Papers of J. Stuart Innerst (1894-1975), missionary, Quaker activist, editor, and critic of American foreign policy toward China. Innerst worked in China as a United Brethren in Christ missionary (1920-1927) and later returned as a guest of the People's Republic for five weeks in 1972. The bulk of the papers (1960-1975) relate to Innerst's lobbying and activist efforts to improve relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China and document that part of Innerst's career directly related to China. The materials are arranged into eight series: 1) BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS, 2) CORRESPONDENCE, 3) WRITINGS, 4) ADVOCACY MATERIALS, 5) SUBJECT FILES, 6) PHOTOGRAPHS, 7) MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS, and 8) AUDIO RECORDINGS. Included in the correspondence are letters from Anna Louise Strong and letters written by Innerst as a missionary. Innerst edited the American Friends Service Committee's THE UNDERSTANDING CHINA NEWSLETTER (1965-1970) and the CHINA SPECTATOR PAPERS (1971-1973), which were posthumously published as CHINA GREY, CHINA GREEN (1983).


J. Stuart Innerst was born in Dallastown, Pennsylvania, in 1894. He graduated from Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pennsylvania, in 1916 and received his Bachelor of Divinity degree from Bonebrake Theological Seminary, now the United Seminary in Dayton, Ohio, in 1919. He married Marion Reachard after graduation from college.

Innerst began his experience and involvement with China as a missionary. On January 20, 1920, the Innersts entered China with the China Mission of United Brethren in Christ in Canton. They lived and worked in the small, rural town of Siulam where they became increasingly disturbed by the attitudes and actions of foreigners toward Chinese people. The Innersts experienced China in its transition to a modern state dominated by foreign imperialist powers. In the spring of 1927, the Innersts left China in protest of the "unequal treaties" imposed by foreign governments.

Innerst returned to Ohio to become the chaplain at Otterbein College from 1927 to 1939, when he became the minister of Fairview Church in Dayton, Ohio. In 1943, Innerst left the ministry to become a Quaker and later served as pastor of the First Friends Church in Pasadena, California.

During the 1960s, Innerst actively sought to change United States policy toward China. Between 1960-1961, he served as director of the Quaker's "Friend in Washington Program," and for thirteen months he lobbied and interviewed members of Congress regarding disarmament, peace, and improved relations with China. Concern for his wife's health forced his departure from Washington, but he returned briefly in 1963 and again in 1965.

In 1965, Innerst coauthored the book A NEW CHINA POLICY: SOME QUAKER PROPOSALS, which argued for normalizing relations with China through the removal of restrictions and recognition of the communist government. Between 1965 and 1970, he edited the UNDERSTANDING CHINA NEWSLETTER published by the American Friends Service Committee. In 1968, Innerst travelled to the Far East, including Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore to meet with Quaker groups concerning the situation in China. Innerst influenced public opinion through community lectures, correspondence, and letters to newspaper editors.

Innerst's service in the interest of world peace included participation in the American Friends Service Committee, the Peace Board of the California Yearly Meeting of Friends, and the Board of Peace and Social Concerns of the Five Years Meeting. He attended four conferences of the World Peace Council in Europe in the early 1960s and helped plan the 1962 Moscow World Congress on Disarmament and Peace.

Innerst returned to China in May 1972 as a guest of the Chinese Peoples Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries. As the first American missionary to be granted a visa to reenter China, Innerst spent five weeks visiting cities, historical sites, schools, hospitals, factories, and rural communes, focusing on the social changes achieved by the communist regime.

After the death of Marion Innerst in October 1964, Stuart Innerst married Gladis Barber Voorhees and settled in La Jolla, California. From his home, he produced the CHINA SPECTATOR PAPERS (1971-1973), a newsletter which, after 1972, became an occasionally issued narrative which contrasted his China trip with recollections and insights from the 1920s. The last ten issues formed the basis of the book CHINA GREY, CHINA GREEN (1983), edited by family members and published posthumously.

