunista cambia su nombre por el de Partido Socialista Popular" (page 650). "25 enero, renuncia Batista la Presidencia de la liga de partidos gubernamentales, Coalición Socialista Democrática" (page 650).

Pérez 1995: The communist party is reorganized in 1944 as the Partido Socialista Popular (PSP) (page 288).


Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "15 marzo, la Coalición Socialista Democrática, integrada por los partidos gubernamentales Liberal, Demócrata, ABC, y Socialista Popular nomina como candidatos a Presidente y Vicepresidente, respectivamente, a Carlos Saladrigas y Zayas y a Ramón Zaydín y Márquez Sterling…18 marzo, nomina el Partido Revolucionario Cubano (Auténtico) a Ramón Grau San Martín como candidato presidencial" (page 651).

Riera 1955: "Dos Frentes Electorales discuten en 1944 la Presidencia de la República. Los partidos Demócrata, Liberal, ABC y Socialista-Popular se agrupan en la 'Coalición Socialista-Democrática' que representa la línea afin al Gobierno, mientras los partidos Republicano y Revolucionario Cubano crean la 'Alianza Auténtico-Republicana' representativa de la Oposición" (page 523).

June: general election (Grau San Martín / PRC-A)

Ameringer 2000: "The election of 1944 was a referendum on the 'Authentic Revolution.' It represented the culmination of the ten-year struggle for political democracy and economic and social justice. Nostalgia was Grau's most powerful weapon" (page 15). "On June 1, 1944, Ramón Grau San Martín of the Auténtico Party won the Cuban presidential election with 1,041,822 votes to 839,220 for Carlos Saladrigas, representing the Batista-sponsored Democratic Socialist Coalition…(T)he Auténticos…had formed an alliance with the Republican Party…[and] did not achieve a majority in either house of the Congress" (page 16). The "'new' conservative Republican Party (not to be confused with a former Republican Party active in the 1930s) may have provided Grau with his 'margin of victory.' Of Grau's votes, 771,599 were recorded in the Auténtico column, while 270,223 came from the Republican line" (page 17).

Domínguez 1978: "By the time of the 1944 elections, three government parties-the Nationalists, the Realists, and the Populars-had disbanded..., and most of their members had joined other government parties...The opposition Republicans also disbanded; some joined the ruling Liberals; others, Grau's Auténticos. The major defection occurred when the ruling Democrats divided and Vice President Cuervo Rubio organized a new, conservative Republican party allied to Grau, in opposition" (pages 101-102).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "(A)unque tardarán en conocerse los resultados oficiales de las elecciones, éstos indicarán una inmensa mayoría para los candidatos de la Alianza Auténtico Republicana, Grau y Cárdenas, quienes vencieron en cinco de las seis provincias al perder sólo la de Pinar del Río y obtuvieron un total de 1.041.822 votos, de los cuales 771.599 fueron depositados bajo la columna del Partido Revolucionario Cubano (Auténtico) y 270.223 bajo la del Partido Republicano; entre tanto, los candidatos de la Coalición Socialista Democrática, Saladrigas y Zaydín, alcanzaron solamente 839.220 sufragios en total; la victoria no fue tan amplia en cuanto a las mayorías senatoriales pues la Coalición triunfó en las cuatro provincias occidentales" (page 652). Gives by party the results in the congressional, state, and municipal elections. "Las elecciones" (pages 670-672).

Farber 1976: "On June 1, 1944, free general elections were held, and Ramón Grau San Martín…decisively defeated Carlos Saladrigas, the candidate of the 'Democratic Socialist Coalition,' which included Batista and his supporters among the traditional politicians, as well as the Communist party" (page 108).

Gellman 1973: "In an election in which more Cubans went to the polls than ever before, Grau received 1,042,874 votes or 54 percent, while Saladrigas had 837,230. But even though the Auténticos had won the presidency, their victory was far from complete, for the government coalition still controlled the Congress, and Batista had won the widespread praise for his conduct in holding fair elections. Grau had won the presidency, but Batista had not been discredited" (page 213).

