Elections and Events 1902-1911



Fitzgibbon 1964: On February 24, 1902, "the previously chosen electoral bodies were to designate their choices for President, Vice President, and senators" (page 86).

Hitchman 1971: On February 24, 1902, "the electors met to vote for president" (page 194).

Riera 1955: "El 10 de febrero de 1902 se constituyen los Consejos Provinciales. Se acuerda que la mitad de los consejeros proclamados lo sean por el período de 4 años, y la otra mitad por el plazo de 2 años, regulándose así la renovación bienal de esos cargos, desde las elecciones parciales a celebrarse en 1904" (page 54).

Riera Hernández 1974: "Reuniéronse en Asambleas Provinciales los Compromisarios o electores intermedios el día 24 de febrero de 1902" (page 8).

February 18

Riera 1955: "El 18 de febrero de 1902 elígense 24 senadores por el Colegio de Compromisarios Senatoriales, constituído en los Consejos Provinciales" (page 54).

February 24

Riera 1955: "Los Compromisarios Presidenciales reúnense el 24 de febrero de 1902, a los efecto de elegir Presidente y Vice-presidente de la República por el período de 4 años" (page 55).

May 5

Chapman 1927: "The first congress of the republic was called together on May 5, 1902, to give its official approval of the candidates that had been declared elected" (page 146).

Riera 1955: "El día 5 de mayo del año referido queda constituído el primer Congreso de la República. A 12 senadores toca el plazo largo de 8 años y a otros 12 el de menor duración fijado en un cuatrienio; los primeros cesarán en 1910, y los segundos en 1906. Así queda regulada la renovacíon de la Alta Cámara en cada elección presidencial. Para la Cámara de Representantes proclámanse 63 legisladores, correspondiendo a 32 el período de 4 años con extinción en 1906, a a 31 el corto a vencer en 1904" (page 55).

May 15

Riera 1955: "El día 15 de mayo de 1902 el Congreso hace la proclamación presidencial de Estrada Palma" (page 55).

May 20

Aguilar 1993: "On 20 May 1902, amid popular jubilation, the duly elected Tomás Estrada Palma was inaugurated as Cuba's first president. That very day American troops began to evacuate the island" (page 40).

Langley 1983: Estrada Palma "ruled with an administrative machinery created by Americans and under a constitution modeled closely on that of the United States. The party system only vaguely resembled that of the United States, however, and the parties themselves-the Republicans and National Liberals-tended to be dominated by former rebel generals who were constantly intriguing" (page 35).

Lockmiller 1969: "Political factions were present during Estrada Palma's first administration, but well defined parties advocating special issues or platforms could hardly be said to have existed. The leading groups were the Moderates and the Liberals. Groups calling themselves Nationalists usually acted with the Moderates" (page 28).

Musicant 1990: "Tomás Estrada Palma took over a going concern. There were no debts, and the treasury was full. Yet there were other significant problems. The cane sugar market was depressed, and large numbers of unemployed agricultural workers posed a threat to public order. The political parties formed, aligned, separated, and realigned with dizzying regularity. The Nationalists, with the support of anti-Platt Amendment factions, became the National Liberals, and then, joined by the radical faction from the Conservative Republicans, coalesced into the Liberals. The remaining Conservative Republicans re-formed as the Moderates. These labels were fairly meaningless, and the major Cuban parties were dominated by senior veterans of the Liberation Army" (page 52).

Pérez-Stable 1993a: "Because foreigners controlled industry and commerce, public office became the exclusive realm of Cubans. Control of the state bureaucracy provided access to resources inaccessible elsewhere. Thus, presidential reelections became the focus of contention as incumbents were loath to relinquish power" (page 38).


Gellman 1973: "In the Permanent Treaty of the same year, the United States guaranteed Cuba's political stability by assuming responsibility for the maintenance of the island's internal tranquility. Long aware of Cuba's strategic importance, the United States also gained the right to erect naval stations on the island" (page 8).

Langley 1989: "The reciprocity treaty, negotiated in 1902 but not ratified until late 1903, fulfilled American dreams of drawing the Cuban economy closer to that of the United States. It was also compensation to the Cubans, who wanted tariff reciprocity, for accepting the Platt Amendment…It laid the basis for even greater investment and ultimately transformed Cuba into a marketplace for American goods" (pages 38-39).

Munro 1974: The "reciprocity treaty of 1902 [1903] gave Cuba a favored position in the American market which helped to make her one of the world's greatest sugar producers…Much American and other foreign capital was invested there, and the country became the richest of the Caribbean states" (page 16).

Pérez 1995: The "Platt Amendment was incorporated into the Permanent Treaty of 1903" (page 188). "As early as 1903, the public payroll, including municipal, provincial, and national government, had expanded to an estimated 20,000 public employees, with some 8,000 in the city of Havana" (pages 219-220).

Pérez-Stable 1993a: "The Reciprocity Treaty of 1903 revived the ravaged sugar industry and enabled a seventeenfold expansion between 1900 and 1925. Cuban sugar received a 20 percent tariff reduction in the United States, and U.S. goods 20 to 40 percent in Cuba" (page 15).


Riera 1955: "Zayas quiso sumarse el apoyo de los republicanos independientes, pero esta tendencia se negó, exigiendo la fusión para crear un nuevo partido de matiz oposicionista. El 28 de febrero de 1903 se consuma la idea referida. Surge el 'Partido Liberal Nacional' bajo la jefatura del doctor Zayas...[Es] integrado por las fuerzas operantes en los partidos Nacional Cubano (Zayas); Republicano Independiente, (Juan Gualberto Gómez); Nacionales Liberales de Camaghey, (Lope Recio); Republicanos Independientes de Las Villas, (José Juis Robau); Nacionales Libres (José B. Alemán); Republicanos Liberales de Vueltabajo, (Luis Pérez) y Republicanos Castillistas, (Demetrio Castillo Duany). Dentro de cada paréntesis hemos encerrado los nombres de los jefes de los distintos partidos fusionados" (page 68).


Chapman 1927: "The existing electoral law was based on that established by General Wood, but it had been converted into a notoriously bad instrument through an amendment which placed control of the elections largely in the hands of the 'alcaldes,' or mayors, of towns. The new law of December 25, 1903, called for two elections, at the first of which the electoral boards for the main election were to be chosen. These boards were to handle the registration, and also act as judges of the election and count the votes. The preliminary election in each voting district was to be in charge of a delegate appointed by the mayor, who might therefore, if he were so minded and had sufficient force, dominate the whole affair" (page 182).

