Jonas Salk Papers, 1926 - 1991

MSS 0001

Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego

Restrictions: Permission to access the Salk Papers must be granted in advance by the director of SC&A.
Restrictions: Due to personally identifiable medical information in the POLIO files, materials in Series 2 and 13 may be additionally restricted. Original materials deemed too fragile for use, including original audiovisual formats, are restricted. Researchers may request use copies be produced in advance.

Extent

316.1 Linear feet (607 archives boxes, 28 card file boxes, 12 records cartons, 76 art bin items, and 176 oversize folders)

Abstract

Papers of Dr. Jonas Salk, noted physician, virologist, humanitarian, and founder of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California. Salk is best known for his development of the world's first successful vaccine for the prevention of poliomyelitis, licensed in the U.S. in 1955. He also conducted important research in the prevention and treatment of influenza, multiple sclerosis, cancer, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The Salk Papers constitute an exhaustive source of documentation of Dr. Salk's professional activities, but very few materials relating to his personal life. Most of the papers cover the period from the mid-1940s to the 1980s. The papers include extensive general correspondence, files relating to polio, subject files, writings by Dr. Salk, photographs, sound recordings, records of the Salk Institute, and other research materials.

Biography

Jonas Salk is best known for his discovery of the world's first successful vaccine for the prevention of poliomyelitis. In addition to this accomplishment, Dr. Salk has made significant contributions to the study, prevention, and treatment of influenza, multiple sclerosis, cancer, and other diseases. He is also known for the founding and direction of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, his work for a wide variety of humanitarian endeavors, and most recently for his involvement in AIDS research.

Jonas Edward Salk was born in New York City on October 28, 1914. The eldest son of Daniel and Dora Salk, he grew up in East Harlem and the Crotona section of the Bronx. At 12 he began high school at Townsend Harris Hall, the preparatory school for the City College of New York. At 15 he entered the College itself. Taking an early interest in scientific research, he graduated from City College in 1934 with a Bachelor of Science degree.

In medical school at New York University, Salk distinguished himself from the beginning. At the end of his freshman year he was offered a fellowship to study biochemistry. In 1936 he returned to classes and completed his medical degree in 1939. During his last year in medical school he made the acquaintance of Dr. Thomas Francis, at that time chairman of the Department of Bacteriology. Francis, who had conducted important research on influenza and other diseases, became Salk's close friend and mentor.

After medical school Dr. Salk married Donna Lindsay, a graduate student at the New York School of Social Work and later a practicing social worker at the Jewish Child Care Association of New York. Before his internship, Dr. Salk spent a year of study with Thomas Francis and George Lavin, focusing primarily on research on influenza. In March of 1940 Salk began his internship at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, and he completed the program in 1942.

After his internship, Salk had a strong desire to study the pathology of virus diseases. In 1942 he obtained a grant-funded position at the University of Michigan's new School of Public Health. The head of the School was Dr. Thomas Francis, who had moved there in 1941. The funds for Salk's research came largely from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, although the research itself concerned the development of a vaccine for the prevention of influenza.

In 1943, while still at Michigan, Salk began work with the United States Army Influenza Commission. One of the goals of the Commission was to prevent an outbreak of the disease among the armed forces -- an outbreak which had reached epidemic proportions at the end of World War I. Salk's work with the Army included the testing of noninfectious or "killed virus" vaccines against influenza. Many vaccine field trials were carried out at Army bases such as Fort Dix and Fort Custer. At the end of World War II, the Federal Government sent Dr. Salk to Germany, where he helped organize diagnostic laboratories for the prevention of influenza among the occupation troops.

Dr. Salk held three positions at the University of Michigan. From 1943 to 1944 he was a Research Fellow in Epidemiology. In 1944 he became a Research Associate, and in 1946 he received a promotion to an assistant professorship.

Seeking a more secure academic position, Dr. Salk left Michigan in the fall of 1947 to become Associate Research Professor of Bacteriology at the University of Pittsburgh's School of Medicine. The dean of the School, Dr. William S. McEllroy, took an active interest in promoting research in virology. With the help of McEllroy and other prominent members of the community, Dr. Salk began a long and successful campaign to garner funds for the expansion of the Medical School's research program. Although Salk began his work in inadequate quarters in the basement of Pittsburgh's Municipal Hospital, he eventually transformed the Hospital facilities into a modern and well-equipped laboratory. Salk's early work at Pittsburgh was a continuation of his Michigan influenza research. Beginning in 1948, however, he focused more and more of his attention on studying the poliomyelitis virus.

Most support for Dr. Salk's polio work came from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis -- later known as the March of Dimes. The founder of the organization, President Franklin Roosevelt, was himself a victim of polio. The Foundation had its roots in Roosevelt's sponsorship of a polio treatment center in Warm Springs, Georgia in the early 1930's. In the mid-30s a series of "Birthday Balls" for the President helped raise more funds for polio research. Finally, in 1937, Roosevelt established the National Foundation. The president of the Foundation was Basil O'Connor, Roosevelt's former law partner and a self-made millionaire. Along with Dr. Thomas Rivers, who advised the Foundation on research grants, Dr. Don W. Gudakunst, the Medical Director, and Dr. Harry Weaver, its director of research, O'Connor made the organization the premier funding source for American polio research.

In September 1951, Basil O'Connor met Jonas Salk. The two were returning from the Second International Poliomyelits Conference in Copenhagen aboard the Queen Mary. Salk made a most favorable impression on O'Connor, and they eventually became close friends. The collaboration of Salk and O'Connor helped facilitate many important projects, including polio research and the establishment of the Salk Institute.

Poliomyelitis (commonly called polio) is a viral disease that results in a wide range of symptoms, including extensive paralysis of the muscles. The polio virus can enter the body through the throat and intestinal tract. Eventually the virus migrates to the central nervous system where it does the most damage. In many cases, a mild form of the disease in infancy can result in life-long immunity. Once known as "Infantile Paralysis," the disease was first accurately described in 1840. Epidemics of the disease were noted as early as 1887 in Sweden. In the United States, polio epidemics became widespread after 1900. A particularly large number of cases appeared in the U.S. between 1942 and 1953, and 33,344 cases were reported in 1950 alone. Although only one of many infectious and fatal diseases, polio gained widespread attention because many of its victims were children. Much of the success of the National Foundation's fundraising efforts resulted from the fears of parents and sympathy for children crippled by polio.

Many polio researchers made substantial progress from the late 1930s to the 1950s. Among those were W. Lloyd Aycock, James Trask, John R. Paul, David Bodian, Isabel Morgan, Howard Howe, Joseph Melnick, Dorothy Horstmann, Harold Cox, Hilary Kaprowski, and Albert Sabin. In 1931, Macfarlane Burnet discovered the existence of more than one strain of the polio virus. Robert G. Green made the important discovery that the polio virus could grow in non-nervous tissue. In 1951 and 1952 William Hammon conducted a field trial of gamma-globulin, a blood protein in which antibodies are formed. The tests successfully proved that the virus could travel through the bloodstream to the nervous system. A substantial breakthrough came in the late 1940s, when John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller, and Frederick Robbins successfully grew poliovirus in vitro at Harvard University. This breakthrough paved the way for the use of laboratory-generated viruses for experimentation, and it opened up the possibility that noninfectious vaccine could be developed from an inactivated virus.

Dr. Salk began his polio research by carrying out part of the systematic classification of the various strains of the virus. To facilitate this work, Salk expanded and modernized the Virus Research Laboratory in the old Pittsburgh Municipal Hospital. His staff included Major Byron L. Bennett, the chief laboratory technician; Dr. Julius S. Younger, the chief Research Associate; Dr. James L. Lewis; and Dr. Elsie N. Ward. Later additions to the staff were Francis Yurochko, Dr. Mary L. Bailey, Dr. Percival L. Bazeley, and Dr. Donald Wegemer. Handling Dr. Salk's administrative affairs was Lorraine Friedman, who began work with him in 1949. Ms. Friedman, a Pittsburgh native, has continued her work with Dr. Salk to the present (1988).

By 1950 Dr. Salk had completed the essential work in his virus-typing experiments. He then shifted his focus to research on a vaccine for the prevention of polio. The National Foundation awarded a grant for this research in 1951. The central element in Salk's efforts was the development of a non-infectious or "killed virus" vaccine. Salk used tissue-culture methods to produce the polio virus, and employed a formaldehyde solution called Formalin to inactivate the virus. To enhance potency, Salk experimented with adjuvants derived from mineral oil.

In the early summer of 1952, Dr. Salk and his associates developed what they considered to be an effective polio vaccine. In June of that year they tested their vaccine on a group of children at the D.T. Watson Home for Crippled Children, located near Pittsburgh at Leetsdale. The tests proved successful, and more were conducted at the Watson Home and the Polk State School. By the end of 1952 Dr. Salk felt that his vaccine could be used to combat polio on a large scale, and he announced his discovery at a meeting in Hershey, Pennsylvania, in January 1953. The official report of his discovery appeared in Journal of the American Medical Association of March 28, 1953.