Halperin 1970: "Batista could not constitutionally succeed himself in office, and nominated one of his followers, a former leader of the ABC, as his candidate in the Presidential election of 1944...The Communists campaigned vigorously for the government candidate...But the election, probably the cleanest in Cuban history, was won by Grau, although the Socialist Democratic Front retained a majority in Congress" (page 26).

Pérez 1993: "The government candidate, Carlos Saladrigas, campaigned with the active support of Batista. He was opposed by Ramón Grau San Martín...In the June poll Grau obtained more than one million votes, sweeping five out of six provinces, losing only Pinar del Río" (page 79). "(I)n the 1944 elections the PSP obtained three seats in the Senate and ten in the lower house" (page 82).

Pérez 1995: "The Auténtico victory raised enormous popular expectations that the reform program that had served as both the legacy and promise of the PRC had at last found fulfillment" (page 284).

Riera 1955: "En las elecciones generales de 1943 [should be 1944] rigió el Código Electoral redactado por el representante Gustavo Gutiérrez. Establecía el voto libre y directo para los cargos ejecutivos. Mantuvo la vigencia del Voto Preferencial para la selección de los candidatos a representante y concejal y el selectivo directo para los de senadores, escogiéndose hasta 3 candidatos de esa clases dentro de una sola columna o partido. Se estableció la provisión de la Alta Cámara en la cuantía de 6 senadores por la mayoría y 3 por la minoría" (pages 524-525). "Elecciones generales de 1o de junio de 1944" (pages 529-546). Gives results by province.

Riera Hernández 1974: "Elecciones de 1944" (pages 27-28).

Simons 1996: "In 1944 Batista faced the prospect of a new presidential election with confidence, but this time he had miscalculated. In June Grau San Martín, now almost sixty years old, was swept to power…Batista, having pulled all the strings for more than a decade, was forced to step down" (page 256).

Sims 1992: "The elections of 1 June 1944 proved once again to be free. This time, however, Batista confronted a new democratic spirit among the electorate. Carlos Saladrigas, the candidate of the Democratic Socialist Coalition, was rejected in favor of an alternative civilian leadership, the men of the revolution of 1933-4, whom Batista had betrayed. The Auténtico leader, Ramón Grau San Martín, won handsomely-an outcome that shocked the Communists who petulantly called on the 'chief' to disavow the election result and retain authority. They sensed what the verdict of the electorate could ultimately mean for the PSP's position in organized labor" (page 227).

Thomas 1998: "A new stipulation in the Constitution had, however, made vote-splitting possible and Grau did not receive a majority in Congress or in the municipal or provincial governments. Thus, though personally popular, he had from the beginning no solid basis for his administration and no solid anti-Batistiano majority" (page 736).


Bonachea 1972: "Batista's firm control prevented any major violence [among the insurrectionists], but when the Auténticos came to power in 1944 with a weak government, violence once again erupted. The Grau administration took advantage of the insurrectionists' existence by providing government jobs for group members. In return, they assassinated communists to help Grau gain control of the university or the labor unions" (page 16). Describes other activities of the gangs and their political ties (pages 16-19).

Farber 1976: "Batista left office in October 1944 and went into exile in Florida; and Grau, in order to ensure his tenure in office, replaced and retired many army officers, although the institution itself remained essentially unaltered" (page 108).

Halperin 1970: "By 1944, the 'action group gangsters' were divided into a number of rival gangs, the most important of these being the MSR (Movimiento Socialista Revolucionario), the UIR (Unión Insurreccional Revolucionaria), and the ARG (Acción Revolucionaria Guiteras), each of which used a revolutionary name and a primitive leftist-extremist phraseology to mask its criminal activities. Grau allowed the groups to come out into the open and gave them regular subsidies" (page 34).