Riera Hernández 1968: The electoral law of December 25, 1903 "ordena la elección de segundo grado ejercida por electores intermedios llamados Compromisarios, a quienes correspondía designar los cargos de Presidente y Vice de la República y los del Senado, ignorando la minoría de sufragios en la Alta Cámara hasta los comicios de 1930, en que debuta esa modalidad política" (pages 37-38).


Saxberg 1989: "The Worker's Party, formed in 1904, set out a program that promised equality for all citizens of the republic" (page 11).

February 8

Riera 1955: "El 8 de febrero de 1904 desígnanse las Juntas de Escrutinios. Los republicanos conservadores usan los recursos del Poder, para impedir la participación de los elementos oposicionistas del Partido Liberal Nacional en los comicios primarios, en que han de elegirse los miembros de las Juntas de Escrutinios" (page 70).

February 28: midterm election

Chapman 1927: "In February 1904 the first elections under the republic were held. The two principal parties reorganized themselves for this event, with the idea of winning at all costs…(T)he Republicans took on a somewhat conservative tendency under the name Conservative Republican party. The Nationals also appeared under a new name, that of the National Liberal party. There were no real issues in the campaign…though the terms 'Conservative' and 'Liberal' were supposed to represent the political tendencies of the two groups" (page 169). Describes the irregularities in the election. "On the returns for the whole country…it seemed that the Conservative Republicans had won. Their opponents were by no means ready to concede the victory, however" (page 170).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: El 28 de febrero de 1904 toman lugar las "elecciones para la renovación de la Cámara y de los Consejos Provinciales" (page 12). "En los comicios de 28 de febrero de 1904, para la renovación parcial de la Cámara y de los Consejos Provinciales, la Coalición Republicana triunfó obteniendo 20 actas de representantes y 26 de consejeros, en tanto que el Partido Liberal Nacional alcanzó sólo 11 actas de representantes y 20 de consejeros" (page 36). Describes the election.

Helg 1991: "In 1904, out of sixty-three congressmen, only four were mulatto or black. Out of twelve senators, only one, Morúa, was of African descent. Afro-Cuban congressmen, few among so many, remained obedient of party discipline and served principally personal and partisan interests, avoiding the problem of racial integration" (page 104).

Langley 1983: "In the 1904 elections for the Cuban congress there occurred sporadic violence, and when the legislative assembly convened the following year the Liberals, who charged the opposition with fraud, refused to participate and thus prevented a quorum" (page 35).

Riera 1955: "El 28 de febrero de 1904 hay elecciones parciales, para proceder a la renovacion de la Cámara y Consejos Provinciales. Cesaban 31 representantes proclamados por dos años en 1902 y la mitad de los consejeros electos en 1901" (page 67). "Elecciones parciales de 28 de febrero de 1904" (pages 77-81). Gives results by province.

Thomas 1998: In the February 1904 election, both "sides sought to win by means of 'el copo,' that is, a fraud to prevent the minority from any representation. Thus in Pinar del Río two electoral boards flourished separately. Even Martí's chosen heir, the Negro polemicist, Juan Gualberto Gómez, got more votes than were cast...Though the Republicans seemed to have gained the day, their opponents did not concede" (page 473).


Riera 1955: "El 9 de marzo de 1904 queda disuelto el partido Unión Democrática" (page 69).


Thomas 1998: "When Congress opened in April, the Liberals did not attend, so preventing the legislature from meeting, since two-thirds of the members had to be present for a quorum" (page 473).


Chapman 1927: "As the year 1904 drew to a close, plans were in the making for the presidential elections of 1905. As the Conservative Republicans had made no headway in Oriente, it was decided to form a new party, to be called the Moderates" (page 172).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "(E)l Partido Republicano Conservador se transformó en el Partido Moderado en el verano de 1904" (page 85).

Riera 1955: "El el mes de agosto de 1904 surgió el 'Partido Moderado', cuya jefatura residió en el general Domingo Méndez Capote. Esta agrupación, era la resultante de una fusión de los elementos autonomistas procedentes del partido Unión Democrática, y las ramas del Partido Republicano Conservador en las provincias de Vueltabajo, Habana y Matanzas" (page 84).


Whitney 2001: "By 1905 the two groups within the independence movement had evolved into two political alignments, the Conservatives under Tomás Estrada Palma and the Liberals under José Miguel Gómez. The Conservative base was in the civilian wing of the Cuban independence movement, whereas Liberal support was especially strong among soldiers who had once been workers and peasants. This difference between the two 'parties' was exacerbated by long-standing class and racial tensions which had always been present in the independence struggle" (page 19).


Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "1 febrero, Estrada Palma se declara Moderado y se afilia al partido que se ha creado con ese nombre" (page 12).

Helg 1991: "When the Moderates in 1905 began to prepare for Estrada Palma's reelection through political purge, fraud, and violence, the frustration experienced by Afro-Cuban veterans reached a climax, for they were among the first to lose the few jobs they had. Many subsequently joined the Liberal party protest led by José Miguel Gómez, who took up arms to overthrow the moderate government" (page 107).

Pérez 1986: "When Estrada Palma contemplated a second term, he needed also to consider affiliation with a political party. Predictably, he chose the Moderates, who had antecedents in the civilian wing of the old separatist coalition...The decision by Estrada Palma to seek a second term was a fateful one, for it required a sweeping reorganization of his government for palpably political ends...The prospects for patronage were unlimited-spoils that Moderates were eager to receive and indisposed to relinquish. These early developments signified more than the president's conversion to a new political faith. They were measures preliminary to a vast reorganization of national, provincial, and municipal government. They were most important, preparations for presidential elections later in 1905 with one objective in view: the defeat of the Liberal party" (page 91).


Hernández, José M. 1993: Estrada Palma's decision to affiliate with the Moderate party "gave rise to the first opposition party in the history of Cuba, a political coalition that incorporated the remaining factions, the most important of which were the Republican wing formed by the followers of General José Miguel Gómez and the National Liberals led by Alfredo Zayas...Miguelistas and Zayistas formerly had been hostile to each other. Under the circumstances, however, they saw fit to merge into what was called the Liberal party, an amorphous organization that was soon joined by a number of lesser groups, among them what was left of the once vociferous Masoístas" (page 118).