To test his vaccine on a large scale, Dr. Salk and others proposed a nationwide field trial. During late 1953 and early 1954, Dr. Salk and the National Foundation were involved in the complex work of designing the field trials, obtaining the official approval needed to conduct the experiment, and seeing that vaccine of acceptable quality was manufactured. Deeply involved in this process was the National Foundation's Vaccine Advisory Committee, under the leadership of Thomas Rivers. The pharmaceutical companies that manufactured the trial vaccine were Parke Davis of Detroit and Eli Lilly of Indianapolis. On April 25, 1954, the Vaccine Advisory Committee and the National Institutes of Health recommended that the field trial be carried out, and the U.S. Public Health Service gave its official approval.

Under the overall observation of the University of Michigan and Dr. Thomas Francis, a massive field trial of the Salk vaccine began on April 26, 1954. Children in grades one through five were inoculated. 441,131 children received the Salk vaccine, and 201,229 were injected with a placebo. In June the tests ended, and Dr. Francis and his associates began to evaluate the results. Meanwhile, in September 1954, Dr. Salk travelled to Rome with Basil O'Connor for the Third International Poliomyelitis Conference. There Salk and his supporters came under attack from proponents of live-virus polio vaccines, most notably Albert Sabin. This conflict, which had begun earlier in the decade, would intensify throughout the 1950s and 1960s, and it continues to the present.

By April of 1955, Dr. Francis and his associates had reached the conclusion that the Salk vaccine field trials were, with some exceptions, generally successful. Francis presented his report in Ann Arbor on April 12, 1955. After an evaluation of the report by a group of virologists, a license for sale of the Salk vaccine was signed by Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby, the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare.

The announcement of the success of the field trials led to great demand for the Salk vaccine. By the end of April 1955, around 5 million children had been inoculated with commercially produced Salk vaccine. Several commercial firms (besides Parke Davis and Lilly) manufactured the vaccine on a large scale -- a process which had begun even before the release of the Francis Report.

Some of the firms had difficulty in safely inactivating the polio virus. At the end of April 1955, a large batch of vaccine manufactured by Cutter Laboratories actually caused polio in 250 cases. The Cutter vaccine was taken off the market, although the general vaccination program continued. An investigation of the incident revealed problems in inactivation of the Mahoney strain of the virus. On the recommendation of John Enders and other virologists, U.S. Surgeon-General Leonard Scheele halted the vaccination program on May 7, 1955. After an in-depth investigation, Dr. Salk and a technical committee of virologists developed more stringent specifications for the manufacture of the vaccine. On May 27, 1955, the Surgeon-General announced that the vaccination program could be resumed.

Although the vaccination program continued, public enthusiasm for the program waned in the late 1950s, despite the promotional efforts of the National Foundation. Although the use of the vaccine was not as widespread as Dr. Salk had hoped, and although many people did not receive the full course of three injections, the vaccine accounted for a dramatic decline in the incidence of polio in the United States and elsewhere.

Dr. Salk's vaccine earned him immediate recognition throughout the world. His office received thousands of "thank you" letters from school children from many countries. In some Latin American towns, mothers and children signed long and elaborately designed scrolls, which were sent to Dr. Salk. State legislatures and organizations throughout the country passed resolutions honoring Dr. Salk. He received numerous special awards and honors, including honorary degrees. Included in some of the thousands of pieces of fan mail were cash donations to promote future research.

Although Salk's vaccine was generally successful in combatting polio, other researchers searched for alternatives. Among these researchers were Herold Cox, Hilary Koprowski, and Albert Sabin. Sabin, who felt that a killed-virus vaccine like Salk's could not effectively prevent polio, developed his own live-virus vaccine. Adapting techniques used by Renato Dulbecco, Sabin made progress in the mid-1950s, and by 1956 he was ready to test his vaccine on a large scale. A massive field trial of the Sabin vaccine took place in the Soviet Union between 1957 and 1959, and the results were reported as successful. Tests of vaccines produced by Koprowski and Cox took place in Africa and Latin America during the same years.

Unlike the Salk vaccine, the Sabin vaccine was suspended in syrup or sugar cubes and taken orally. Sabin claimed that his vaccine was more potent and longer lasting in its protection than Salk's. In addition, since Sabin's vaccine was taken orally, he claimed that it was easier to administer than the Salk vaccine, which required multiple hypodermic injections to be effective. The most significant drawback of the Sabin vaccine was its potential for infection from the live virus.

By 1962 the Sabin vaccine had been licensed by the Federal Government and endorsed by the American Medical Association. By 1963 70,000,000 people in the United States had taken the vaccine. By the end of the 1960s the Sabin vaccine had become the primary drug for the prevention of polio in the U.S. However, although polio became virtually non-existent in the United States by 1970, many new cases of the disease were caused by the live virus in the Sabin vaccine itself. Because of this potential harm, many countries, including Sweden, favored the use of the vaccine developed by Salk.

Dr. Salk continued his virus research in the late 1950s. In addition to serving as the director of the University of Pittsburgh's Virus Research Laboratory, Salk held the posts of Commonwealth Professor of Preventive Medicine (1955-1957), and Commonwealth Professor of Experimental Medicine (1957-1963).

Beginning around 1957, Dr. Salk began planning for the establishment of an institute for biological research. He originally considered locating an institute for experimental medicine at the University of Pittsburgh, but he soon realized that an independent entity would better serve the cause of modern scientific research. He hoped to create a hospitable environment for scientists concerned with the implications of their work and interested in the interrelationships between various disciplines.

By 1960 Salk had chosen San Diego as the site for what would become the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. A substantial amount of start-up funds came from the National Foundation-March of Dimes. The citizens of San Diego, through a referendum, made a gift of pueblo lots in the La Jolla area, close to the new University of California, San Diego. The Institute began operation in temporary quarters in 1963, and permanent buildings, designed by architect Louis Kahn, were completed in 1967. The buildings soon gained international fame for their dramatic and innovative design.

The Salk Institute succeeded in assembling an outstanding and highly innovative staff, including many Nobel laureates. The original fellows of the Institute included: mathematician Jacob Bronowski; biophysicist and immunochemist Melvin Cohn; Francis Crick, a physicist, chemist, and molecular biologist; Renato Dulbecco, a physician, bacteriologist, virologist, and physicist; physicist Edwin Lennox; biochemist Jacques Monod; physicist and biologist Leo Szilard; and Warren Weaver, an engineer, mathematician, and physicist. Weaver also served as chairman of the Board of Trustees. Charles S. Wilson began work as the first General Manager before the Institute began in La Jolla, and William Glazier continued in the post after 1963. Dr. Salk himself served as the Institute's director until 1975, followed by Augustus Kinzel, and later Fredric de Hoffman.

The research conducted at the Institute came to be recognized as highly significant by the international scientific community. Included in this research has been the study of molecular-cellular mechanisms in genetics, immunology, and neurobiology, and the application of these studies to the prevention of cancer, diabetes, and myasthenia gravis. Institute researchers have also studied problems of genetic defects, aging, fertility control, alcoholism, and the biological foundations of language acquisition, language disorders, and learning.

After moving to San Diego, Dr. Salk continued to conduct his own research with his own laboratory staff. Among the research carried out by the Salk Lab has been studies aimed at understanding and manipulating the immune system in its relationship to the control of autoimmune and neoplastic diseases such as cancer and multiple sclerosis (MS). During the 1970s Dr. Salk devoted much attention to the prevention and treatment of MS, and between 1978 and 1980 he participated in an extensive MS study with a team headed by Dr. John S. Romine of the University of California, San Diego. With funding from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Salk-Romine study tested the use of myelin basic protein as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of MS.

In the 1980s Dr. Salk collaborated in successful studies aimed at the development, production, and field testing of a new noninfectious polio vaccine designed to give life-long immunity from a single dose. The new vaccine can now be administered in combination with other vaccines for the prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, thus simplifying routine childhood immunization. Also in the 1980s Dr. Salk worked with international health organizations to implement and improve immunization programs throughout the world.

Dr. Salk's most recent (1988) scientific endeavor involved prevention of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS. With his son, Peter, he tested his theory that immunization can be carried out on those already infected with the HIV virus. In addition to this clinical work, Dr. Salk was active in raising funds for AIDS research and in lobbying for greater public support for this research.

Aside from Dr. Salk's career as a scientific investigator and director of a research institution, he wrote numerous articles and books on a variety of topics. He documented his research in more than 100 articles in scientific journals, and wrote additional articles on topics such as education, health care, world problems, and the place of man in the global environment.

In the early 1970s Dr. Salk began writing extensively on the subject of human evolution and the potential of mankind. Some of these writings appeared in two books: Man Unfolding (1972) and The Survival of the Wisest (1973). In the latter book, Dr. Salk discussed his theory of metabiology -- a theory that relates to man's potential for transcending the ordinary limits of living matter. He theorized that Mankind was on the threshold of a new era -- Epoch B -- in which a new form of human consciousness might prevail. Such a consciousness would, he felt, enable mankind to draw upon imagination and intellect for overcoming the serious physical challenges to survival that have arisen in the modern era. Dr. Salk further expanded his ideas in the book World Population and Human Values (1981), written in collaboration with his son Jonathan, and in his most recent book Anatomy of Reality: Merging of Intuition and Reason (1983).

