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Abstract

The Harry Crosby Collection contains photographs of the University of California, San Diego; an exhibit of photographs entitled "Baja California, 1967-1992: Photographs by Harry Crosby" and a book proposal which led to the publication of The Cave Paintings of Baja California (1975). The bulk of the UCSD photographs were taken to illustrate a promotional brochure entitled We Propose to Challenge and document buildings and campus life during the mid-1960s. The Baja California photograph exhibit includes images of peninsular mission architecture, historic places, everyday life on remote ranches, and landmarks along the unpaved transpeninsular highway. Also included are black-and-white negatives from travels in Sonora, Mexico, between 1960-1970; from a photographic study of Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico) in 1964; and from a study of ranches and ranch life in Baja California and Baja California Sur from 1967-1997. The collection is arranged in four series: 1) PHOTOGRAPHS OF UCSD, 2) BAJA CALIFORNIA, 1967-1992 PHOTOGRAPH EXHIBIT, 3) MANUSCRIPTS, and 4) NEGATIVES.

Biography

Harry W. Crosby was born in Seattle, Washington, on June 10, 1926. He received his B.A from Occidental College in 1948 and his masters degree from San Diego State University in 1951. In 1963, he retired from teaching in the San Diego Unified School District to become a professional photographer. Between 1963 and 1974, Crosby worked in commercial photography, specializing in brochure, magazine and book illustration.

In 1967, Crosby was hired by the Commission of the Californias to illustrate a book to commemorate the California bicentennial entitled The Call to California (1969). During his research for the book, he rode 600 miles in Baja California, mostly on muleback, and followed the route of the Portola/Serra expedition of 1769. While photographing historic places in Baja, Crosby also became interested in peninsular rock art and the history of the isolated ranch families he encountered.

Crosby has since written and illustrated numerous books and articles on Baja California, including The King's Highway in Baja California (1974), The Cave Paintings of Baja California (1975), "Baja's Murals of Mystery" ( National Geographic, 1980, Vol.158, No.5, p.692-702), Last of the California (1981), Doomed to Fail (1989), Antigua California, Mission and Colony on the Peninsular Frontier, 1697-1768 (1994), The cave paintings of Baja California : discovering the great murals of an unknown people (1997), and Gateway to Alta California: the expedition to San Diego, 1769 (2003).

Scope and Content of Collection

The Harry Crosby Collection contains: images of the University of California, San Diego taken during the mid-1960s; a photograph exhibition entitled "Baja California, 1967-1992: Photographs by Harry Crosby;" and, a book proposal on the mountains, people and cave paintings of Baja California. Also included are black-and-white negatives from travels in Sonora, Mexico, between 1960-1970; from a photographic study of Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico) in 1964; and from a study of ranches and ranch life in Baja California and Baja California Sur from 1967-1997. The collection is arranged in four series: 1) PHOTOGRAPHS OF UCSD, 2) BAJA CALIFORNIA, 1967-1992, 3) MANUSCRIPTS and 4) NEGATIVES.

SERIES 1: PHOTOGRAPHS OF UCSD

The PHOTOGRAPHS OF UCSD series contains black-and-white contact sheets and mounted photographs taken between 1965 and 1970. Many of the photographs were taken to illustrate the UCSD brochure entitled We Propose to Challenge (1966) and document instruction, laboratories, student life, and some faculty, including philosophy professor Herbert Marcuse. Other photographs show Muir and Revelle Colleges, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University Hospital, an "Electronic Music Happening," and composer Ernst Krenek during his February 1970 visit to UCSD. The photographs are arranged alphabetically by subject.

SERIES 2: BAJA CALIFORNIA, 1967-1992 PHOTOGRAPH EXHIBIT

This exhibit is available online at: http://libraries.ucsd.edu/speccoll/baja/crosby/index.html

The BAJA CALIFORNIA, 1967-1992 PHOTOGRAPH EXHIBIT series contains ninety-two black-and-white and color images of people and places in Baja California, including peninsular mission architecture, historic places, everyday life on remote ranchos, and landmarks along the unpaved transpeninsular highway. The photographs are arranged in exhibit order in three subseries: A) Pre-history and History of Antigua California, 2) Life at Remote Ranches In Baja California, and 3) Landmarks Along the Trans-Peninsular Highway.

The following subseries descriptions were written by Crosby and describe three groups of exhibited photographs.