Riera 1955: "(H)a de surgir el 25 de abril de 1905 como resultante de las tarea fusionistas el nuevo 'Partido Liberal'" (page 86).


Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "23 mayo, José Miguel Gómez y Alfredo Zayas son nominados por los Liberales como candidatos a Presidente y Vicepresidente de la República" (page 13).

September 23

Chapman 1927: "The key to victory lay in controlling the local governments. So just prior to the first elections in September, [the] Secretary of Government dismissed the local officials in some twenty or more municipalities. All of the men involved happened to be Liberals, while Moderates were appointed in their place" (page 184). "As the day for the preliminary elections, September 23, approached, acts of violence followed one after another until there was something like a reign of terror. The government was prepared to use the police and the rural guards, ostensibly to keep order and prevent electoral frauds, but really to hinder the Liberals, many of whom were arrested" (pages 185-186). "The day of the preliminary elections, September 23, 1905, was filled with political 'electricity,' and it was evident from the first that a Moderate victory, by force if necessary, had been provided for in advance. So the Liberal leaders called off their followers shortly after noon…In many districts [the Moderates] candidates got more votes than there were inhabitants. The electoral boards that had been chosen then proceeded to draw up the lists of voters for the final election, to be held on December 1st" (page 188).

Fitzgibbon 1964: "Registration of voters under the direction of the newly elected local boards proceeded apace and resulted in the listing of 423,313 voters, a figure which Taft and Bacon later declared to be 150,000 names too high" (page 114).

Healy 1988: "A key part of the election process was a preliminary election to select the registration boards for all of the country's individual wards. Held in September 1905, this election was marred by widespread fraud, as everywhere the government's entrenched officials prevented Liberals from voting. Once in control of ward registration, the Moderates padded the rolls with fictitious supporters" (page 128).

Hernández, José M. 1993: Describes the fraud in the preliminary elections (page 123).

Lockmiller 1969: "Under the new cabinet practically all the national officers were members of the Moderate party. The president controlled the police, the rural guards, the municipal alcaldes, and pressure was placed on all to insure victory in the coming elections. The Secretary of Government...just before the September elections ousted opposition officials in some twenty municipalities...The officials who were removed had been elected by popular vote during the first intervention and their summary dismissal by the Estrada Palma government aroused intense opposition among the common people" (page 29). Describes the preliminary elections of September 23, 1905 (pages 30-31).

Pérez 1986: "In September 1905, preliminary elections to select members of local electoral boards resulted in a total moderate sweep. The elections were fraudulent, and there was to be more fraud, for it was the responsibility of local boards to supervise the voter registration and count the ballots in the December general elections. During the subsequent enrollment period, Liberal apprehensions were confirmed: a total of some 432,000 names appeared on the electoral registry, including 150,000 palpably fictitious voters" (page 93).

September 27

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "27 septiembre, renuncia José Miguel Gómez su nominación como candidato presidencial y su cargo de Gobernador de Santa Clara" (page 13).


Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "15 octubre, los liberales acuerdan retraerse de la lucha por falta de garantías" (page 14).

Riera 1955: "El día 15 de octubre de 1905 la Convención Nacional Liberal, presidida por Zayas a presencia de los jefes provinciales..., decidió acordar la inhibición del partido en los comicios presidenciales a efectuarse el 1ro. de diciembre del propio año" (page 93).


Lockmiller 1969: "The Liberals, thwarted at the polls, resorted to armed rebellion, and uprising occurred in Havana and Pinar del Río provinces in November, 1905" (page 33).

December 1: general election (Estrada Palma / PM)

Aguilar 1993: Estrada Palma decides to run for re-election. "Estrada Palma's decision [to run for re-election] moved his two principal opponents, General José Miguel Gómez and Alfredo Zayas, to join forces to form a powerful Liberal party with the two leaders as candidates for president and vice president. Determined to win at any cost, the Moderate party leaders who supported Estrada Palma relied on the government's resources and forces to break the opposition" (page 41).

Chapman 1927: "In the elections of 1905 not only a President and Vice-President were to be chosen, but also half the Senate and half the House and the six provincial governors" (page 183). "Of course, the Moderates had a walk-over in the elections of December 1st. The Liberals did not go to the polls, and all Moderate candidates were elected" (page 188).

Domínguez 1978: "In 1905, President Estrada Palma, head of the Conservative party (Partido Moderado), was reelected without opposition. So much preelectoral coercion and fraud in voter registration were evident that the opposition Liberal party (Partido Liberal) abstained from running its candidates" (page 14).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "1 diciembre, elecciones; Estrada Palma-candidato único de nuevo-obtiene el triunfo, pero Freyre y su 'Gabinete de Combate' extreman la nota en forma innecesaria y prácticamente no hay una sola mesa electoral donde no se registren motivos de fraude" (page 14).

Fitzgibbon 1964: "It was early realized that the elections of 1905 would be a test of strength between the parties. In addition to the two major parties there was a third, the Nationalists or Nuñistas, largely the personal following of Governor Emilio Núñez of Havana. Moderates and Nuñistas allied in the elections of 1905" (page 113).

Healy 1988: "Correctly claiming that they had no chance for a fair election, the Liberals boycotted the voting for president in December, giving Estrada Palma victory by default. His victory was generally discredited, however, a leading newspaper of his own party complaining that 300,000 eligible voters had somehow managed to cast 432,000 votes" (page 128).

Langley 1983: "The Liberals put forth a popular ex-general, José Miguel Gómez, former governor of Santa Clara province; the Republicans, now calling themselves the Moderates, had no one to offer except…Estrada" (page 35).

Lockmiller 1969: "In addition to selecting a president and vice-president in 1905 the people were to elect half the house for a term of four years and half the senate for a term of eight years. Also all six provinces were to elect governors for four-year terms" (page 29).

Musicant 1990: "Palma, who had no party affiliation, nevertheless considered the Liberals an unscrupulous bunch and, reluctantly, he placed himself at the head of the Moderate ticket for the December 1905 presidential elections…The campaign was fraught, on both sides, with corruption and fraud" (page 52).