Dr. Salk's concern for the quality of human life has extended far beyond the laboratory. He has devoted time and effort to organizations supporting the arts, sciences, and education, and the alleviation of hunger, disease, poverty and war. In these efforts, Dr. Salk has participated in such organizations as the Council for Biology in Human Affairs, Epoch B Foundation, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Native Americans Rights Fund - National Support Committee, Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign, Physicians for Social Responsibility, the Population Reference Bureau, the World Affairs Council of San Diego, and the World Future Society. In 1979 Dr. Salk was chosen for the board of directors of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, a philanthropic trust which funds, among other things, projects and institutions in the arts, sciences, and humanities.

In 1970 Dr. Salk was elected to the board of directors of the Dreyfus Fund, a mutual fund investment organization. As member of the board, Dr. Salk has helped to set the general investment policies carried out by fund's investment officers. His presence added a broader and more humanistic voice to the otherwise business-minded board.

The live versus killed polio vaccine debate reemerged in the mid-1970s. Because the oral live polio vaccine (OPV) had been used almost exclusively in the United States since 1961, data on the incidence of polio could be evaluated in a new light. It was shown that while the Sabin vaccine had virtually obliterated wild-virus polio in the United States, it in fact inflicted paralytic polio on an estimated 10 persons per year. Furthermore, countries such as Finland and Sweden, which had utilized only the killed vaccine in their immunization campaigns, did not have a polio problem. These facts provided Jonas Salk, his son Darrell, and other supporters with a new and compelling argument against the United States' preference for the Sabin vaccine. If the Salk vaccine was proven safe and effective in other countries, and did not cause polio, why was the U.S. using a vaccine that had been proven to maim and kill? Supporters of the Sabin vaccine countered that the benefits of the live vaccine far outweighed its deleterious effects, asserting that the live vaccine was easier to administer, it was cheaper and it could spread its immunizing effects on to people who merely came into contact with someone who had recently taken the vaccine. Furthermore, they argued, the incidence of vaccine associated polio was minor when compared to the millions of vaccinations given each year. These factors, though debatable, managed to keep the majority of the medical community and their preference for the oral vaccine unmoved by Salk's assertions.

Arguments against the Sabin vaccine did finally gain unprecedented attention when the victims of vaccine-induced polio began taking their claims to court and winning. One jury in Kansas awarded a victim 10 million dollars. These lawsuits had an enormous impact on the debate because they finally awakened the general public to the dangers inherent in the live vaccine and compelled the government and the manufacturers of the vaccine, who were often faulted in these cases, to look for alternatives. Furthermore, vaccine manufacturers, frightened by the lawsuits, either dropped out of the market or lobbied the government for protection from litigation, thereby making it more expensive to produce the live vaccine. The lawsuits also managed to shake up some physicians who were afraid of being sued for administering a potentially deadly vaccine and, as a result, caused the debate to flare within the medical community. Jonas and Darrell Salk realized the impact litigation would have on the debate and one or the other often served as an advisor to lawyers for the plaintiff. Darrell was an expert witness in many of the trials.

Despite these blows to the eminence of the Sabin vaccine in the U.S., the fact that the Sabin vaccine was easier to administer continued to make it more attractive to physicians and to the government. The Sabin vaccine was administered orally in three doses to induce immunity. In contrast, the Salk vaccine was administered by injection, and was thought to require booster doses to maintain immunity. This argument against the Salk vaccine was seriously challenged with the announcement in 1977 of the enhanced inactivated polio vaccine, or E-IPV. E-IPV required only 1-2 doses and could be blended with other children's vaccines, such as the diphtheria-pertussis vaccine, to streamline vaccination programs. The Merieux Institute of France, the Connaught Laboratories in Canada, and the Rijks Institute in the Netherlands were the developers of the new vaccine and Salk collaborated extensively with these laboratories.

Dr. Salk has three sons: Peter, Darrell and Jonathan. In 1970 he married the French artist Francoise Gilot. Jonas Salk died in June 1995.

Scope and Content of Collection

Papers of Dr. Jonas Salk, noted physician, virologist, humanitarian, and founder of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California. Salk is best known for his development of the world's first successful vaccine for the prevention of poliomyelitis, licensed in the U.S. in 1955. He also conducted important research in the prevention and treatment of influenza, multiple sclerosis, cancer, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The Salk Papers constitute an exhaustive source of documentation of Dr. Salk's professional activities, but very few materials relating to his personal life. Most of the papers cover the period from the mid-1940s to the 1980s. The papers include extensive general correspondence, files relating to polio, subject files, writings by Dr. Salk, photographs, sound recordings, records of the Salk Institute, and other research materials.

ACCESSION PROCESSED IN 1989

Best documented are Dr. Salk's activities from the mid-1950s to the early 1960s, activities largely related to the development of the Salk polio vaccine. This accession also includes materials created by Dr. Salk's laboratory staff members and papers generated by offices of the Salk Institute.

Arranged in ten series: 1) GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 2) POLIO FILES, 3) SUBJECT FILES, 4) WRITINGS, LECTURES AND INTERVIEWS, 5) PHOTOGRAPHS AND OTHER IMAGES, 6) SALK INSTITUTE FILES, 7) FILES OF OTHERS, 8) AWARDS, HONORS AND CERTIFICATES, 9) MISCELLANY and 10) RESEARCH MATERIALS.

ACCESSIONS PROCESSED IN 1995

This accession primarily documents Salk's fundamental role in the revival of the live versus killed polio-virus debate in the mid-1970s and 1980s. Included in the collection are the letters he wrote to the American Medical Association, the Center for Disease Control, the Institute of Medicine, the U.S. Congress, members of the media, and other influential sectors of society in an attempt to convince them that the oral live polio vaccine did indeed cause paralytic polio and that the killed vaccine was a safe and effective alternative. Also included are materials related to the inception, creation and eventual distribution of the enhanced inactivated polio vaccine or E-IPV. The Merieux Institute of France, the Connaught Laboratories in Canada, and the Rijks Institute in the Netherlands were the developers of this vaccine, and Salk worked extensively with these laboratories. Salk's collaboration with the Central Public Health Laboratory in Finland on the studies that tracked the incidence of polio in Finland, and his role in the lawsuits filed by victims of vaccine-induced polio are also well documented. There are some materials related to the internal affairs of the Salk Institute, dated 1982-1989, files that document the work of the San Diego Growth Management Task Force Group put together in 1984 by Mayor Roger Hitchcock and materials related to Salk's other interests and activities, most notably, his interest in developing a vaccine for HIV (see the WRITINGS series) and his advisory role in a broad range of different committees and foundations.

Arranged in ten series: 11) CORRESPONDENCE, 12) WRITINGS AND LECTURES, 13) POLIO SUBJECT FILES, 14) CONFERENCES, 15) SAN DIEGO GROWTH MANAGEMENT TASK FORCE, 16) SALK INSTITUTE FILES, 17) NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS, INTERVIEWS AND EPHEMERA, 18) AWARDS, 19) PHOTOGRAPHS, and 20) ORIGINALS OF PRESERVATION PHOTOCOPIES.

Dedication & Acknowledgement

DEDICATION

Peter, Darrell and Jonathan Salk dedicate their donation of this Collection to the administrative, technical and support staff who worked with their father during his more than fifty-year career. He shared with them lasting relationships of mutual respect and admiration. The commitment, skills, patience and loyalty of his co-workers are reflected throughout these records.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Two people deserve special recognition for their contributions to this Collection, Lorraine C. Friedman and Barbara L. Robinson.

Lorraine Friedman joined the staff of the Virus Research Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh in 1949 and remained Dr. Salk's personal assistant for more than 40 years. She personally ensured the conservation of all documents related to Dr. Salk's activities and those of his laboratory, from the development of the polio vaccine in Pittsburgh through the creation of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla to his later writings and publications.

Barbara Robinson started her job in Dr. Salk's La Jolla office in 1966 when the Salk Institute was still under construction. She worked continuously with Dr. Salk until 1988 and then started again in the early spring of 1995 to help him organize his office and personal papers for transfer to the UC San Diego Library. After his death in June 1995, Barbara continued that project for another six years, single-handedly reviewing, sorting, cataloging and packing more than one-third of the materials in this Collection.

The existence, quality and extent of this Collection are due, in great measure, to Lorraine's and Barbara's personal dedication and efforts.

December 2013

Container List

Accession Processed in 1989

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE

Scope and Content of Series

Series 1) GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE: This series begins with correspondence logs begun in 1977 that list every piece of correspondence received by Dr. Salk's office. Many materials listed in these logs are not included in the collection. Those that are retained in the collection may be filed by correspondent or related subject, as described below. It is important to note that the GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE files are not the sole location of correspondence. Often, correspondence related to a specific subject will be filed in the SUBJECT FILES, the POLIO series, or in other series throughout the collection.

Dr. Salk's office staff arranged his incoming correspondence by year, and then alphabetically by the last name of the correspondent or by the name of the organization. Thus, if one wishes to research all correspondence between Dr. Salk and an individual, one must search each year for the individual correspondent. This original order reveals the volume and scope of Dr. Salk's correspondence, and shows how issues and events unfolded within each year. In rare instances, correspondence is filed according to the subject to which it pertains. For example, correspondence relevant to Dr. Salk's visits to Israel and India is filed under the names of these countries, not by individual correspondents.