J. Stuart Innerst died at his home in La Jolla, California, on August 30, 1975.

Scope and Content

Accession Processed in 1992

The J. Stuart Innerst Papers relate almost exclusively to China and provide a unique perspective on the country's social and political changes in the twentieth century. They contain materials describing China during two discrete periods-- during the early 1920s, and later, during the 1960s and early 1970s. The bulk of the materials date from 1960-1975 and document Innerst's efforts to change and improve American attitudes and foreign policy toward the People's Republic of China. The materials include correspondence, writings, notes, publications edited by Innerst, photographs, and audio recordings. The collection is organized into eight series: 1) BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS, 2) CORRESPONDENCE, 3) WRITINGS, 4) ADVOCACY MATERIALS, 5) SUBJECT FILES, 6) PHOTOGRAPHS, 7) MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS, and 8) AUDIO RECORDINGS.


The BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS contain several short sketches outlining Innerst's activities since 1960 as a Quaker, as well as a detailed article entitled "China Spectator," coauthored by Innerst. The obituary materials include newspaper articles and letters of condolence. Additionally, Innerst's public speaking activities during the 1960s and early 1970s are documented in the flyers and notices of his speaking events.


The CORRESPONDENCE series is divided into two subseries, the first of which contains correspondence between Innerst and individuals interested in China. Many of the correspondents were other Quakers living in Pacific Rim countries. Of particular importance are the letters from Anna Louise Strong, an American journalist and advocate of communism who settled in Peking and enjoyed the acquaintance of Mao Tse-tung until her death in 1970. Materials in this series are organized alphabetically by author.

The second subseries of CORRESPONDENCE is entitled Letter Book from China and comprises a collection of letters (1916-1923) from Marion and Stuart Innerst and the C.E. Burrises to the Reverend Rufus Lefever, a Brethren Church official who lived in Dayton, Ohio. The bulk of the letters was written by Stuart Innerst and reflects his experiences as a missionary in China.


The WRITINGS series is arranged in two subseries, general and notebooks, and contains a variety of works on China policy including journal articles, short papers, written speeches, and rough notes. Although the bulk of the materials dates from 1960, there are two works from Innerst's missionary period-- "Paying the Price of Conviction" (1922) and "Next Things in China" (1926). The materials are arranged alphabetically by title. The second subseries also contains notebooks which Innerst created on his 1972 trip to China and during his 1968 trip to the Far East.


The ADVOCACY MATERIALS series is divided into three subseries and documents Innerst's efforts to influence governmental and public opinion about China. The record of Innerst's individual meetings with Congressional representatives is contained in the "Lobby Materials" subseries. In addition, summaries of his activity during his association with the "Friend in Washington Program" are located in the "Washington Diary" folders. Materials from Innerst's involvement with the American Friends Service Committee's China Committee and his La Jolla-based "China Study Group" are also included in the series. Finally, published runs of newsletters which Innerst helped to edit and publish, especially the CHINA SPECTATOR PAPERS and the UNDERSTANDING CHINA NEWSLETTER, complete the series.


The SUBJECT FILES series contains folders which aggregate newspaper clippings, broadsides, handwritten notes, and ephemera related to China. The materials are organized alphabetically by title.


Among the materials in the PHOTOGRAPHS series are color slide images which Innerst made during his 1972 trip to China. Also included are black and white prints used to illustrate the book CHINA GREY, CHINA GREEN. Finally, there are several portrait images of Innerst.


The MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS contain memorabilia from Innerst's missionary experience in China during the 1920s: anti-imperialist propaganda cartoons and a Chinese newspaper.


Audio cassette tapes comprise the bulk of the AUDIO RECORDINGS series. Innerst's trip to China is represented by two tapes of choral events, a discussion of his experience recorded after leaving China, recorded thoughts on China from a Quaker meeting, and the narration to accompany his slide presentation.


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11 Biographical sketches.
12 Obituary materials and letters of condolence, 1975. "Memorial Meeting - In Memory of Stuart Innerst - September 13, 1975." - Cassette tapes - [Quaker Meetings] - see also AUDIO RECORDINGS.
13 Speaking events - Flyers and notices, 1962 - 1973. See also CORRESPONDENCE -- General -- "Speaking Engagements."
14 Speaking events - Reviews. See also CORRESPONDENCE -- General -- "Speaking Engagements."