Pérez 1986: "Undaunted by a Liberal boycott, the government proceeded with elections and on December 2 proclaimed itself the winner of national elections. Not a single Liberal candidate for national, provincial, and municipal office won elective office anywhere" (page 93).

Riera 1955: "Elecciones generales de 1ro. de diciembre de 1905" (pages 101-107). Gives number of registered voters, number who voted, votes for president, and by province the votes for governors, senators, representatives, and councillors.

Riera Hernández 1974: "Elecciones de 1905" (pages 9-10).

Thomas 1998: The Liberals "declared they would call off their candidates altogether and abstain, since it had become clear that they would be beaten by force. The Moderates went ahead, and steadily built up an electoral registry of 432,000, of whom 150,000 were invented. Estrada Palma was thus re-elected without opposition on 1 December 1905" (page 474).



Chapman 1927: "Congress met in April 1906, and one of its first duties was to pass upon the elections of 1905. The Liberals still had a number of senators and representatives, as only half of the membership of Congress had been affected by the elections. These left-over Liberals protested against the validity of the elections, but the Moderates stood firm" (page 191).

Musicant 1990: "In April 1906 the Cuban Congress pronounced the election valid and Tomás Estrada Palma the winner. To a man, the Liberal deputies walked out" (page 52).


Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "4 mayo, ausentes los senadores y representantes Liberales e Independientes, el Congreso proclama como Presidente y Vice-presidente a Estrada Palma y Méndez Capote" (page 14).


Helg 1991: "The August Revolution showed again the willingness of blacks and mulattoes to take up arms. As in the independence war, Afro-Cubans were overrepresented in the insurgent army of 1906. For them, the August Revolution revived hopes for a 'rightful share' in Cuba's government…Gómez had promised to favor Afro-Cubans if he became president, and thus expectations ran high" (page 107).

Musicant 1990: "In the early summer the Liberals plotted revolt…On August 16, 1906, fearing the government ready to smash the plot, [former Liberation Army general] Pino Guerra raised the banner of revolt. Immediately Palma arrested every Liberal politician in reach; the remainder went underground. The revolt of 1906 was never a mass popular movement, yet within a short time, about 20,000 ill-armed and poorly disciplined rebels, mainly unemployed agricultural workers, were in the field. Against them Palma could muster only a few thousand Rural Guards, whose ability and trust were open to question" (page 53).

Pérez 1973: "Election irregularities attributed to army involvement did not pass unchallenged. The August Revolution in 1906 against the government of Tomás Estrada Palma (1902-1906) resulted largely from electoral deceptions and the intimidation of the opposition by the Rural Guard" (page 5).

September 8

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "8 septiembre, una comisión de veteranos presidida por Menocal visita al Primer Magistrado y le presenta unas bases que implican la renuncia de senadores, representantes, gobernadores y consejeros elegidos en 1905" (page 15).

September 24

Lockmiller 1969: "As a result of many conferences, [U.S. commissioners] Taft and Bacon were soon convinced that the elections of 1905 were dishonest...Accordingly the peace commissioners submitted to the warring groups compromise proposals calling for the resignation of all officers elected in 1905, except the president and vice-president, and for new municipal, electoral, and judiciary laws; and demanding a civil service law, redress for Liberals ousted from office, and also a date for the holding of new elections" (page 53).

September 28

Aguilar 1993: "In an effort to avert intervention [Roosevelt] sent two emissaries to Havana to seek a compromise between government and opposition. Regarding such impartiality as a vote of censure on his government, Estrada Palma resigned and made his entire cabinet resign too, leaving the Republic without a government and forcing the United States to take control of the island. Roosevelt immediately proclaimed that the USA had been compelled to intervene in Cuba and that their only purpose was to create the necessary conditions for a peaceful election" (pages 41-42).

Musicant 1990: Describes the events of September 1906 (pages 54-63). "At 9:00 P.M., September 28, a rump session of the Cuban Congress met for the last, pathetic act of the government of Tomás Estrada Palma. Palma, his Vice President, and the entire cabinet resigned. Cuba was now without a government…At midnight, the citizens of Havana listened to the bark of sergeants calling out the cadence and the measured tramp of the 'Louisiana's' marines on their way to guard the treasury. The second intervention in Cuba had begun" (page 63).

September 29

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "William Howard Taft fue el primer Gobernador Provisional de Cuba durante la Segunda Intervención norteamericana. Asumió el cargo, sin formalidad alguna, el sábado 29 de septiembre de 1906 en cumplimiento de órdenes expresas del Presidente Theodore Roosevelt. Los Estados Unidos ejercitaban así el derecho reconocido a su favor por el Artículo III del Tratado Permanente, de 23 de mayo de 1903, al quedar la República sin gobierno" (page 57).

Healy 1988: "On September 29, Taft proclaimed himself provisional governor of Cuba and ordered the marines ashore" (page 131).

Lockmiller 1969: "In vain the United States commissioners waited all night for a quorum of the Cuban congress to gather and select a new president. Estrada Palma, having no successor and considering his resignation irrevocable, on the night of the twenty-eighth directed a letter to Taft and Bacon and turned his authority and the national treasury over to them. The peace commissioners took charge for the United States and a small guard of marines was ordered to protect the treasury. On the following day, September 29, 1906, with the approval of President Roosevelt, Taft proclaimed himself provisional governor of Cuba" (page 57). "The Army of Pacification remained in Cuba during the second intervention. About six thousand men...were stationed at some twenty-seven posts throughout the island" (page 84). Describes their role in the occupation.

Riera 1955: "Una de las primeras medidas adoptadas por la Segunda Intervención, fué la de restituir en sus funciones los 32 alcaldes liberales destituídos por el Gabinete de Combate" (page 111).


Chapman 1927: "Taft [U.S. Secretary of War] acted as governor…Two thousand United States marines were landed at once…A little later, 5600 men…disembarked at the capital, and were distributed to various parts of the island" (page 227). "With the principal features of the immediate settlement now out of the way, Taft was called back to Washington….[Charles Edward Magoon] arrived on October 9, and on the 13th formally took over the government…Magoon was to rule Cuba until the end of the intervention, in January 1909" (page 230).