In many cases, copies of replies to letters are attached to the original letters. In 1963 Dr. Salk's office began a Chronological File consisting of copies of all outgoing correspondence. Missing from these files is the period September 1963 through December 1967.

Logs, 1978 - 1982
Box: 1 Folder: 1-5
Logs, 1982 - 1984
Box: 2 Folder: 1-3
1940: Machlett, E. - Solomon, M
Box: 2 Folder: 4
1941: Beard, J. - Smadel, J

Includes correspondence between Salk and Dr. Thomas Francis, in which Salk seeks career advice.

Box: 2 Folder: 5
1942: Blake, F. - Warburg, B
Box: 2 Folder: 6
1943: Bartemeier, L. - Reimann, H
Box: 3 Folder: 1
1944: Alexander, R. - Wood, W
Box: 3 Folder: 2
1945: AAF Regional Hospital - Huntley, W
Box: 3 Folder: 3
1945: Ivins, P. - Weller, T
Box: 3 Folder: 4
1946: American Association for the Advancement of Science - Duffy, C
Box: 3 Folder: 5
1946: Eaton, M. - Hutchins, L
Box: 3 Folder: 6
1946: Johnson, B. - Quigley, J
Box: 4 Folder: 1
1946: Rix, J. - Swanberg, H
Box: 4 Folder: 2
1946: Taylor, L. - Yanamura, H
Box: 4 Folder: 3
1947: Ainalie, J. - Burrows, W
Box: 4 Folder: 4
1947: Chavez, F. - Greenwald, I
Box: 4 Folder: 5
1947: Hanig, M. - Loosli, C
Box: 4 Folder: 6
1947: Mack, W. - Rous, P

Includes correspondence with McEllroy, descriptive outline of the polio research program conducted by Dr. Salk at the University of Pittsburgh.

Box: 4 Folder: 7
1947: Science Service - Workman, W
Box: 4 Folder: 8
1948: Associated Alumni of the Mount Sinai Hospital - Danowski, T
Box: 5 Folder: 1
1948: Hodge, H. - Horn, H
Box: 5 Folder: 2
1948: Ilavsky, J. - Navarez Vazuez, Roberto
Box: 5 Folder: 3
1948: Stimpert, F. - Stuart-Harris, G
Box: 5 Folder: 4
1948: Top, F. - Young, G
Box: 5 Folder: 5
1949: Daer, H. - Howe, H
Box: 5 Folder: 6
1949: Ainslie, J. - Culbertson, J
Box: 5 Folder: 7
1949: Jennison, M. - The Old Print Shop
Box: 6 Folder: 1
1949: Pait, C. - Snyder, R
Box: 6 Folder: 2
1949: Ward, R. - Wycoff, R
Box: 6 Folder: 3
1950: Fleck, A. - Gilliam, A
Box: 6 Folder: 4
1950: Homer, B. - Kruse, T
Box: 6 Folder: 5
1950: Lauffer, M. - Cockerill, E
Box: 6 Folder: 6
1950: Reagan, R. - Workman, W
Box: 7 Folder: 1
1951: Adams, J. - Hyland Laboratories
Box: 7 Folder: 2
1951: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Luria, S
Box: 7 Folder: 3
1951: MacCallum, F. - Rosensweet, A
Box: 7 Folder: 4
1951: Sabin, A. - Wright, J
Box: 7 Folder: 5
1952: Ainslie, J. - Cowell, M
Box: 7 Folder: 6
1952: Dack, G. - Excerpta Medica
Box: 7 Folder: 7
1952: Falk, L. - Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Box: 8 Folder: 1
1952: Kaufmann Department Stores - Loyal Order of Moose
Box: 8 Folder: 2
1952: MacGregor Instrument Company - Myer, K
Box: 8 Folder: 3
1952: National Canine Products, Inc. - Quick, J
Box: 8 Folder: 4
1952: Railway Express Agency - Rusk, H
Box: 8 Folder: 5
1952: Sabin, A. - Syverton, J
Box: 8 Folder: 6
1952: Taylor, R. - The Virtis Co
Box: 8 Folder: 7
1952: Walker, D. - Young, G
Box: 9 Folder: 1
1953: Abbott, R. - Bussey C
Box: 9 Folder: 2
1953: Carcione and Raspanti - Furth, J
Box: 9 Folder: 3
1953: Garfinkle, M. - Kruse, H
Box: 9 Folder: 4
1953: Lacy, C. - Loomis, E
Box: 9 Folder: 5
1953: Machesney, R. - Oxford University Press, Inc
Box: 9 Folder: 6
1953: Parran, T. - Rupp, G
Box: 10 Folder: 1
1953: Shalom Research Farm - Tyler, S
Box: 10 Folder: 2
1953: University of Pittsburgh - Youngner, J
Box: 10 Folder: 3
1954: Aiken, F. - Bush, R
Box: 10 Folder: 4
1954: "C" Street Grocery - Enders, J
Box: 10 Folder: 5
1954: Falk Clinic - International Biomedical Corp
Box: 10 Folder: 6
1954: Liberson, D. - Loveless, M
Box: 10 Folder: 7
1954: Machesney, R. - North, C
Box: 10 Folder: 8
1954: Pait, C. - Rupp, G
Box: 11 Folder: 1
1954: Shalom Research Farms - Tumblebrook Farm
Box: 11 Folder: 2
1954: United States Army - Wydlewood Bird Farm
Box: 11 Folder: 3
1955: Aiken, M. - American Lincoln
Box: 11 Folder: 4
1955: American Medical - Avery
Box: 11 Folder: 5
1955: Babock, H. - Bloom, A
Box: 11 Folder: 6
1955: Boas, P. - Busis, S
Box: 11 Folder: 7
1955: California Foundation - Common Cold Foundation
Box: 12 Folder: 1
1955: Common Cold Foundation - Czekalowski, J
Box: 12 Folder: 2
1955: Daily News - Excerpta Medica

Dubovik: Telegram regarding fear of mass polio inoculations. Letter from Dr. Salk to President Eisenhower.

Box: 12 Folder: 3
1955: Falk, L - The Fuller Brush Company
Box: 12 Folder: 4
1955: Gabriel, M - Grimley, P
Box: 12 Folder: 5
1955: Haas, E. - Hyland Laboratories
Box: 12 Folder: 6
1955: State of Illinois - Klyman, J
Box: 13 Folder: 1
1955: Kneeland, Y. - Kurt, E
Box: 13 Folder: 2
1955: Lacorte, J. - Lytle, J
Box: 13 Folder: 3
1955: Limbach Company - Lwoff, A
Box: 13 Folder: 4
1955: Macdonald, R. - Montague, E
Box: 13 Folder: 5
1955: Moolten, S. - Mustakallio, E
Box: 13 Folder: 6
1955: Nagler, F. - Notti, H

National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis: Copies of speech by Dr. Salk on September 11, 1955.

Box: 14 Folder: 1
1955: Laboratorios Ocefa - Oxford University Press, Inc

Correspondence between Dr. Salk and Basil O'Connor.

Box: 14 Folder: 2
1955: Pallini, C. - Pevaroff, J
Box: 14 Folder: 3
1955: Pfizer Laboratories - Purchasing Bureau
Box: 14 Folder: 4
1955: Quesada, L. - Rusk, H
Box: 14 Folder: 5
1955: Sabin, A. - Singleton, W
Box: 14 Folder: 6
1955: Slack, H. - Szerda, F
Box: 15 Folder: 1
1955: Taconic Farms, Inc. - Utah State Agricultural College
Box: 15 Folder: 2
1955: Van Riper, H. - Voss, G
Box: 15 Folder: 3
1955: Wahl, N. - World Health Organization

Includes telegram from Warner Bros. Motion Picture Studios suggesting movie of Dr. Salk's life.

Box: 15 Folder: 4
1955: World Health Organization - Youngner, J
Box: 15 Folder: 5
1956: Aaron, H. - American Heritage
Box: 15 Folder: 6
1956: American Instrument - American Zionist
Box: 15 Folder: 7
1956: Anderson, B. - Ayres, B.
Box: 16 Folder: 1
1956: Baird, K. - Bnai B'rith Young Adults

Barton: Tribute to Dr. Salk from school children.

Box: 16 Folder: 2
1956: Bodian, D. - Buzzard, J
Box: 16 Folder: 3
1956: Cady, E. - Cloutier, M
Box: 16 Folder: 4
1956: Cochrane, W. - Cyma Watch Co
Box: 16 Folder: 5
1956: D'Alessandro, G. - DeVries, S

Letter from U.S. Senator Irwin Davidson, who introduced bill to award Congressional Gold Medal to Dr. Salk.

Box: 17 Folder: 1
1956: Diamond, H. - Dyer, F
Box: 17 Folder: 2
1956: Eagle, H. - Eyler, D
Box: 17 Folder: 3
1956: Fackler, E. - Flynn, E
Box: 17 Folder: 4
1956: Foa, P. - Funk and Wagnalls

Letter from R. Buckminster Fuller.