A) Pre-history and History of Antigua California

"The Native Americans of the central and lower peninsula disappeared after less than two centuries of exposure to alien diseases and European ideological and economic domination. Their material remains are few and, for the most part, inconspicuous. Thirty years ago, during my first major adventure in Baja California, I was guided to magnificent displays of rock art, paintings and engravings. That experience-- and the scant printed information available on the subject-- inspired me to spend fifteen months in the mountains of the mid-peninsula during the next seven years. My investigations resulted in the text and illustrations for The Cave Paintings of Baja California [1975]. The pre-historic art of Baja California now attracts admiring visitors from around the world. The peninsula displays a variety of other remains as well, items worked from or built of stone: hunting blinds, sleeping circles, metates, manos, and other miscellaneous implements."

"The permanent Spanish presence in California began with a toehold established in 1697. During the eighteenth century, the mission-based colony grew to encompass the entire peninsula and expanded onto the mainland to the northwest. I was introduced to peninsular history when I was hired to illustrate a book commemorating the two hundredth anniversary [1969] of Spanish entry into Alta California. My experience did not begin with books or documents, it came in the field in encounters with remains of mission churches, el camino real-- the inter-mission road-- and other masonry constructions resulting from early economic activity: mining, pearling, cattle ranching, and mission agriculture."

"Historic preservation was barely a concept during the peninsula's three Hispanic centuries. Known losses were great, but most went unrecorded and can only be imagined. Since the opening of the paved highway in 1973, I have watched the patrimony of the peninsula suffer accelerating losses from neglect, looting, and development. I hope that my work will stimulate interest in finding, recording, and preserving the historical legacy. That is my appeal to Baja California's leaders and residents- and to sincere aficionados wherever they reside."

B) Life at Remote Ranches in Baja California

"Peninsular California experienced profound changes during the first third of the nineteenth century. Mexican independence [1821] ended Spanish interest and support; the new government lacked finances and was primarily involved in its own organization and solving problems closer to the heart of the republic. By 1830, Baja California languished for lack of money, supplies, and trade. As the numbers of mission Indians declined, missions were abandoned or secularized. The Presidio of Loreto, the peninsula's largest employer, was scaled down, then abandoned. Local men turned to subsistence ranching or farming on small land claims or, more frequently, to squatting on ex-mission properties or at remote water sources in the sierras or their foothills. The population, so dispersed, developed the basis for much of the small economic activity in the area. The few towns and villages became trading centers where merchants dealt with farmers and ranchers."

"This economy, with many of its practices and traditions almost unchanged, persisted to a remarkable degree in 1967 when I first entered the remote areas. However, in half a dozen years, the paved road brought in the outside world and old ways quickly began to fade. Goods and produce from the mainland and tourism from the United States changed the local economy by lowering demand for more expensive local produce and by creating other needs for local labor. I was extremely fortunate to arrive before those events, to travel to many dozens of inaccessible ranches, to know their people, and to experience the last days of a culture hauntingly like that of our own American West in the nineteenth century. My 1981 book, Last of the Californios, set forth my photographs, my experiences, and my research vis-à-vis this remarkable-- and remarkably nearby-- survival."

C) Landmarks Along the Wheeltracks Grandly Known as the 'Trans-Peninsular Highway'

"Since the second decade of the twentieth century, men have used automobiles to travel over the more level terrain in various parts of the peninsula. Gradually, after truly heroic efforts with hand tools and a little dynamite and blasting powder-- the efforts of various communities, companies, and ranchers made it possible to traverse the entire length of Baja California, usually with aid from local manpower and mulepower to pass through the most difficult terrain. By the 1940s, it was possible, with favorable weather, to drive a high-clearance vehicle from San Diego to San José del Cabo, but few made the trip without long delays due to mechanical problems or shortages of fuel or other wondrous difficulties. Such trips were adventures, often the greatest adventures of the travelers' lives. A cult sprang up around Baja California travel. The individuals or families that offered gas and meals along the way became in-group personalities. Howard Gulick and Peter Gerhard put their experiences to use in creating a truly inspired handbook, Lower California Guidebook-- a historically accurate and geographically sound work that assisted the traveler and educated him as he went."