Lockmiller 1969: "Taft, having found that the congressional elections of 1905 were illegal because of fraud, issued a decree on October 12, 1906, providing that congress should remain in recess during the continuance of the provisional government. This left the legislative as well as the executive power in the hands of the provisional governor" (pages 83-84).

Riera 1955: "La primera medida ejecutada por [Magoon] en Cuba, fué la relacionada con la anulación de los comicios celebrados el 1ro. de diciembre de 1905" (page 111).


Chapman 1927: "The Moderates met on November 3, 1906, and formally dissolved their organization. An attempt was then made to form a party on the basis of a reform of the Constitution in the direction of conservatism" (page 258).

Lockmiller 1969: "On November 29, 1906, Magoon issued a call for the members of congress to assemble in Havana on the first of December. It was generally understood that the provisional governor would declare the elections of 1905 void and accordingly the Moderates announced that they would resign if Magoon would set a date for the holding of new elections" (page 84).


Chapman 1927: "On December 3, 1906, Governor Magoon formally vacated the places of the congressmen elected in 1905, and took over responsibility for legislation himself" (page 248). "On December 24, 1906, Magoon appointed a body called the Advisory Law Commission to make the necessary studies on legislative matters. It consisted of nine Cubans and three Americans, with Colonel Enoch Herbert Crowder as the presiding officer…The Commission was charged with the duty of preparing five laws…, concerning elections, provinces, municipalities, the judiciary, and the civil service, but it later proved necessary to enact yet others" (page 248).

Lockmiller 1969: "The suggestion of the Moderates [that Magoon set a date for new elections] was ignored and on December 3, 1906, Magoon, after receiving instructions from Roosevelt, through Taft, decreed that the terms of all representatives elected on December 1, 1905, and all senators elected March 10, 1906, would be considered terminated from and after October 12, 1906...The decree also stated that elections required to give effect to Taft's proclamation instituting provision government would be held when tranquillity and public confidence were fully restored" (page 84).

Simons 1996: "An Advisory Law Commission under Colonel Crowder led to the enactment by decree of a substantial corpus of administrative law, and to various changes in the Cuban constitution. Changes to electoral law were intended to produce a 'perfect electoral instrument or at least proof against frauds and electoral abuses'…Crowder and his team studied the Australian governmental system, which impressed him; and also 'proportional representation as it existed in Belgium and Switzerland'" (page 217).


Aguilar 1993: Provisional governor Charles E. Magoon "encouraged the formation of a Conservative party to replace the discredited Moderates and modified the electoral laws to guarantee honest elections" (page 42).

Chapman 1927: "(B)y early summer of 1907 the Conservative party was formally launched. It insisted it had no connection with the old Moderate party" (page 259).


Chapman 1927: "On April 8, 1907, Secretary Taft visited Havana…and took occasion to give a decision on the election date question. All parties agreed that the originally suggested early dates would be impracticable, and [that]…the intervention [should] continue until such preliminary matters as the census and the municipal and electoral laws were satisfactorily resolved…Taft decided that there should be two elections, one for municipal and provincial officials, and the other for those of the national government" (page 260).


Lockmiller 1969: "On May 8, 1907, Governor Magoon issued a decree which called for the taking of a census" (page 131).


Helg 1991: "In September 1907, about two hundred Afro-Cubans gathered in Havana to discuss the necessity of reviving the late nineteenth-century Directorio de la Raza de Color (Directory of the Race of Color) to coordinate the activities of all Afro-Cuban organizations. This mobilization emerged from the grass roots and resulted from the hopes built up during the August Revolution. It had ties with such leaders as [lists Afro-Cuban elected officials], all of whom were reluctant to support popular discontent. They had been elected as congressmen and senators and were unwilling to jeopardize the status and privilege they had obtained in the early republic" (page 107).

Musicant 1990: "In 1907 [the black community], headed by Evaristo Estanoz, an insurgent general of the late Liberal revolt, took steps toward a political realignment and formed a new movement, the Independent Party of Color. Its demands centered on race questions, specifically the increased representation of blacks in elected and appointed public office. The movement was a direct challenge to the Liberals, who needed the black vote in order to maintain their status as Cuba's majority party" (page 68).

Pérez 1995: "Afro-Cuban discontent had continued to deepen during the early years of the republic. Repeatedly, Cubans of color protested their shabby treatment, and especially their continued exclusion from government position and public office. In 1907, many Afro-Cubans abandoned hope of obtaining redress within existing political structures and began to organize politically, outside the established party system, first in the Agrupación Independiente de Color in 1907, and later into a full-fledged political party, the Partido Independiente de Color" (page 221).


Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "30 septiembre, Día del Censo, inicio de la enumeración de la población, que dura hasta el 14 noviembre" (page 66). "El censo arrojó un total de 419.342 electores que, para las elecciones provinciales y municipales, se había elevado a 451.677 y para las nacionales a 466.745" (page 78).

Fitzgibbon 1964: "It was early determined to take a new census of Cuba, primarily as an accurate basis in preparing for new elections. Some 1800 enumerators performed the actual work between September 30 and November 14, 1907" (page 133).

Lockmiller 1969: "The census showed the total population of Cuba to be 2,048,980. Of that number some 419,342 were in the preliminary lists of qualified voters" (page 179).


Chapman 1927: "By the spring of 1908 there were three principal parties in the field, the two Liberal groups and the Conservatives. The followers of Gómez, known popularly as 'Miguelistas,' called themselves the 'Historic Liberals'…The Zayas supporters, or 'Zayistas,' retained the name 'Liberals'" (page 260).

Riera 1955: "Surgen otros partidos en la reorganización de 1908, como los llamados 'Legión Municipal, --Habana--; 'Coalición Independiente',--Guane--; 'Partido Obrero Socialista', --Manzanillo--; 'Independientes Baracoanos' y 'Agrupación Independiente de Color'...En la reorganización de 1908 no existe el Partido Moderado. Sus líderes, tras el fracaso continuista de Don Tomás, lo han hecho desaparecer...En Manzanillo surge en 1908 lo que pudiera llamarse matriz del 'Partido Comunista'. Agustín Martín Veloz crea allí el 'Partido Obrero Socialista'" (pages 118-119).


Chapman 1927: "One of [the electoral laws] main features was a careful registration of voters. This involved the taking of a census in order to find out who were entitled to vote…(B)y February 1908 the results were ready. It appeared that there were 419,342 voters in a population of 2,048,980, but efforts of party managers later raised the list of voters to 466,745" (page 252).