Box: 17 Folder: 5
1956: Gallaudet College - Gow, S
Box: 17 Folder: 6
1956: Grand, I. - Gutierrez
Box: 17 Folder: 7
1956: Haas, R. - Hirshenbaum, G
Box: 17 Folder: 8
1956: Hoban, G. - Hyman, G
Box: 18 Folder: 1
1956: Iben, J. - Ittel, W
Box: 18 Folder: 2
1956: Jack and Jill of America, Inc. - Joyner, C
Box: 18 Folder: 3
1956: Kahl, W. - Knox, R
Box: 18 Folder: 4
1956: Koch, A. - Kunes, R
Box: 18 Folder: 5
1956: Labovitz, E. - Lewis, L
Box: 18 Folder: 6
1956: Licht, A. - Lyons City Elementary Schools
Box: 18 Folder: 7
1956: MacCormick, C. - Medical Proceedings
Box: 19 Folder: 1
1956: Medico-Chirurgical Society of the District of Columbia, Inc. - Murdock, T
Box: 19 Folder: 2
1956: Murray, L. - Mutual Benefit Health and Accident Association, Omaha
Box: 19 Folder: 3
1956: Nadell, H. - National Tuberculosis Association
Box: 19 Folder: 4
1956: Nebraska, University of - Nyden, S
Box: 19 Folder: 5
1956: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Overstreet, H
Box: 19 Folder: 6
1956: Pakistan Medical Profession Conference - Phillips, J
Box: 19 Folder: 7
1956: Hotel Pierre - Queens, Medical Society of the County of
Box: 20 Folder: 1
1956: Racker, R. - Rivers, T
Box: 20 Folder: 2
1956: Roanoke Memorial Hospital - Ryerson, J
Box: 20 Folder: 3
1956: Sabin, A. - Schweitzer, L
Box: 20 Folder: 4
1956: Science Service - Slothur, M
Box: 20 Folder: 5
1956: Smadel, J. - Stegen, E
Box: 20 Folder: 6
1956: Stein, M. - Syrek, J
Box: 21 Folder: 1
1956: Talbot, E. - Turner, J

Letter from former President Harry S. Truman.

Box: 21 Folder: 2
1956: Ubell, E. - Universum Press
Box: 21 Folder: 3
1956: Valiela, J, - Von Magnus, H
Box: 21 Folder: 4
1956: Wachsburger, S. - Who's Who, The Office of
Box: 21 Folder: 5
1956: Wickner, I. - Wright, G
Box: 21 Folder: 6
1956: Yanes - Zuckerman, S
Box: 22 Folder: 1
1957: American College of Physicians - American Type Culture Collection
Box: 22 Folder: 2
1957: Armbaugh, H. - Ayres, R
Box: 22 Folder: 3
1957: Abatantuono, A. - American Association for the Advancement of Science
Box: 22 Folder: 4
1957: Bagnato, D. - Bloomgarden, M
Box: 22 Folder: 5
1957: B'nai B'rith - British Society for Applied Bacteriology
Box: 22 Folder: 6
1957: Brooklyn College - Byron, E
Box: 23 Folder: 1
1957: Cain, J. - Cleveland, City Hospital
Box: 23 Folder: 2
1957: Coelho, C. - Cutright, L
Box: 23 Folder: 3
1957: Dallas Times Herald - Dwiewinski, A
Box: 23 Folder: 4
1957: Eaton, O. - Executives' Club of Chicago
Box: 23 Folder: 5
1957: Fairless, B. - Foye, A
Box: 23 Folder: 6
1957: Frances, J. - Fulton, J

Letter from R. Buckminster Fuller with copy of poem dedicated to Dr. Salk entitled "A Comprehensive Anticipatory Science of Design."

Box: 23 Folder: 7
1957: Gagliardi, F. - Gow, S
Box: 24 Folder: 1
1957: Grabau, E. - Gutierrez-Villegas, L
Box: 24 Folder: 2
1957: Haas, R. - Hettinger, W

Letter from Leicester Hemingway, brother of Ernest.

Box: 24 Folder: 3
1957: Hill, B. - Hynes, T
Box: 24 Folder: 4
1957: Illinois State Medical Society - Irwin, W
Box: 24 Folder: 5
1957: Israel - Ivry, M
Box: 24 Folder: 6
1957: Jackinson, A. - Jung
Box: 24 Folder: 7
1957: Kamen, G. - Kotula, D

Letter from Helen Keller.

Box: 24 Folder: 8
1957: Kramer, M. - Kunz, C
Box: 24 Folder: 9
1957: Lackawanna County Medial Society - Lewis, R
Box: 25 Folder: 1
1957: Liben, D. - Lynch, E
Box: 25 Folder: 2
1957: Maas, P. - Mayo Clinic
Box: 25 Folder: 3
1957: McAlarnery, W. - Mexico, Centro de Estudios Sobre Poliomyelitis
Box: 25 Folder: 4
1957: Michelson, I. - Moutlock, L
Box: 25 Folder: 5
1957: Mulcahy, R. - Murray-Green Award
Box: 25 Folder: 6
1957: Nagaswami, S. - National Education Association
Box: 25 Folder: 7
1957: National Father's Day Committee - National Supply Management Club
Box: 26 Folder: 1
1957: Nehaul, B. - Numeroff, W
Box: 26 Folder: 2
1957: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Owens-Illinois
Box: 26 Folder: 3
1957: Pace, F. - Pennsylvania State University

Correspondence with Linus Pauling regarding an open letter to American scientists on the halt of nuclear testing.

Box: 26 Folder: 4
1957: Pepler, A. - Plafker, M
Box: 26 Folder: 5
1957: Polio Advisory Committee - Quirk, T
Box: 26 Folder: 6
1957: Rabier, C. - Rutschman, S
Box: 26 Folder: 7
1957: Sack, H. - Scott, J
Box: 26 Folder: 8
1957: Seaborad and Western Airlines - Sisneros, O
Box: 27 Folder: 1
1957: Skokan, E. - Szilard, L
Box: 27 Folder: 2
1957: Tamas, G. - Tuskegee Institute
Box: 27 Folder: 3
1957: Ubell, E. - Von Magnus, H
Box: 27 Folder: 4
1957: Wacker, M. - Wettach, G
Box: 27 Folder: 5
1957: White, W. - Wyeth Laboratories, Inc
Box: 27 Folder: 6
1957: Yablonky, A. - Zugsmith, T
Box: 27 Folder: 7
1958: Abraham, M. - American Academy of Microbiology
Box: 28 Folder: 1
1958: American Academy of Pediatrics - American Medical Center at Denver
Box: 28 Folder: 2
1958: American News Service - Argonne Company, Inc
Box: 28 Folder: 3
1958: Armed Forces Epidemiological Board - Authenticated News
Box: 28 Folder: 4
1958: Bacher, E. - Bishup, G

Baudovas: Envelope addressed simply "Dr. Salk, USA" successfully delivered.

Box: 28 Folder: 5
1958: Blacker, M. - Brazilian News Service
Box: 28 Folder: 6
1958: Bredernitz, J. - Bzuro, H
Box: 28 Folder: 7
1958: Cahan, A. - Cleary, T
Box: 29 Folder: 1
1958: Coburn, A. - Currier, D
Box: 29 Folder: 2
1958: Dalidorf - Dexter, F
Box: 29 Folder: 3
1958: Diamond, J. - Dzirgurski, O
Box: 29 Folder: 4
1958: Earthman, M. - Excerpta Medica Foundation
Box: 29 Folder: 5
1958: Fabricante, M. - Flynn, E
Box: 29 Folder: 6
1958: Fogelman, H. - French, H

Freedom Fund: Essay on freedom by Dr. Salk.

Box: 29 Folder: 7
1958: Gabel, H. - Goffe, A
Box: 30 Folder: 1
1958: Goldburg Memorial - Gyorgy, A

Gutman: Envelope addressed to "Dr. Salk, the famous conqueror of polio, USA."

Box: 30 Folder: 2
1958: Hadassah Hebrew University - Hazerstrom, R
Box: 30 Folder: 3
1958: Heavenrich, R. - Hoffman, R
Box: 30 Folder: 4
1958: Holiber, B. - Hyde, H
Box: 30 Folder: 5
1958: Iams, J. - Issels
Box: 30 Folder: 6
1958: Jackson, A. - Joseph, S
Box: 30 Folder: 7
1958: Kabrisky, M. - Kevoe, M
Box: 30 Folder: 8
1958: Khayat, I. - Kutsick, R
Box: 31 Folder: 1
1958: LaFontaine, G. - Lewis, J
Box: 31 Folder: 2
1958: Lickey, V. - Luria, J
Box: 31 Folder: 3
1958: Maas, O. - Mayerberg, E
Box: 31 Folder: 4
1958: Mc Cabe, J. - Menke
Box: 31 Folder: 5
1958: Merck and Company - Montreal, Universite de
Box: 31 Folder: 6
1958: Mooney, J. - Myers, R
Box: 32 Folder: 1
1958: Nadal, G. - The National Foundation
Box: 32 Folder: 2
1958: National Institute of Health - Nussbaum, H
Box: 32 Folder: 3
1958: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Pfizer Laboratories

Telegrams to/from Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer.