"The same set of wheeltracks served the slow-growing peninsular economy as an avenue for imports from the U. S. and mainland Mexico and for exports of local produce from fisheries, fields, or herds. Mexican truckers became part of the growing legend; regulars often provided assistance to visitors in distress, sometimes pulling them from mud or sand, sometimes transporting vital vehicle parts, sometimes carrying them to places from which they could get conventional transportation back to their homes. I know at one time or another, I needed and got all of these services and much more. Travel was slow in those days, stops were frequent and there was a lot of camaraderie; friendships were made between fellow travelers and with those who lived or worked along the road. It was an idyll not truly appreciated until the paved road was built and opened in 1973. Changes were sudden and mostly painful to old-timers, whether gringo or peninsular. Much of the romance disappeared. Few of those who had provided services along the old road had the money or political clout to be involved in profits from the new tourism. An era had ended; Lower California Guidebook is a collectors' item. Sic transit gloria mundi...."

SERIES 3: MANUSCRIPTS

The MANUSCRIPTS series contains Crosby's treatment proposal for a book on Baja California mountain people, cave paintings and sierra life. The proposal led to his book entitled The Cave Paintings of Baja California (1975). The volume includes Crosby's written proposal, a statement of professional background, his vita, a map of Baja California, and 39 photographs.

SERIES 4: NEGATIVES

The NEGATIVES series contains black-and-white negatives arranged in three subseries: A) Baja California Sierra, B) Tijuana, and C) Sonora. The first subseries contains negatives in 35mm, 2 1/4in, 4x6 cm, 6x7cm, 6x9cm, and 6x12cm formats and largely document the ranches and ranch life in the Sierra de San Francisco, Sierra de Guadalupe, Sierra de San Borja, and Sierra de la Laguna. This series does not contain images of cave paintings and mural art. The Tijuana subseries contains images from a study of Tijuana, Mexico, taken in June 1964 and later published in Tijuana 1964 : una visión fotográfica e histórica. The Sonora subseries contains images of towns, missions, churches, and people in the state of Sonora, Mexico.

PHOTOGRAPHS OF UCSD

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Box Folder Oversize
1 1 Electronic Music Happening, 1968.
1 2 Krenek, Ernst - Visit to UCSD.
February 1970.
1 3 Muir College.
1 4 Revelle College.
August 23, 1967.
1 5 Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Ca. 1960s.
1 6 University Hospital.
Photographs taken for a brochure, June-July 1968.
1 7 WE PROPOSE TO CHALLENGE brochure.
[1966].
1 8 WE PROPOSE TO CHALLENGE, 1966.
Contact sheets.
1 9 FB20601 WE PROPOSE TO CHALLENGE, 1966.
Exhibition prints.
1 10 FB20602 WE PROPOSE TO CHALLENGE, 1966.
Exhibition prints.
1 11 MC05101 WE PROPOSE TO CHALLENGE, 1966.
Exhibition print.
1 12 FB20603 WE PROPOSE TO CHALLENGE, 1966.
Production prints.