Domínguez 1978: "In 1945, 9.3 percent of the Senate and 9.4 percent of the House of Representatives were black" (page 226).

Pérez 1995: "Government fell under a siege of a new generation of hungry office-seekers, and their appetite was voracious. For the first time, Auténticos acquired control over lucrative posts and privileges. The opportunity was not lost. Embezzlement, graft, corruption, and malfeasance of public office permeated every branch of national, provincial, and municipal government. The public trust was transformed into a private till. Politics passed under the control of party thugs, and a new word entered the Cuban political lexicon: 'gangsterismo'" (page 284).

Rabkin 1991: Grau's associates "put together virtual armies of 'activists,' nicknamed 'pistoleros,' barely distinguishable from gangsters. The groups could be called upon to protect the turf of their sponsors against any challenge" (page 17).

Riera 1955: "Reorganización de 1945" (pages 547-548). Gives the number of voters registered for each party.

Simons 1996: "The Grau presidency (1944-48) quickly ran into the problem of political corruption…The past enthusiasm for reform had now largely evaporated…Soon all branches of municipal, provincial and national government were experiencing embezzlement, graft and the corruption of public office" (pages 256-257).


Domínguez 1978: "In December 1945 the Communist party defected from the Batista coalition and joined the Grau government, giving it control of the Senate" (page 102).


Alexander 1960: "The number of registered Communist voters rose from 90,000 in 1940 to 150,000 six years later" (page 284).

June 1: midterm election

Alexander 1960: "(D)uring the 1946 congressional elections, the Communists joined with the Auténtico Party and the small A.B.C. party in a coalition. This coalition was successful, and as a result of it Grau's party won a majority in both houses of Congress" (page 286).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "1 junio, celebradas en este día las elecciones parciales; se desenvuelven con relativa tranquilidad; los partidos de Gobierno afianzan su mayoría parlamentaria" (page 695). Gives the number of congressional seats and mayoralties won by each party.

Farber 1976: "In the 1946 election, the Auténticos obtained a congressional majority and no longer needed to rely on Communist support" (page 138).

Halperin 1970: "In the Congressional elections of 1946 the Auténticos won a sweeping victory which made them independent of communist support in both houses of Congress" (page 35).

Pérez 1995: "Two years after Grau's election in 1944, Auténticos controlled both houses of the legislature, and the party ruled Cuba with reckless abandon" (page 287).

Pérez-Stable 1993a: "The 1946 election results undermined the rationale for the Grau-PSP alliance. The Auténtico party now had a congressional majority and controlled most provincial and municipal governments. Moreover, two years in power had allowed the party to expand the state bureaucracy and reward supporters with the sinecures of public office. Vanquishing the communist labor leadership would enable the 'auténticos' to exercise full control over the union movement and gain favor with the 'clases económicas' as well as assuage U.S. concerns over communist influence" (page 47).

Riera 1955: "Elecciones parciales de 1o de junio de 1946" (pages 550-562). Gives results by province.

Sims 1992: "The elections of 1946, in which the PSP and CTC leaders backed PRC-A candidates, represented the high-water mark of Communist membership (prior to the 1960s) and vote-garnering potential: party members only amounted to some 37,000, but roughly 197,000 voters cast ballots for the party's candidates" (page 230).



Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: The formation of the Partido Laborista Cubano is announced on January 5, 1947 (page 698).


Alexander 1960: "The break in the Communist-Auténtico alliance came in May, 1947, on the occasion of the Fifth Congress of the Confederación de Trabajadores de Cuba" (page 286).

Ameringer 2000: Fidel Castro "became a founding member of the PPC" (page 44). He "formed a splinter group within the Youth Section of the party known as the Ortodoxo Radical Action (ARO)…that favored armed revolt" (page 45).

Duff 1985: "A group of disenchanted younger members of the party founded a dissident wing in 1947 and called themselves the 'Ortodoxos,' implying they were the real heirs of the Revolution of 1933. The schism, while regarded as important at the time, in reality merely provided the 'coup de grace' to a political party that had never really been organized" (page 113).