Box: 32 Folder: 4
1958: Phelps, C.- Quaker Valley Joint Schools
Box: 32 Folder: 5
1958: Racine, G. - Rizzo, A
Box: 32 Folder: 6
1958: Robbins, B. - Roosevelt University

Includes letter from Eleanor Roosevelt.

Box: 33 Folder: 1
1958: Rose, F. - Rystan Company
Box: 33 Folder: 2
1958: Sabah, E. - Schwope, R

Correspondence with Dr. Albert Sabin.

Box: 33 Folder: 3
1958: Scientific Glass Instrument Company - Smithsonian Institution
Box: 33 Folder: 4
1958: Soffel, S. - Syverton, J
Box: 33 Folder: 5
1958: Talge, H. - Twardon, D
Box: 33 Folder: 6
1958: Uhl, W. - Vorhies, J
Box: 34 Folder: 1
1958: Wagner, T. - The Western Union Telegraph Company
Box: 34 Folder: 2
1958: Wheatley, W. - Wygard, R
Box: 34 Folder: 3
1958: Yakel, S. - Zwillman, B
Box: 34 Folder: 4
1959: Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences - Ammons, P

American Academy of Arts and Sciences: Telegram from Dr. Roger Revelle regarding world security and nuclear arms.

Box: 34 Folder: 5
1959: Anderson, H. - Aupke, J
Box: 34 Folder: 6
1959: Baby Talk - Bertovich, M
Box: 34 Folder: 7
1959: Best, V. - Boy Scouts of America
Box: 34 Folder: 8
1959: Bradley, W. - Byrd, S
Box: 35 Folder: 1
1959: California Corporation for Biochemical Research - Coker, R
Box: 35 Folder: 2
1959: Coleman, P. - Cytogenerator
Box: 35 Folder: 3
1959: Daignault, A. - Dustin, R
Box: 35 Folder: 4
1959: Early, S. - Evans, M
Box: 35 Folder: 5
1959: Fabricant, H. - Fox, E
Box: 35 Folder: 6
1959: Frahm, K. - Furstenberg, F
Box: 35 Folder: 7
1959: Gabauer, M. - Goulet, J
Box: 35 Folder: 8
1959: Grand, I. - Heymann, P
Box: 36 Folder: 1
1959: Hicks, M. - Hyde, J
Box: 36 Folder: 2
1959: Iezzoni, D. - Journal of the American Medical Association
Box: 36 Folder: 3
1959: Kahn, H. - Kushner, S
Box: 36 Folder: 4
1959: LaBounta, S. - Levy, E
Box: 36 Folder: 5
1959: Lightner, D. - Lydic, F
Box: 36 Folder: 6
1959: Macciarello, L. - McWain, M
Box: 36 Folder: 7
1959: Meates, R. - Mythen, M
Box: 36 Folder: 8
1959: Nagamine, R. - National Institutes of Health
Box: 37 Folder: 1
1959: National Institutes of Health - Nussbaum, S
Box: 37 Folder: 2
1959: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Pfizer Laboratories
Box: 37 Folder: 3
1959: Pharmaceutical Manufacturers' Association - Puck, T
Box: 37 Folder: 4
1959: Rail Travel Credit Agency - Romutis, B
Box: 37 Folder: 5
1959: Rood, R. - Ryback, M
Box: 37 Folder: 6
1959: Sa, A. - Shugart, J
Box: 37 Folder: 7
1959: Silberman, S. - Szilard, L
Box: 38 Folder: 1
1959: Tacoma-Tol, A. - Trans World Airlines, Inc
Box: 38 Folder: 2
1959: UDR - Watson Home
Box: 38 Folder: 3
1959: Webb, J. - Wyngaarden, M
Box: 38 Folder: 4
1959: Yeshiva University - Zukel, W
Box: 38 Folder: 5
1960: Abraham, S. - Ayre, E
Box: 38 Folder: 6
1960: Baber, C. - B'nai B'rith
Box: 38 Folder: 7
1960: Boehm, D. - Byers, B
Box: 39 Folder: 1
1960: Cadillac Associates, Inc. - Cline, W
Box: 39 Folder: 2
1960: Cochrane, F. - Cutler
Box: 39 Folder: 3
1960: Dabney, W. - Eylan, O
Box: 39 Folder: 4
1960: Fabrizio, M. - Frommhagen, L
Box: 39 Folder: 5
1960: Gacher, J. - Gzink, A
Box: 39 Folder: 6
1960: Haines, C. - Heidelberger, M

Letter from W. Averell Harriman.

Box: 39 Folder: 7
1960: Heneman, H. - The Hutchinson Products Company
Box: 40 Folder: 1
1960: Inmah, J. - Iwen, D

Israel: Letter from Abba Eban.

Box: 40 Folder: 2
1960: Jackson Memorial Laboratory
Box: 40 Folder: 3
1960: Laboratory Animals Corporation
Box: 40 Folder: 4
1960: Lientz, O. - Lytle, H
Box: 40 Folder: 5
1960: MacEachron, D. - Mental Health Association
Box: 40 Folder: 6
1960: Mercer, J. - Murrow, E
Box: 40 Folder: 7
1960: Nadel, R. - The National Foundation
Box: 41 Folder: 1
1960: National Science Foundation - Oxenhorn, M
Box: 41 Folder: 2
1960: Pagliai, A. - Quilligan, J
Box: 41 Folder: 3
1960: Rabinowitz, S. - Ryder, S
Box: 41 Folder: 4
1960: Sacks, J. - Smith, W
Box: 41 Folder: 5
1960: Snyder, M. - Trans World Airlines
Box: 41 Folder: 6
1960: Uleirtch, J. - Vook, J

Letter from Dr. Harold C. Urey.

Box: 41 Folder: 7
1960: Wade, A. - Wu, H
Box: 42 Folder: 1
1960: Yaba Academy - Zinkhan, W
Box: 42 Folder: 2
1961: Aaron, H. - AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HYGIENE
Box: 42 Folder: 3
1961: American Medical Association - Auerbach, M
Box: 42 Folder: 4
1961: Bacal, J. - Better Built Machinery Corporation
Box: 42 Folder: 5
1961: Billieu, S. - Byers, R
Box: 42 Folder: 6
1961: Cabe, R. - Cutler, J

Cleary and Conover: News article/correspondence regarding the Salk/Sabin vaccine controversy and the A.M.A.

Box: 42 Folder: 7
1961: Daedalus - Dynes, S
Box: 43 Folder: 1
1961: Eddy, B. - Ewing, G
Box: 43 Folder: 2
1961: Fairless - Fulton, J
Box: 43 Folder: 3
1961: Gaillard, E. - Guesman, A
Box: 43 Folder: 4
1961: Hadassah - Hutchinson, D
Box: 43 Folder: 5
1961: Inaugural Committee - Jones, O
Box: 43 Folder: 6
1961: Kahn, Louis - Kuznekoff, S
Box: 43 Folder: 7
1961: Lampee, R. - Lutz, F
Box: 44 Folder: 1
1961: Macdonald, J. - Merz, R
Box: 44 Folder: 2
1961: Mexicon, El Siglo de Torreon - Myers, K
Box: 44 Folder: 3
1961: Nasatir, A. - Navid, L
Box: 44 Folder: 4
1961: Neilson, D. - Overmyer, R
Box: 44 Folder: 5
1961: Packham, D. - Procter Gamble Distributing Company
Box: 44 Folder: 6
1961: Public Auditorium Authority - Queneuille

Public Health Service: Publicity materials from immunization campaign, including poster and buttons.

Box: 44 Folder: 7
1961: Ravdin, I. - Ryback, J
Box: 45 Folder: 1
1961: Sacher - Slocum, R
Box: 45 Folder: 2
1961: Smalley, J. - Szilard, L
Box: 45 Folder: 3
1961: Talbot, C. - Von Magnus, H

Letter from Dr. Urey to U.S. President expressing opposition to passage of McCarran Internal Security Act.

Box: 45 Folder: 4
1961: Waddington - Zuccala, G
Box: 45 Folder: 5
1962: Aaron, H. - Australian Broadcasting Commission
Box: 45 Folder: 6
1962: Baade, E. - Blumenthal, J
Box: 45 Folder: 7
1962: B'nai B'rith Women - Bussey, E
Box: 46 Folder: 1
1962: Caneda, J. - Cook, R
Box: 46 Folder: 2
1962: Cook, T. - Cutler, J
Box: 46 Folder: 3
1962: Daily Mail - Electric Heat Control Apparatus Co
Box: 46 Folder: 4
1962: Emery, G. - Fulwiler, M
Box: 46 Folder: 5
1962: Gallagher, B. - Gulyas, L
Box: 46 Folder: 6
1962: Hablett, T. - HuFiLoRe
Box: 46 Folder: 7
1962: Institute of Medical Physics - Kubie, L
Box: 47 Folder: 1
1962: Laboratory Planning Consultants - Laurence, W
Box: 47 Folder: 2
1962: Leavy, W. - Lyons, W
Box: 47 Folder: 3
1962: Macallister, J. - Meyer, B

Metro Goldwyn Mayer: Request to use Dr. Salk's name in "Dr. Kildare" movie.