BAJA CALIFORNIA, 1967-1992 PHOTOGRAPH EXHIBIT

Pre-History and History of Antigua California

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Box Folder Oversize
2 1 MC14303 Enrique Hambleton with petroglyphs, Sierra de San Francisco, 1974.
11.5 x 11.5
2 2 MC14301 Harry Crosby at Cueva Pintada, Sierra de San Francisco, 1977.
21 x 21
2 3 MC14303 Boca de San Julio, Sierra de San Francisco, 1974.
11.5 x 11.5
2 4 MC14401 Prehistoric hunting blinds, 1973.
15 x 15
2 5 MC14301 Daunting view of the Sierra de la Giganta from Chuenque on the Loreto Plain, 1990.
21 x 21
2 6 MC14301 Mision de San Javier seen from a high mesa to the east, 1967.
21 x 21
2 7 MC14401 View of San Javier from the south slope of the arroyo, 1967.
15 x 15
2 8 MC14401 Interior view of Mision de San Javier, 1967.
15 x 15
2 9 MC14303 Plaster detail on the arch beneath the choir loft at Mision de San Javier, 1967.
11.5 x 11.5
2 10 MC14401 View from San Javier's belfry, 1967.
15 x 15
2 11 MC14401 Lime kiln midway between the missions at San Javier and San Jose de Comondu, 1986.
15 x 15
2 12 MC14401 Foundations of the church built at Mision de San Jose de Comondu in 1716, 1990.
15 x 15
2 13 MC14401 One of several agricultural plots developed at Mision de San Jose de Comondu, 1967.
15 x 15
2 14 MC14401 Ruins of the chapel at the visiting station of Londo, 1990.
Once an important cattle ranch for Mision de Loreto. 15 x 15
2 15 MC14402 Grapevines at Mision de San Ignacio, 1974.
Long the most important of the peninsula's wine producing missions. 15 x 15
2 16 MC14402 Facade of Mision de San Ignacio, 1967.
15 x 15
2 17 MC14402 Great Muralla, or dike at Mision de San Ignacio, 1971.
15 x 15
2 18 MC14301 Mision de San Luis Gonzaga, 1990.
21 x 21
2 19 MC14402 El Camino Real midway between San Ignacio and Santa Gertrudis, 1967.
15 x 15
2 20 MC14301 El Camino Real in Arroyo del Infierno, 1971.
21 x 21
2 21 MC14402 El Camino Real crosses the Llano del Gentil as it approaches Mision de San Borja, 1967.
15 x 15
2 22 MC14303 El Camino Real crosses the Llano del Gentil - trail marker, 1967.
11.5 x 11.5
2 23 MC14402 Mision de Santa Maria de los Angeles, 1967.
15 x 15
2 24 MC14402 Bahia de la Ventana and the Surgidero de Cerralvo, 1992.
15 x 15
2 25 MC14402 Ruins of an eighteenth century silver refining installation, 1974.
15 x 15
2 26 MC14403 Real de Santa Ana, 1974.
15 x 15
2 27 MC14301 Adobe ruins at Santa Ana, 1974.
21 x 21
2 28 MC14403 San Telmo Valley seen from foothills of the Sierra de San Pedro Martir, 1968.
15 x 15
2 29 MC14403 Map of Missions.
15 x 15

Life at Remote Ranches in Baja California

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Box Folder Oversize
2 30 MC14403 View to the west looking down the arroyo of Rancho del Potrero, 1980.
15 x 15
2 31 MC14403 View northward over Rancho de San Antonio, 1972.
15 x 15
2 32 MC14403 Rancho de Santa Barbara on the eastern slope of Sierra de San Juan, 1973.
15 x 15
2 33 MC14403 Rancho de Vivelejos, 1980.
15 x 15
2 34 MC14302 Rancho de San Dionisio in the foothills of the Sierra de la Laguna, 1972.
21 x 21
2 35 MC14403 Corredor at Rancho de la Soledad, 1972.
15 x 15
2 36 MC14404 Corredor at Rancho de las Calabazas, 1971.
15 x 15
2 37 MC14404 Rancho de la Purificacion, 1972.
15 x 15
2 38 MC14302 Chapel at Rancho de la Soledad, 1972.
21 x 21
2 39 MC14302 Las Jicamas, a seasonal goat ranch, 1980.
21 x 21
2 40 MC14404 Goats released after milking at Rancho de las Jicamas, 1980.
15 x 15
2 41 MC14404 Drawing water at Rancho de los Pozos, 1971.
15 x 15
2 42 MC14302 Kitchen scene at Rancho de Pie de la Cuesta, 1971.
21 x 21
2 43 MC14404 Kitchen scene at Rancho de la Vinorama [de arriba], 1980.
15 x 15
2 44 MC14303 Berta's mural at Rancho de Santa Marta, 1973.
11.5 x 11.5
2 45 MC14404 Treadle sewing machine at Rancho de Pie de la Cuesta, 1971.
15 x15
2 46 MC14404 Grindstone at Rancho de Guadalupe, 1980.
15 x 15
2 47 MC14404 Tanning Vats at Rancho de San Nicolas, 1971.
15 x 15
2 48 MC14405 Flume at Rancho de San Gregorio, 1971.
15 x 15
2 49 MC14405 Picking dates at Rancho de San Martin, 1980.
15 x 15
2 50 MC14405 Cattle in the tinaja at Rancho del Zorillo, 1980.
15 x 15
2 51 MC14405 Mule roundup near Rancho de San Martin, 1980.
15 x 15
2 52 MC14405 Mules in stone corral at Rancho de Vivelejos, 1980.
15 x 15
2 53 MC14405 Packtrain crosses the mesa del Tabardillo, 1977.
15 x 15
2 54 MC14302 Opening a cattle gate between the ranches of San Nicolas and San Pablo, 1973.
21 x 21
2 55 MC14405 Return from a three-day roundtrip to the nearest store, 1980.
15 x 15
2 56 MC14405 My party starts the descent from San Gabriel to San Narciso, 1980.
15 x 15
2 57 MC14406 Ranchers from San Antonio guide their animals through Arroyo del Infierno, 1971.
15 x 15
2 58 MC14406 Burros rest between burdens at Rancho Carricito, 1980.
15 x 15
2 59 MC14406 Loading a burro at Rancho de Santa Cruz, 1972.
15 x 15
2 60 MC14406 Loaded burros stop for water at Rancho de Guadalupe, 1980.
15 x 15