Fitzgibbon 1964: "After completion of the tabulation of the census returns in March 1908, the electoral boards proceeded with the correction of the registration lists. The census had listed 419,342 voters; efforts of party managers to 'bring out the vote' increased this number to 451,677 by the time of the preliminary elections and to 466,745 by the final election" (page140).


Chapman 1927: "The most important work of the Commission was considered to be the preparation of an election law, under which elections could be held as a preliminary to bringing the intervention to an end…It was ready by December 30, 1907, but was first published for criticism, and later promulgated on April 1, 1908" (page 252).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "6 abril, el Gobernador, en prenda de absoluta imparcialidad en el proceso electoral, declara vacantes los cargos de consejeros provinciales y acepta la renuncia a los gobernadores, designando como gobernadores interinos a oficiales norteamericanos; 15 abril, ingresa Mario García Menocal en el Partido Conservador Nacional" (page 66).

Langley 1983: "On April 4, 1908, after a searching examination by the Advisory Law Commission, Magoon announced creation of the Armed Forces of Cuba, composed of the militia, the Rural Guard, and a permanent army" (page 48).

Lockmiller 1969: Describes the framing of an electoral law by the Advisory Law Commission, which is promulgated on April 1, 1908 (page 150).

Simons 1996: "The resulting electoral scheme was introduced on 1 April 1908 for testing in provincial and municipal elections in August of that year" (page 217).


Chapman 1927: A new "municipal law was promulgated on May 29, 1908, and put in force on October 1st by a decree of September 21…The provincial law was a more difficult problem… There had been provinces under Spain, but merely as administrative subdivisions of the central government. Furthermore, the municipalities answered all the needs of local government, for they took in not only the towns but also the surrounding country…So with the national government on the one side and the municipalities on the other, there was little for the provincial governments to do" (page 249).

Fitzgibbon 1964: "On May 25, 1908, elections for governors, mayors, and provincial and municipal councilors were set for August 1. Because of the new electoral system being used the governor created an electoral bureau, headed by Crowder, to advise and assist the one central, six provincial, and eighty-two municipal electoral boards" (page 140).

Lockmiller 1969: "On May 25, 1908, Governor Magoon issued a proclamation which provided that municipal and provincial elections should be held on the first day of August. It was generally understood that if these elections were held in an orderly and proper manner they would soon be followed by the presidential and congressional elections and the complete restoration of self-government" (pages 174-175).

Problems of the new Cuba: report of the Commission on Cuban Affairs 1935: "As a result of the work of an advisory committee established by the second American intervention and composed of both Americans and Cubans, the organic law of municipalities of May 19, 1908 was enacted. The purpose of this law was to establish municipal autonomy and to make the local governments responsible to the people. Nevertheless the national or provincial governments retained the right to suspend the mayors as well as decisions of the municipal councils" (page 7).

August 1: local election

Aguilar 1993: "On 1 August 1908, with order fully re-established, municipal and provincial elections were held in which the Conservatives gained a surprising victory over a divided Liberal party" (page 42).

Chapman 1927: "As the [local elections] approached, the two Liberal groups demanded that the provincial governors be relieved of their posts, lest they act unfairly in favor of the Conservatives. These governors had been elected in 1905, but had been left in office, together with the councillors elected at the same time, so that the provincial governments could be kept up on some sort of legal basis. In the spring of 1908 the term of office of half of the councillors, those elected in February 1904, expired, leaving only the half elected in the fall of 1905. So it was decided to ask for the resignations of these councillors and the different governors. Accordingly, they were relieved [and] succeeded by American army officers…The Conservatives won the governorship of three provinces, to two for the Miguelistas, and one for the Zayistas, while each party got respectively twenty-eight, thirty-five, and eighteen mayors, with one going independent. Altogether, sixty per cent of the vote was cast, and it was clear that the two Liberal groups, if united, would have had a vast majority over the Conservatives" (page 261).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "1 agosto, elecciones provinciales y municipales; fracaso de los 'zayistas;' se pone de manifiesto que si los Liberales no se unen perderán los comicios nacionales; Zayas renuncia como candidato, pero los 'miguelistas' tienen designados como sus candidatos a Presidente y Vicepresidente a José Miguel Gómez y Eusebio Hernández Pérez; este último, en un gesto altísimo, renuncia para permitir la nominación de Zayas como candidato a la Vicepresidencia e invita a los Liberales todos a fusionarse en un solo partido" (page 66). "Concurrieron a los comicios parciales, celebrados el 10 de agosto de 1908, tres partidos nacionales: el Liberal Nacional 'zayistas;' el Liberal Histórico 'miguelistas,' y el Conservador Nacional, aparte de algunos otros partidos provinciales y grupos independientes. Como era de esperar se demostró que los Conservadores triunfarían en la contienda nacional si los Liberales persistían en su división. Votaron 269.132 electores, o sea un 60 por 100 de los inscritos, haciéndolo 107.551 en favor de candidatos Conservadores; 74.746 por los Liberales Históricos 'miguelistas' y 63.154 por los Liberales Nacionales 'zayistas,' más 3.471 votos a favor de otros partidos y grupos independientes. Los Conservadores obtuvieron tres Gobiernos Provinciales (Pinar del Río, Matanzas y Santa Clara) y 28 alcaldías; los 'miguelistas' conquistaron dos Gobiernos Provinciales (Camaghey y Oriente) y 35 alcaldías y los 'zayistas' tuvieron que conformarse con ganar sólo un Gobierno Provincial (Habana) y 18 alcaldías" (page 78).

Fitzgibbon 1964: "The entire island cast a vote of 269,132, about sixty per cent of the total registration...The Conservatives elected three governors, the Historic Liberals two, and the Liberals one. Of the eighty-two municipalities the Conservatives were successful in twenty-eight, the Historic Liberals captured thirty-five, and the Zayistas gained eighteen, the other municipality choosing a Liberal fusion mayor. Had the two Liberal factions been united they would have elected all six governors and sixty-one mayors" (pages 140-141).

Hernández, José M. 1993: "Cubans went to the polls to elect provincial governors, councilmen, mayors and municipal councilors on August 1, 1908. The result was a stunning victory for the Conservatives, who were able to elect three governors and twenty-eight mayors" (page 158).