Box: 47 Folder: 4
1962: Micro Chemical Specialties Company - Murray, R
Box: 47 Folder: 5
1962: Nalge Company, Inc. - Nuclide Analysis Associates
Box: 47 Folder: 6
1962: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Petroff, P
Box: 48 Folder: 1
1962: Phillips, D. - Quadir, A
Box: 48 Folder: 2
1962: Raalte, D. - Ryback, J
Box: 48 Folder: 3
1962: Sadowski, L. - Shultz, L
Box: 48 Folder: 4
1962: Sides, L. - Tsingourakos, T
Box: 48 Folder: 5
1962: Ulmer, M. - Wayland, L
Box: 48 Folder: 6
1962: Weaver - Zweig, A
Box: 48 Folder: 7
1963: Chronological File
Box: 49 Folder: 1
1963: Chronological File
Box: 49 Folder: 2
1963: Chronological File
Box: 49 Folder: 3
1963: Chronological File
Box: 49 Folder: 4
1963: Chronological File
Box: 49 Folder: 5
1963: Abramson, M. - American Association of University Professors
Box: 49 Folder: 6
1963: American Cancer Society, Inc. - American Public Health Association, Inc
Box: 49 Folder: 7
1963: American Society for Clinical Investigation - Athenian School
Box: 49 Folder: 8
1963: Bacigalupi, W. - Bush, R
Box: 50 Folder: 1
1963: Caisse, L. - Crotty, W
Box: 50 Folder: 2
1963: Dahlin, T. - Dunn, C
Box: 50 Folder: 3
1963: Eby, R. - Eta Iota of Sigma Nu Fraternity
Box: 50 Folder: 4
1963: FACT - Futrelle, R
Box: 50 Folder: 5
1963: Gardner, A. - Guttmacher, A
Box: 50 Folder: 6
1963: Hall, H. - Huxley, A
Box: 51 Folder: 1
1963: Ideal Nurses Uniform Shop - King, Charles
Box: 51 Folder: 2
1963: Klone, W. - Lester, B
Box: 51 Folder: 3
1963: Leuchtenberger, C. - Ley, J
Box: 51 Folder: 4
1963: Liebmann, Erich
Box: 51 Folder: 5
1963: Mack, A. - Miller, M
Box: 51 Folder: 6
1963: Moeller, W. - Oundijian, M
Box: 51 Folder: 7
1963: Pagnard, S. - Pyles, G
Box: 52 Folder: 1
1963: Rand Corporation - Schilling, F
Box: 52 Folder: 2
1963: Siem, R. - Sweets Pathology Laboratory
Box: 52 Folder: 4
1963: Talone Packing Company - Veterans Administration
Box: 52 Folder: 5
1963: Vignola, H. - Westland Company, Inc
Box: 52 Folder: 6
1963: Whaley, J. - Zuckerman, F
Box: 52 Folder: 7
1964: Accorners, F. - Ames Company, Inc
Box: 53 Folder: 1
1964: Anderson, H. - Avery, J
Box: 53 Folder: 2
1964: Bachrach, J. - Bishop, A
Box: 53 Folder: 3
1964: Blackwell, D. - Butte Business College
Box: 53 Folder: 4
1964: Cabot, B. - Cwiklik, R
Box: 53 Folder: 5
1964: Dailey, L. - Department of State. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
Box: 53 Folder: 6
1964: Falk, L. - Gerson, G
Box: 53 Folder: 7
1964: Gianlis, S. - Hirsch, P
Box: 54 Folder: 1
1964: Hoffman, D. - Keynan, A
Box: 54 Folder: 2
1964: KFMB-TV - Lewis, H
Box: 54 Folder: 3
1964: LIFE - McNichols, S
Box: 54 Folder: 4
1964: Medical Bureau, Inc. - Murrow, E
Box: 54 Folder: 5
1964: National Council for Civic Responsibility - Owens, G
Box: 54 Folder: 6
1964: Page, I. - Quarnstrom, D
Box: 54 Folder: 7
1964: Radjiminski, W. - Saunders, R
Box: 55 Folder: 1
1964: Scaletta, F. - Staverman, F
Box: 55 Folder: 2
1964: Stewart, R. - Urschel, H
Box: 55 Folder: 3
1964: Vagel, F. - Westlake, F
Box: 55 Folder: 4
1964: Wichmann, L. - Zuccala Research Laboratories
Box: 55 Folder: 5
1965: Abramovitz, M. - American Association for the Advancement of Science
Box: 55 Folder: 6
1965: American Cancer Society, Inc. - Augustus, M
Box: 55 Folder: 7
1965: Bailey, B. - Brein, A
Box: 56 Folder: 1
1965: British Broadcasting Corp. - Christian Faith and Higher Education Institute
Box: 56 Folder: 2
1965: Citizens United - Cohen S
Box: 56 Folder: 3
1965: Coleman, J. - Curtis Publishing Company
Box: 56 Folder: 4
1965: Daniels, C. - Eshbach, R
Box: 56 Folder: 5
1965: Fairchild, N. - Furniture
Box: 56 Folder: 6
1965: Gallway, R. - Gyenes, J
Box: 56 Folder: 7
1965: Hadden, E. - Hirschhorn, K
Box: 57 Folder: 1
1965: Hodges, S. - Hyman, M
Box: 57 Folder: 2
1965: I.B.M. - Jungmann, M
Box: 57 Folder: 3
1965: Kalafsky, L. - Kuester, J
Box: 57 Folder: 4
1965: Laboratory and Clinical Medicine - Lynch, K
Box: 57 Folder: 5
1965: MacAllister, J. - Mitchell, R
Box: 57 Folder: 6
1965: Mock, S. - Neutra, R
Box: 57 Folder: 7
1965: Neva, F. - Ow, D
Box: 58 Folder: 1
1965: Page, L - Moore, H
Box: 58 Folder: 2
1965: Portella, O. - Ryback, J
Box: 58 Folder: 3
1965: Sabin, A. - Shomo, P
Box: 58 Folder: 4
1965: Talbot, I. - Tyger, E
Box: 58 Folder: 5
1965: University of Pittsburgh - Upton, J
Box: 58 Folder: 6
1965: Sicilia, M. - Szilard, G

Letter to Dr. Benjamin Spock from Dr. Salk regarding the Vietnam War.

Box: 59 Folder: 1
1965: Van Raalte, D. - Winslow, J
Box: 59 Folder: 2
1965: Wisdom - Zyski, S
Box: 59 Folder: 3
1966: Abe, S. - Austin
Box: 59 Folder: 4
1966: Bachrach, S. - Byrne, E
Box: 59 Folder: 5
1966: Cabana, S. - Cummings, R
Box: 59 Folder: 6
1966: Daffra, S. - Dutton, A

Doyle: Useful background material regarding the Salk Institute.

Box: 60 Folder: 1
1966: Ebstel, J. - Fuerst, M
Box: 60 Folder: 2
1966: Galanter, E. - Guifoile, T
Box: 60 Folder: 3
1966: Haber, L. - Huse, C
Box: 60 Folder: 4
1966: Idding, C. - Jurkiewiez, E
Box: 60 Folder: 5
1966: Kader, A. - Kuhn, M
Box: 60 Folder: 6
1966: Lab-Line Instruments, Inc. - Lowres, A
Box: 60 Folder: 7
1966: MacAllister, J. - Metcalf, R

Meselson: Draft letter handwritten by Dr. Salk regarding the situation in Vietnam.

Box: 61 Folder: 1
1966: Microbiological Associates - Menzak, M
Box: 61 Folder: 2
1966: Panken, E. - Kimball, J
Box: 61 Folder: 3
1966: Picard, F. - Planned Parenthood World Population
Box: 61 Folder: 4
1966: Polanyi, M. - Ryback, J
Box: 61 Folder: 5
1966: Saint James' Academy - Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
Box: 61 Folder: 6
1966: Talbot, A. - Tuttle, P
Box: 62 Folder: 1
1966: United Jewish Appeal - Uptegrove, P
Box: 62 Folder: 2
1966: Van Erkel, G. - Western Union
Box: 62 Folder: 3
1966: White, L. - Zwillinger, G
Box: 62 Folder: 5
1967: AAAA - Avis
Box: 62 Folder: 6
1967: Babineau, C. - Buzzati-Traverso, A
Box: 63 Folder: 1
1967: Cancer - Crowe, T
Box: 63 Folder: 2
1967: Dail, A. - Excerpta Medica Foundation
Box: 63 Folder: 3
1967: Fact - Furner, J
Box: 63 Folder: 4
1967: Galanter, E. - Haynie, P
Box: 63 Folder: 5
1967: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare - Hyldon, J
Box: 63 Folder: 6
1967: Imerchein, R. - Julian, M
Box: 63 Folder: 7
1967: Kachani, P. - Kurasnik, F
Box: 64 Folder: 1
1967: Laade, R. - Magidson, R
Box: 64 Folder: 2
1967: Man on Earth - Myers, B
Box: 64 Folder: 3
1967: Nahstadt, K. - Northwood Institute
Box: 64 Folder: 4
1967: Oberg, R. - ORT
Box: 64 Folder: 5
1967: Pace, J. - Quinn, B
Box: 64 Folder: 6
1967: Radio Corporation of America - Ryback, J
Box: 64 Folder: 7
1967: Saffro and Associates - Summerson, J

Sioussat: News clipping which mentions Dr. Salk saving a drowning boy in 1953.