Landmarks Along the Trans-Peninsular Highway

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Box Folder Oversize
2 61 MC14406 San Felipe as it was...., 1952.
15 x 15
2 62 MC14302 El Pedregoso, 1990.
21 x 21
2 63 MC14501 Landform fifteen miles southeast of El Rosario, 1990.
21 x 21
2 64 MC14406 Rancho de Arenoso, 1971.
15 x 15
2 65 MC14406 Laguna Seca de Chapala, 1967.
15 x 15
2 66 MC14406 Laguna Seca de Chapala, 1967.
15 x 15
2 67 MC14303 Arturo Grosso, 1967.
11.5 x 11.5
2 68 MC14502 Gas Station/Rest Stop near Mezquital, 1971.
15 x 15
2 69 MC14502 Gas Station/Rest Stop near Mezquital, 1971.
15 x 15
2 70 MC14303 Roadside butcher shop in Villa Insurgentes, 1967.
11.5 x 11.5
2 71 MC14502 Hulks of old cars at Calmalli, 1971.
15 x 15
2 72 MC14502 Hulks of old cars at Calmalli, 1967.
15 x 15
2 73 MC14502 Stretch of the old dirt road near Rancho del Tablon, 1971.
15 x 15
2 74 MC14502 Old road into San Ignacio, 1971.
15 x 15
2 75 MC14502 Frank Fischer's Garage in San Ignacio.
15 x 15
2 76 MC14502 Frank Fischer's Garage in San Ignacio.
15 x 15
2 77 MC14503 Frank Fischer's Garage in San Ignacio.
15 x 15
2 78 MC14303 Frank Fischer's Garage in San Ignacio.
11.5 x 11.5
2 79 MC14503 Windmill and pump built from auto parts near San Ignacio, 1972.
15 x 15
2 80 MC14503 Old road from San Ignacio to Santa Rosalia, 1975.
15 x 15
2 81 MC14501 Santa Rosalia near sunset, 1967.
21 x 21
2 82 MC14501 Santa Rosalia: the Boleo mill in action, 1967.
21 x 21
2 83 MC14503 Santa Rosalia: Scrapped railroad wheels at the Boleo mill, 1967.
15 x 15
2 84 MC14503 Santa Rosalia: Narrow gauge engine at the Boleo mill, 1967.
15 x 15
2 85 MC14503 Santa Rosalia: A worker oiling machinery at the Boleo mill, 1967.
15 x 15
2 86 MC14503 Local ranchers scan horizon from atop El Picacho in the Sierra de la Laguna, 1972.
15 x 15
2 87 MC14503 Red volcanic agglomerate cliff in Arroyo de San Pablo, 1977.
Sierra de San Francisco. 15 x 15
2 88 MC14504 Morning mists at Mesa del Tabardillo, northwest Sierra de San Francisco, 1977.
15 x 15
2 89 MC14501 Sea of Cortez from a beach north of the salina at San Evarito, 1972.
21 x 21
2 90 MC14504 Sea of Cortez from a beach south of Los Dolores, 1972.
15 x 15
2 91 MC14504 Large zalates (ficus palmeri) flourish in canyon above San Sebastian, 1967.
15 x 15
2 92 MC14501 Great Tinaja in Arroyo del Parral, 1971.
21 x 21

MANUSCRIPTS

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Box Folder Oversize
3 1 Sierras of Baja California, The People of the Baja California Mountains...
A proposal to the media for word and picture coverage of some nearby but remarkably isolated places and people.

NEGATIVES

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Box Folder Oversize
4 Baja California Sierra.
3,323 black-and-white negatives
4 Tijuana.
644 black-and-white negatives
4 Sonora.
398 black-and-white negatives


Finding aid generated: 2012-04-19