Lockmiller 1969: By "the summer of 1907 a Conservative party was organized which claimed that it had no connection with the old Moderate party, and by August, 1908, this party had become so strong that it forced the factional Liberals to unite in self-defense. Soon after the provisional government took charge the Liberal party had split over the patronage into two groups, the Miguelistas and Zayistas...The Liberal split gave the Conservatives an advantage which was promptly used to the dismay and disappointment of many Liberals...The Conservatives did not name a presidential candidate until after the municipal and provincial elections" (page 177). "The Conservatives, Miguelistas, and Zayistas named tickets for all provincial offices while the Independents named provincial candidates in three provinces only. Municipal elections were held in a total of eighty-two municipalities. The Conservatives nominated tickets in eighty of these, the Miguelistas had tickets in sixty-nine, the Zayistas made nominations in sixty-seven, and the Independent party entered the race in twenty-four municipalities" (page 178). "By the August election [the number of qualified voters] had been increased to 451,677" (page 179). "On August 1, 1980, some 269,132 voters, about 60 per cent of the total registered, cast their ballots for local officials" (page 180). Gives the results.

Musicant 1990: "In the American-supervised elections of 1908, the Moderates swept the provincial and municipal contests" (page 67).

Riera 1955: "Las elecciones parciales tienen efecto el 1o. de agosto de 1908. Se eligen gobernadores, consejeros, alcaldes, concejales y miembros de Junta de Educación" (page 122). "En los comicios parciales de 1908 elígense 82 alcaldes, tocando 32 a los históricos; 17 a los zayistas y 3 a históricos y zayistas coligados. El Partido Conservador obtiene 30 alcaldías" (page 123). Gives other results. "Elecciones parciales de 1o. de agosto de 1908" (pages 123-134). Gives results by province.

Thomas 1998: "In August 1908 there were local elections; 270,000 votes (60%) were cast. The two Liberal groups, Miguelistas and Zayistas, ran separately, and though they respectively gained 35 and 18 mayoralties compared to 28 for the Conservatives, the Conservatives won three out of the six provincial governorships" (page 489).

Late August

Helg 1991: "In late August 1908, [Estenoz] founded the Partido Independiente de Color, which was recognized as a political party by the U.S. administration…His immediate goal was to win seats in the congressional elections of November 1908. But the Partido Independiente de Color managed to present candidates only for the provinces of Havana and Santa Clara. After only a few weeks of existence, the party's first political attempt ended in failure. This attempt, however, was immediately perceived by the Liberals as a threat to their reserve of Afro-Cuban votes" (pages 108-109).


Chapman 1927: The new provincial law is promulgated on September 21, 1908 (page 250). "(T)he provincial governments were in the Constitution; so about all the new law could do was to cut down on the excessive number of employees and reduce the pay of provincial councillors." "Following a trial of the [electoral] law in the provincial and municipal elections of August 1st, it was modified and promulgated anew on September 11" (page 252).

Fitzgibbon 1964: Describes the electoral law promulgated in September 1908 (page 136). "Magoon on September 12, 1908, issued a call for general elections on November 14 for the choice of presidential and vice presidential electors, senatorial electors, and representatives" (page 141).

Lockmiller 1969: "Following the provincial and municipal elections which were held in August, and as a result of further criticism, amendments were added and the law was promulgated in final form on September 11, 1908" (page 150). Describes the law (pages 150-154).

November 14: general election (Gómez / PL)

Aguilar 1993: Describes the presidential candidates. "In November [1908], after an orderly campaign tinged with anti-Americanism, the Liberals won easily. A minor party formed by blacks, the Independent Party of Colour, which became significant later, failed to make any headway" (pages 42-43).

Chapman 1927: "It was clear…that a divided Liberal party could not win. So an arrangement was made whereby Gómez was to become the joint candidate of the two groups for the presidency and Zayas for the vice-presidency…Again there was an exciting campaign, fairly conducted, and this time the united Liberals won. They elected, not only Gómez and Zayas, but also all twenty-four senators, and fifty-one representatives as against thirty-two, on a vote of 201,199 to 130,256. In all, seventy-one per cent of the vote was cast" (page 262). "In the absence of any congressmen except the half of the Senate (elected in 1903) whose terms expired in April 1910, a full number of senators and representatives had been chosen, instead of the usual half. To bring the situation into accord with the Constitution, the representatives drew lots for the two and four year terms, and senators were elected for periods ending in 1913 and 1917, with the latter not taking their seats until the 'lame ducks,' or 'senators of the reserve,' as they were called in Cuba, should vacate them in 1910" (page 265).

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "14 noviembre, elecciones nacionales; triunfa el Partido Liberal por amplio margen; la candidatura José Miguel Gómez-Alfredo Zayas obtiene 201.199 votos frente a 130.256 alcanzados por la candidatura Mario G. Menocal-Rafael Montoro; los Liberales copan todos los cargos de senadores y eligen 51 representantes contra 32 los Conservadores" (page 67). En un ambiente de gran entusiasmo depositaron sus votos 331.455 electores, lo que suponía el 71 por 100 de los inscritos, triunfando los Liberales en las seis provincias y alcanzando un total de 201.199 votos, contra 130.256 los Conservadores, permitiendo a los primeros obtener la Presidencia, la totalidad de los 24 cargos de senadores y 51 de los de representantes, con sólo 32 actas de representantes para los Conservadores. En esta oportunidad se aplicó por primera vez para cargos de representantes, consejeros y concejales el sistema de elección llamado de representación proporcional, que estaba dirigido a garantizar los derechos de la minoría, y superaba los inconvenientes ofrecidos por la ley electoral de 25 de diciembre de 1903" (page 78).

Fitzgibbon 1964: Describes the election and the results (page 141).

Hernández, José M. 1993: "When, after a clamorous campaign, national elections were held on November 14, [the Liberal party] ticket secured a solid majority in all provinces of the island. In addition, fifty-one of the eighty-three representatives elected were Liberals, as were all the newly elected senators. One of the reasons why their victory was so overwhelming was obviously that in the mind of the people, theirs was the party favored and sustained by the United States. Cubans, of course, wanted to be on the winning side" (page 158).