Box: 65 Folder: 1
1967: Talmage, M. -Tryendreych, K
Box: 65 Folder: 2
1967: UAW - Urrows, H
Box: 65 Folder: 3
1967: Vance, D. - Wishik, R
Box: 65 Folder: 4
1967: Wolf, E. - Zwibel, C
Box: 65 Folder: 5
1968, April - June: Chronological file
Box: 65 Folder: 6
1968, July - December: Chronological file
Box: 65 Folder: 7
1968: Action on Smoking and Health - Doerr, C
Box: 65 Folder: 8
1968: Edlow, D. - Fuller, R
Box: 66 Folder: 1
1968: Granich, B. - Krinsky, E
Box: 66 Folder: 2
1968: Levin, B. - The Muses
Box: 66 Folder: 3
1968: National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council - Szombati, A
Box: 66 Folder: 4
1968: Toynbee - Zambia. National Council for Scientific Research
Box: 66 Folder: 5
1969, January: Chronological file
Box: 66 Folder: 6
1969, May - December: Chronological file
Box: 66 Folder: 7-8
1969: American Association for the Advancement of Science - Ducas, D
Box: 67 Folder: 1
1969: Elkes, J. - Josepho, B
Box: 67 Folder: 2
1969: Kaplan, S. - Oversees Press Club

Moses: Article in 1968 Medical World News regarding Dr. Salk and the Salk Institute. Lavin: Article in 1969 Scientific Research regarding the Salk Institute. New York Sunday News interview with Dr. Salk.

Box: 67 Folder: 3
1969: Pace, B. - Seybold, W
Box: 67 Folder: 4
1969: Shapiro, N. - Yurochko, F
Box: 67 Folder: 5
1970, January - June: Chronological file
Box: 67 Folder: 6-7
1970, July - December: Chronological file
Box: 68 Folder: 1
1970: Aerospace Corporation - Escoffier-Lambiotte, C
Box: 68 Folder: 2
1970: Faculte des Sciences de Paris - Kopelson, T
Box: 68 Folder: 3
1970: Laborit, H. - Muscular Dystrophy Associations of America
Box: 68 Folder: 4
1970: National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Public Health Research Institute

Nixon: Draft letter handwritten by Dr. Salk to President Richard M. Nixon urging an end to the Vietnam War.

Box: 68 Folder: 5
1970: Rafi, A. - Szombati, A
Box: 68 Folder: 6
1970: Tai, Fu-Hsiang - Young Presidents' Organization, Inc
Box: 68 Folder: 7
1971, January - December: Chronological file
Box: 69 Folder: 1-4
1971: American Cancer Society, Inc. - Evening Tribune
Box: 69 Folder: 5
1971: Factor, T. - Hoffman
Box: 69 Folder: 6
1971: International Bach Society, Inc. - Noyes, D
Box: 69 Folder: 7
1971: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Tureck, R
Box: 70 Folder: 1
1971: UNESCO - Zamchek, N
Box: 70 Folder: 2
1972, January - June: Chronological file
Box: 70 Folder: 3-4
1972, August - December: Chronological file
Box: 70 Folder: 5
1972: Abrahms, H. - Btesh, S
Box: 70 Folder: 6
1972: Crum, J. - Else, G
Box: 70 Folder: 7
1972: Falk, L. - Handler, A
Box: 71 Folder: 1
1972: Heidger, P. - Murray, M
Box: 71 Folder: 2
1972: Nathan, R. - Principe, J
Box: 71 Folder: 3
1972: Bernstein, R. - Drom, R
Box: 71 Folder: 4
1972: Unger, R. - Zellerbach Paper Company
Box: 71 Folder: 5
1973, January - July: Chronological file
Box: 71 Folder: 6-7
1973, August - December: Chronological file
Box: 72 Folder: 1-2
1973: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company - Burhoe, R
Box: 72 Folder: 3
1973: Charmasson, C. - Guillemin, R
Box: 72 Folder: 4
1973: Hahn, M. - Kurtz, H
Box: 72 Folder: 5
1973: La Jolla Town Council - Mesa, Arizona
Box: 72 Folder: 6
1973: Moretti, B. - Rusk, H
Box: 72 Folder: 7
1973: Salk, E. - Streitfeld, F
Box: 73 Folder: 1
1973: Taylor, A. - Voth, H
Box: 73 Folder: 2
1973: Wade, N. - Young, R
Box: 73 Folder: 3
1974, January - December: Chronological file
Box: 73 Folder: 4-6
1974: Abernathy, F. - Crothers, M
Box: 73 Folder: 7
1974: Daddario, E. - Foundation for Child Development
Box: 74 Folder: 1
1974: Gardiner, H. - Hyde, A
Box: 74 Folder: 2
1974: Caldwell, L. - Louv, R
Box: 74 Folder: 3
1974: MacKenty, K. - Nyingma Institute
Box: 74 Folder: 4
1974: Ottenstein, V. - Grant, K
Box: 74 Folder: 5
1974: Samples, R. - Thompson, D
Box: 74 Folder: 6
1974: Van Gool, A. - Ziemba, J
Box: 74 Folder: 7
1975, January - December: Chronological file
Box: 75 Folder: 1-3
1975: Air France - Curative Workshop of Green Bay
Box: 75 Folder: 4
1975: Dagit, C. - Glazer, G
Box: 75 Folder: 5
1975: Goldberg, J. - Herman, J
Box: 75 Folder: 6
1975: Hobby, O. - Lydle, J
Box: 76 Folder: 1
1975: Vaill, A. - Oxholm, N
Box: 76 Folder: 2
1975: Pattee, H. - Trefouel, J
Box: 76 Folder: 3
1975: Unigate Paedriatic Workshops
Box: 76 Folder: 4
1976, January - August: Chronological file
Box: 76 Folder: 5-7
1976, September - December: Chronological file
Box: 77 Folder: 1-2
1976: Academy for Educational Development, Inc. - Butterfly Media Dimensions
Box: 77 Folder: 3
1976: Calhoun, J. - Erickson, D
Box: 77 Folder: 4
1976: Fair - Huyglen, C
Box: 77 Folder: 5
1976: Immordino, S. - Lucas, T
Box: 77 Folder: 6
1976: MacDonald, R. - Quest Books
Box: 77 Folder: 7
1976: Ranganathan, R. - Russell, R
Box: 78 Folder: 1
1976: Cohen, S. - Swan, S
Box: 78 Folder: 2
1976: Talge, H. - Zane, J
Box: 78 Folder: 3
1977, January - June: Chronological file
Box: 78 Folder: 4-8
1977, July - December: Chronological file
Box: 79 Folder: 1-3
1977: Abrams, I. - Castaneda, M
Box: 79 Folder: 4
1977: Center, The - Explorers Club
Box: 79 Folder: 5
1977: Fabrey, J. - Jubal Trio
Box: 79 Folder: 6
1977: Karasik, S. - Mohonk Mountain House

Letter from Dr. Henry Kissinger.

Box: 80 Folder: 1
1977: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - Puck, T
Box: 80 Folder: 2
1977: Radu, N. - Shri Ram Institute for Industrial Research
Box: 80 Folder: 3
1977: Sills, B. - Victor, P
Box: 80 Folder: 4
1977: Wain, P. - Wurzburger, O
Box: 80 Folder: 5
1978, January - April: Chronological file
Box: 80 Folder: 6
1978, May - December: Chronological file
Box: 81 Folder: 1-2
1978: Alcopley - Culver, G
Box: 81 Folder: 3
1978: Danielli, J. - Hunt, J
Box: 81 Folder: 4
1978: Immunology Research Foundation - Martin, P
Box: 81 Folder: 5
1978: Marx, O. - Phillips, G
Box: 82 Folder: 1
1978: Pick, J. - Swan, S
Box: 82 Folder: 2
1978: Taylor, A. - Zumwalt, E
Box: 82 Folder: 3
1979, January - September: Chronological file
Box: 82 Folder: 4-6
1979, October - December: Chronological file
Box: 83 Folder: 1
1979: Abrams, H. - Buzzati-Traverso, A
Box: 83 Folder: 2
1979: Carter, J. - Evans, H
Box: 83 Folder: 3
1979: Falk, D. - Gross, G
Box: 83 Folder: 4
1979: Halsman, P. - JCA Literary Agency, Inc
Box: 83 Folder: 5
1979: Kaplan - Loeb, J
Box: 83 Folder: 6
1979: Manas Publishing Company - Safar, P
Box: 84 Folder: 1
1979: Salas, R. - Turner, T
Box: 84 Folder: 2
1979: Ubell, E. - Vietor, J
Box: 84 Folder: 3