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15 Miscellaneous correspondence, A-M.
16 Miscellaneous correspondence, N-Y.
17 Alley, Rewi, 1970 - 1975.
18 American Friends Service Committee, 1965 - 1968.
19 Australia-China Society, 1969 - 1972.
110 Boyce, Peter J., 1968 - 1969.
111 Chen, John P.H., 1958 - 1962.
112 Chiao, Kuan-hua, 1971.
113 China Travel Service, 1968 - 1973.
114 Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, 1972 - 1975.
115 Chou, En-lai, 1968 - 1971.
116 Chou, Pei-yuan, 1975.
117 Christian Freedom Foundation, Inc., 1961.
118 Committee for New China Policy, 1972.
119 Dew, Francis, 1969 - 1975.
120 Edwards, Dagmar, 1968.
121 Holmes, Margaret, 1968 - 1969.
122 Huang, Wei-shan, 1973 - 1975.
123 Krause, Pat, 1971.
124 Lake, Ruth, 1969 - 1971.
125 Letters from Congressmen, 1961 - 1963.
126 Letters to the Editor, 1954 - 1971.
21 Lin, Paul, 1970 - 1971.
22 Mao, Tse-tung. [Draft of a letter to Mao].
23 Morse, Wayne, 1971 - 1972.
24 National Council of Churches, 1968 - 1973.
25 Newell, Frances, 1968 - 1969.
26 Newnham, Thomas, 1968 - 1969.
27 Paull, Rose, 1973.
28 People's Republic of China., 1971 - 1973. Embassy. Ottawa, Canada.
29 Phelps, Dryden Linsley - "Travel to China", 1971 - 1972.
210 Porter, Charles O., 1969 - 1971.
211 Religious Society of Friends, 1968 - 1971. [New Zealand].
212 Richards, Jean, 1969.
213 Snyder, Edwards F., 1967 - 1971.
214 Sodei, Rinjiro, 1967 - 1972.
215 Speaking Engagements, 1958 - 1966.
216 Speaking Engagements, 1967 - 1970.
217 Speaking Engagements, 1972 - 1975.
218 Strong, Anna Louise, 1962 - 1970. Correspondence.
219 Strong, Anna Louise, 1963 - 1969. LETTER FROM CHINA.
31 Tang, Ming-Chao, 1970 - 1973.
32 Travel to China, 1965 - 1967.
33 Tucson Correspondence, 1973.
34 United States, 1964 - 1975. Department of State.
35 United Theological Seminary (Calvin H. Reber), 1973 - 1975.
36 Visit to China, 1970 - 1972.
37 Wheelwright, E.L., 1968 - 1969.
38 White Paper Correspondence, 1971.
39 Yarrow, Mike, 1971.

Letter Book From China

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310 Letter Book From China, 1916 - 1923.