LeoGrande 1981: "In 1947, coincident with the outbreak of the cold war internationally, the Autenticos launched a campaign of repression against the PSP, driving it underground once again, and there it remained until 1959" (page 239).

Rabkin 1991: "In 1947, an 'auténtico' politician named Eduardo Chibás began to champion the cause of honesty in government. Having been passed over for his party's presidential nomination in favor of Prío, he founded his own 'Partido del Pueblo Cubano (ortodoxo)'. Speaking of nationalism, social reform, and above all, honesty in government, Chibás captured the hearts of the Cuban middle class and of many Cuban students" (page 17).

Sims 1992: The PPC-O is founded on May 15, 1947 (page 234).

Suchlicki 1997: "Chibás and other Auténtico leaders formed the Partido del Pueblo Cubano (ortodoxo) in 1947. Led by Chibás, a former student leader of the generation of 1930, this party became the repository of the ideals of the 'frustrated revolution' and the refuge of a new generation, determined to transform those ideals into reality" (page 125).


Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "26 octubre, cerrado el período de afiliaciones, el Tribunal Supremo Electoral informa que de un total de 2.482.584 electores se han afiliado a los distintos partidos políticos 1.939.319" (page 708). Gives the number in each major party.


Ameringer 2000: "During the presidential campaign, there was no 'pistolero'-related violence, but then and during the transition period, the 'pistoleros' were tending to other matters and raising the specter of unrestrained gang warfare" (page 67).

Domínguez 1978: "Violence had become endemic in Cuban politics since the revolution against Machado...Because Cuban politics was both closely competitive and weakly legitimate, politicians used violence to advance their ends at election time or when nonviolent procedures were not effective. The manipulation of violent groups increased a politician's discretionary power because governments in the 1940s had not repressed these groups" (page 111).

Suchlicki 1997: "The three most prominent urban groups operating in Cuba [in 1948] were the ARG (Acción Revolucionaria Guiteras), the MSR (Movimiento Socialista Revolucionario), and the UIR (Unión Insurreccional Revolucionaria)" (page 123).


Ameringer 2000: "By early April, four candidates had been nominated for the presidency" (page 63). Describes each of them.

June 1: general election (Prío / PRC-A)

Ameringer 2000: "Prío won the election handily but not overwhelmingly. He received 892,796 votes out of 2,506,554 cast, or 35.74 percent of the registered voters; Núñez Portuondo gained 23.84 percent; Chibás got 12.80 percent; and Marinello trailed with 5.61 percent; 22.01 percent of the registered voters either did not exercise the franchise or cast invalid votes" (page 65).

August 1999: The "PPC(O) ticket of Eduardo Chibás and Roberto Agramonte for president and vice-president respectively won 324,634 votes in the 1948 elections. In the same elections the presidential and vice-presidential slate of the 'Partido Socialista Popular' (Communist)...won for its part the approval of 142,972 citizens" (page 156).

Domínguez 1978: "Votes received by party coalitions, 1948 (%)" (page 108).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "2 junio, los partes oficiales no dejan lugar a dudas en cuanto al resultado enteramente favorable a la candidatura Prío-Alonso Pujol; los candidatos derrotados reconocen el triunfo Auténtico-Republicano…(E)n los comicios depositaron sus votos 1.972.705 de los 2.506.734, o sea el 79 por 100" (page 712). Gives the results in the presidential, state, and municipal elections. "El doctor Prío Socarrás, candidato a la Alianza Auténtico-Republicana, obtuvo 859.999 votos, casi la mitad de la votación total de los cuatro aspirantes presidenciales y 300.000 votos más que el candidato de la Coalición Liberal-Democrática, quien quedó en segundo lugar. Su triunfo, pues, fue decisivo, con 50 representantes a la Cámara de 78 posibles, y la mitad de los miembros del Senado" (page 740).