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311 America's China Policy - and Alternatives, 1967. (An address delivered at the University of California, San Diego, January 8, 1967, in 'a one-day conversation' on 'Paper-Tigers and Dragon-Tamers,' sponsored by the University in cooperation with eleven organizations in the area.)
312 Another Voice for Amnesty - J. Stuart Innerst, 1973. June 20, [remarks read into the Congressional Record in the House of Representatives].
313 Can We Open Windows to China?. Typescript, (no date).
314 China - Fifty Years Later a New World, 1972. September, (typescript and holograph notes).
315 China: New Dogma, New Maoist Man, 1972. Holograph notes.
316 China Policy, 1970. Correspondence, typescripts and holograph notes.
317 Chinese History, 1973. Holograph notes.
318 Foreign Policy Cuts Two Ways. [American Friends Service Committee reprint], (no date).
319 How Would the United States Feel?, 1966. November 1.
320 I Saw a New China. Typescript, (no date).
321 Journey in Search of Answers. Mimeograph, (no date).
322 Journey to Moscow. Mimeograph, (no date).
323 Miscellaneous notes (typescripts and holograph notes). No date.
324 Modern Industrialism in China, 1920. Original Manuscript.
325 Myth and Reality in our Relations with China, 1970. April 1.
326 New China and the New Chinese, 1973. March.
327 NEW CHINA POLICY: SOME QUAKER PROPOSALS, 1965. [Innerst was coauthor].
328 New China Policy (Eighth Annual Harry A. Shuder Memorial Address), 1968. October 26, (typescript).
41 Next Things in China, 1926. [Article published in the religious journal WATCHWORD].
42 Notes and handwritten drafts. No date.
43 Notes and quotations for speeches. No date.
44 Notes and quotations for speeches. No date.
45 Paying the Price of Conviction: Story of a Chinese Lad who Refused to be Engage, 1922. [Article published in the religious journal WATCHWORD].
46 Peace Policy Toward China, 1970. Typescripts and holograph notes.
47 Policy and Problems - China, 1960. [Outlines for speeches].
48 Recent Writings on China, 1975. Holograph notes.
49 Some Observations - Speech given at the Congressional Conference on U.S. -, 1971. Mainland China Policy, February 4-5.
410 Testimony of Stuart Innerst on behalf of the Friends Committee on Legislation, 1967. [title continues] Before Congressman George E. Brown and Congressman Edward Roybal, November 27-28.
411 Time for Greatness. Mimeograph, (no date).
412 Unprecedented Progress, 1972. [Articles published in the FRIENDS JOURNAL].
413 Writings, 1972. [Holograph notes of sketches describing 1972 trip to China].


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414 Notebook with newspaper clippings, 1967.
415 Trip to New Zealand, Autralia, Singapore, Philipines, Bangkok, Japan -, 1968. Question about China.
416 China Trip, 1972. "Changes in China, 1920-1972."
417 China Trip, 1972. "China Questions Asked - Notes."
51 China Trip, 1972. China Notes.
52 China Trip, 1972. "More China Notes."
53 China Trip, 1972. "Trip to China."


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Lobby Materials

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54 Interviews - Congress, 1960.
55 Interviews - Congress, 1961.
56 Interviews - Congress, 1965.
57 Interviews - Congress, 1967.
58 Washington Diary, 1960.
59 Washington Diary, 1961.
510 Washington - February, 1963.
511 Washington Report, 1971.

Organizations and Study Groups

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512 American Friends Service Committee, 1964. China Policy Working Party.
513 American Friends Service Committee, 1965 - 1971. Minutes of the China Committee.
514 American Friends Service Committee, 1971. Bronson Clark reports.
515 American Friends Service Committee, 1963 - 1971. Understanding China Committee.
516 China Study Groups. Miscellaneous materials, clippings, etc., (no date).
61 China Study Groups. Mailing Lists, (no date).
62 China Study Groups, 1973 - 1975. Notes.
63 China Study Groups, 1973 - 1975. Notes.
64 China Study Groups, 1973 - 1975. Notes.


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65 CALIFORNIAN REPORTS FROM WASHINGTON, 1963 - 1965. Mimeograph and typescript.
66 CHINA SPECTATOR PAPERS. Issues from 1971-1973.
67 CHINA SPECTATOR PAPERS. Correspondence, 1971-1973.
611MC-041-04UNDERSTANDING CHINA NEWSLETTER. Issues from June 1965 to June 1970.
613 UNDERSTANDING CHINA NEWSLETTER. Correspondence, 1967-1969.
614 UNDERSTANDING CHINA NEWSLETTER. Miscellaneous, (no date).
615 Mailing lists. No date.


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616 Addresses and Publicity - Hubert Humphrey, 1966.
617 Australia. No date.
618 Chen Yu-hsi, 1969.
619 China and India Border Dispute, 1964.
71 China and India, 1959. Clippings, pamphets, copies and letters.
72 China and the U.N., 1968 - 1971.
73 China articles, 1974. Holograph notes and clippings.
74 China - Attack on Confucius, 1974. Clippings.
75 China Casualties [killed by the Communists], 1971. Typescripts and clippings.
76 China - FRIENDS COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL LEGISLATION NEWSLETTER. [Miscellaneous issues], (no date).
77 China, 1970. January, clippings.
78 China Lobby. No date.
79 China Macao, 1967. Clippings.
710 China policy materials. No date.
711 China Since Returning, 1972. Clippings.
712 China -- Sino-Russian, 1964. Clippings.
713 China's Statement on Bangladesh, 1971. December 17.
714 China-Taiwan, 1966 - 1975. Clippings.
715 China-Tibet, 1960.
716 China, U.S. Policy toward. No date.
717 Chinese Language Study [Innerst's class notes and exercises].
718 Clippings, handwritten notes, 1963.
719 Committee of One Million Against the Admission of Communist China to the U.N., 1955 - 1965.
720 Cultural Revolution, 1971. Holograph notes and clippings.
721 Current Chinese Developments, 1974 - 1975. Clippings.
722 Elegant's articles from Hong Kong, 1975. Clippings.
81 Hong Kong, 1967. Clippings.
82 James Reston [newspaper articles], 1971. Clippings.
83 Life in China, 1965 - 1970. Clippings.
84 Mao Tse-tung, 1960 - 1967. Clippings.
85 Miscellaneous China. No date.
86 Miscellaneous China. No date.
87 Miscellaneous China. No date.
88 Miscellaneous China. No date.
89 Miscellaneous China. No date.
810 Miscellaneous China. No date.
811 Miscellaneous China. No date.
812 Miscellaneous Facts and Figures. No date.
813 Nixon's Trip to China, 1969. "Nixon on China," clippings.
814 Nixon's Trip to China, 1972. "Nixon Trip - Clippings and Pamphlets."
815 Nixon's Trip to China. "Nixon Visit," clippings, (no date).
816 Peking-United Nations, 1966.
817 Red Guards, 1966 - 1967. Clippings.
91 Senator Bridges Speech, 1961.
92 Senators' Speeches [on] China, 1966 - 1970.
93 Singapore. Notes and clippings, (no date).
94 Tachai. Notes, (no date).
95 Taiwan. Clippings, (no date).
96 Taiwan. Clippings, (no date).
97 Tibet. No date.
98 Two China Policy, 1966. Clippings.
99 Understanding China, 1972.
910 U.S. - China Friendship Association Newsletter, 1975.
911 Washington Visit, Appointments (China), 1971.
912 What Others Saw [in China], 1972. Articles and clippings.
913 While in China, 1972. June, clippings.


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101 China Trip - Narration by Stuart Innerst," color slides, 1972. See also AUDIO RECORDINGS - Cassette tapes - "China Slides."
102 China Trip - Narration by Stuart Innerst," lists of slide descriptions, 1972. See also AUDIO RECORDINGS - Cassette tapes - "China Slides."
103 Photographs of Stuart Innerst.
104 Photographs of Tachai.
105 Photographs for CHINA GRAY, CHINA GREEN.
106 Photographs for CHINA GRAY, CHINA GREEN.
107 Photographs for CHINA GRAY, CHINA GREEN.


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108MC-041-05Chinese Propaganda Cartoons.
109MC-041-06Chinese Newspaper (in Chinese).


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111 Reel-to-reel tape. Lin, Paul T. "Tradition and change in contemporary China."
112 Cassette tapes, 1972. "China 1972" - Side A: [opera?]. Side B: "From Canton through Nanking on B."
113 Cassette tapes. "China Slides - Narration by Stuart Innerst."
114 Cassette tapes, 1972. "Shanghai June 21st" [opera?].
115 Cassette tapes, 1972. "Visit to China" [discussion].
116 Cassette tapes, 1972. Quaker Meetings - "Message Meeting for Worship (last part - thoughts on entering China 1972, sent home from Hong Kong May, 1972).
117 Cassette tapes, 1975. Quaker Meetings - "Memorial Meeting - In Memory of Stuart Innerst - September 13."

Finding aid generated: 2005-10-28