Farber 1976: "In 1948 the recently founded party [Partido del Pueblo Cubano] ran a ticket against the Auténticos and made a fair showing considering the lack of resources at its disposal at the time. In a very short time the party managed to build an impressive following based on the popularity of its top leader and on the moral message it tried to put across to the Cuban people" (page 122).

Halperin 1970: "Chibás ran for President in the 1948 elections. His party was less than a year old, and he was outdistanced by the victorious Auténtico candidate, Carlos Prío Socarrás, who polled 800,000 to Chibás 300,000 votes. But Chibás' showing was still better than that of the two other opposition candidates, a Liberal and a Communist, and this established his Ortodoxos as the main opposition force against the Auténtico regime. Fulgencio Batista, running for Senator on the Liberal-Democratic coalition ticket, won his seat even though he was forced to conduct his entire campaign in absentia, from his house on Daytona Beach. The new President allowed him to return to Cuba" (pages 46-47).

McDonald 1989: "The Auténticos and their Republican allies also went on to win the 1948 elections behind presidential candidate Carlos Prío Socarrás. Unfortunately, the eight years of Auténtico government were bitterly disillusioning to Cubans. The party instituted no significant reforms and engaged freely in the graft, corruption, and electoral manipulation typical of Cuban politics. In disgust, many Auténtico supporters joined the new Orthodox Cuban People's party " (page 24). "In the 1948 elections growing public discontent with the established parties gave these fledgling Ortodoxos a surprising 17 percent of the vote, compared to 46 percent for the Auténticos, 7 percent for the Communist PSP, and 30 percent for the Liberals and other traditional forces" (page 25).

Pérez 1995: "In the 1948 elections, the PSP claimed some 160,000 supporters. But PSP fortunes declined markedly during the Auténtico years" (page 288).

Riera 1955: "Elecciones generales de 1o de junio de 1948" (pages 567-575). Gives results by province.

Riera Hernández 1974: "Elecciones de 1948" (pages 28-29).

Simons 1996: "The 1948 election saw a further reduction in Communist influence, with the refashioned Communist Party, the Partido Socialista Popular (PSP), losing control over key labour organisations" (page 257).

Statistical abstract of Latin America volume 12 1968: In the June 2, 1948 presidential election Carlos Prío Socarrás, Partido Revolucionario Cubano Auténtico, and G.A. Pujol, Partido Republicano, are elected president and vice-president (page 147).

Thomas 1998: Prío "gained 900,000 votes, Núñez Portuondo 600,000, Chibás 325,000 and Marinello 142,000. The Communists lost their three seats in the Senate, retaining nine deputies...Batista was elected a senator and so returned from Florida" (page 757).


Halperin 1970: "Fulgencio Batista was allowed to return to Cuba in November 1948...For the time being, he stayed out of the limelight, not attending the Senate sessions, leaving the work of discrediting the Auténtico regime by incessant denunciation of its corruption to Chibás and the Ortodoxos. He spent the next two years quietly and patiently building a new machine which was to serve as his instrument for the reconquest of power" (page 52).


Pérez 1995: "The ranks of civil service became bloated. The number of persons on the government payroll more than doubled, from 60,000 in 1943 to 131,000 in 1949" (page 284).

Riera 1955: "Reorganización de 1949" (pages 577-578). Gives the number of registered voters and the number registered in each party.


Bray 1974: "By the 1950's the nation had a relatively high degree of urbanization, a large organized labor movement, and nearly all of the rural population had been employed directly in the production of export crops. There was more U.S. capital invested in Cuba per capita than in any other country in the third world except the oil-producing countries" (page 583).

Pérez 1995: "By 1950, some 186,000 persons, fully 11 percent of the working population, occupied active public positions at national, provincial, and municipal levels of government; another 30,000 retired employees were on the state payrolls. An estimated 80 percent of the 1949-50 budget was used to pay the salaries of public officials. Pensions accounted for another 8 percent of national expenditures" (page 284).

Suchlicki 1997: "By 1950 the Ortodoxos had become a formidable political force...Chibás, now an elected senator,...monopolized the rhetoric of revolution, becoming the exponent of the frustrated old generation and the leader of a new generation bent on bringing morality and honesty to Cuban public life. It was he more than anyone else who, with his constant exhortations, calls for reform, and attacks on Cuba's political leadership, paved the way for the revolution that followed" (page 126).


Ameringer 2000: "In February, the breakup of the Auténtico-Republican alliance became official when Alonso Pujol (still the vice president of the republic) entered into a formal pact with his old friend Grau. They formed the Cubanidad Alliance, known commonly as 'la Coincidencia'" (page 109).

June 1: midterm election

Alexander 1960: "During the Prío Socarrás administration the Communists lost considerable ground among the masses of the people. In the 1950 elections the Communists were forced to run on a ticket of their own, no other party agreeing to coalesce with them. As a result, they lost the three seats which they had previously held in the Senate, although they maintained their nine seats in the Chamber of Deputies...The Party's registration fell from 150,000 in 1948 to only 55,000 two years later" (page 292).

Ameringer 2000: Describes the election for mayor (page 109). The "Auténticos lost a few marquee races but won more than 100 of the 126 mayoralty contests and gained substantially in the 475-seat Chamber of Representatives…Eddy Chibás won the Senate seat from Havana province" (page 110).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "1 junio, en un ambiente de respeto a la voluntad popular tienen efecto las elecciones parciales; no se registran mayores incidentes; el gobierno ve frustradas sus esperanzas en cuanto a la elección de Antonio Prío Socarrás como Alcalde habanero pues triunfa su adversario Nicolás Castellanos Rivero y lo mismo ocurre al candidato a Senador Virgilio Pérez que es derrotado por Eduardo R. Chibás" (page 769). Gives the results of the election.

Riera 1955: "Elecciones parciales de 1950" (pages 579-591). Gives results by province.

Thomas 1998: "Prío's chief preoccupation now was the fate of his brother Antonio in the elections for the mayoralty of Havana in June, for his enemies, who now included Grau as well as Batista, were backing Nicolás Castellanos. There was also an unprecedented amount of bribery, kidnapping and other violence, but this could not prevent Castellanos from winning the election 1 June: he gained 52% of the votes against Antonio Prío's 37% while Manuel Bisbé, the Ortodoxo candidate, got 11%. The rest of the voting, however, gave the Auténticos a solid majority in the House of Representatives, with over one hundred mayoralities out of 126" (page 764).


Halperin 1970: In 1951 "politicians too compromised by previous association with Batista to have found shelter in either the Auténtico or the Ortodoxo parties...constituted themselves into a Unitary Action Party, and with this weak prop as his only visible support, Batista announced his candidacy for the presidential election scheduled for June 1952" (page 53).


Ameringer 2000: In March 1951, "the Auténticos made a pact with the Liberals for the 1952 elections" (page 149).


Suchlicki 1997: In August 1951 Chibás, leader of the Ortodoxo party, commits suicide (page 130).


Farber 1976: "In the midst of the climate of relative prosperity and civil liberties during the middle and late forties, there was a definite increase in the militancy of Cuban workers. In September 1951 it was reported that, as in previous months, there had been many strikes and acts of violence. During the preceding ten months there had been 120 strikes and 151 demands for salary increases, an all-time record for Cuba" (page 130).


Ameringer 2000: Gives the number registered for each party (page 162).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "21 octubre, terminan las afiliaciones; de los 2.764.757 electores inscritos se afilian 2.097.960" (page 786). Gives the number in each party.

Riera 1955: "Reorganización de 1951" (pages 593-594). Gives the number of registered voters and the number affiliated with each party.

Thomas 1998: Gives the number of political affiliations registered in October 1951 for each party (page 774).