Lockmiller 1969: "(B)y the time the presidential elections were held in November the party managers had names included until qualified voters of Cuba numbered 466,745. This appears to have been a large increase over the original list, but it was evidently justified and shared in by all parties for no protests were made" (page 179). "Liberal presidential and vice-presidential electors secured majorities in all provinces" (page 182). Gives the results.

Musicant 1990: "(E)x-General José Miguel Gómez, Palma's opponent in 1902 and a leading Liberal hero of the late revolt,…won the presidency" (page 67).

Pérez 1995: The Partido Independiente de Color offered "a full slate of candidates for national, provincial, and municipal office. In its first effort at electoral politics in the 1908 elections, the Agrupación fared poorly. But it persisted, and expanded the size of its organization and scope of its activities" (page 221).

Riera 1955: "Los liberales al resultar mayoría en las urnas designaron la totalidad de los 24 senadores a elegirse en 1908 y además, 51 representantes; obteniendo los conservadores 32 escaños de la Cámara. En los comicios generales de 1908 hay 466,745 electores, votando 331,455. Lo hacen por Gómez y Zayas 201,199 y por Menocal y Montoro 130,256" (page 140). "Elecciones generales de 14 de noviembre de 1908" (pages 142-149). Gives results by province.

Riera Hernández 1974: "Elecciones de 1908" (page 11-12).

Simons 1996: In the November 14, 1908 national elections "José Miguel Gómez, with Alfredo Zayas standing as his vice-president, won by about 200,000 votes to 130,000 (to General Mario García Menocal and Rafael Montero)" (page 217).

Thomas 1998: The elections "were held on 14 November. Crowder worked indefatigably behind the scenes, distributing 8,000 voting books and 1,650 ballot boxes to the municipalities. The campaign was reckoned fair. Gómez and Zayas won by a little over 200,000 votes to 130,000 for Menocal and Montoro. Just over 70% of the votes were cast" (page 489).


Lockmiller 1969: "On December 19, 1908, the senatorial electors had met in the provincial capitals and elected the full number of four senators from each province. On December 24, 1908, the presidential and vice-presidential electors met and cast unanimous votes for Gómez and Zayas" (pages 190-191).


Pérez 1995: "Established in 1909, the lottery was transformed immediately into a source of political pressure and personal enrichment" (page 218).


Aguilar 1993: "On 28 January 1909, the birthday of José Martí, Magoon officially transferred power to President José Miguel Gómez. American troops stayed a little longer to ensure a peaceful transition, but on 31 March they withdrew from the island" (page 43).

Azicri 1988: "Magoon left the country deeply in debt after squandering each year's public income...He was charged with profoundly corrupting the political process... Magoon's rationalization for his ill-advised actions was that he simply did what the Cuban politicians wanted and asked him to do" (page 19).

Langley 1983: "After the [wars of independence] Cuban Negroes were virtually excluded from the republic's new political organizations. When he became president, Gómez gave them government jobs, but as members of the Rural Guard and army they were forbidden to participate in politics" (page 50).

Lockmiller 1969: "Congress assembled on January 13, 1909, and passed on the certificates of election of its members...At a session of the congress on January 20, the presidential and vice-presidential votes were canvassed and Gómez and Zayas were respectively proclaimed elected president and vice-president of the Republic of Cuba" (page 191).


Chapman 1927: "Gómez formally announced the restoration of the single [Liberal] party organization in his message to Congress of April 5, 1909" (page 304).



Aguilar 1993: "The Independent Party of Colour, founded in 1907 by black extremists who...accused the Republic of betraying the black population, found its political development blocked by the Morúa Law...which banned political parties based on race or religion...(T)he 'independistas' fought for the abrogation of the law" (pages 43-44).

Chapman 1927: Describes the concerns of Afro-Cuban leaders who "had contributed very materially in the war against Spain and in the Liberal victory over the Conservatives" (page 308). The leaders "were arrested and put on trial in April 1910, and in the following month the so-called Morúa Law was passed forbidding the formation of any political party on lines of race or color" (page 309).

Domínguez 1978: "Legal discrimination against nonwhites had intensified during the two United States occupations; moreover, the Cuban Congress had refused to adopt a variety of bills prohibiting racial discrimination, many of them introduced by Senator Martín Morúa, himself a black. Until the formation of the Independent Party of Color, a crucial characteristic of the Cuban ethnic system had been that many of those who did not share in its benefits-in this case, the blacks-did not challenge its propriety. Morúa himself, as president of the Senate, introduced a bill that passed quickly, prohibiting any political parties or movements limited to members of any single ethnic category" (page 46).

Helg 1991: "What the white press saw in 1908 as an insignificant group of frustrated blacks who could be treated with mockery had developed by early 1910 into a sizable party with active adherents in most provinces and a national network of municipal committees. [The PIC's publication] then claimed 60,000 members…These figures constituted 44 percent of Afro-Cuban electors, or 14 percent of all male citizens over twenty-one years of age, and were probably inflated…In February 1910 the party had 146 registered municipal committees…It is likely that the party counted bewteen 10,000 and 20,000 potential supporters" (page 112). "By May…Morúa's proposal to ban the Partido Independiente de Color was enacted into law" (page 114).

Musicant 1990: "In 1910, the black Liberal leader of the Senate introduced legislation prohibiting all political parties organized on racial lines. Estanoz would have none of it and his attitude assumed an alarming belligerency. In an interview with the Cuban press, the black leadership announced their intention to provoke American intervention and topple the Gómez government" (pages 68-69).

November: midterm election

Enciclopedia de Cuba 1975: "En los comicios parciales de 1910 el liberalismo obtuvo la mayoría en cinco provincias, eligiendo 23 representantes, 12 consejeros, 19 alcaldes y 438 concejales contra 18 representantes, 12 consejeros, 3 alcaldes y 436 concejales los Conservadores" (page 123).

Riera 1955: "La Ley Electoral de 1908 es modificada 2 años después, a los efectos de señalar un solo día-1ro. de noviembre--, para la celebración de elecciones generales o parciales" (page 152). "Al celebrarse las elecciones parciales de 1910 existen 512,652 ciudadanos, para ejercer el derecho de sufragio, cumpliendo dicho requisito 352,424" (page 155). "Elecciones parciales de 1o. de noviembre de 1910" (pages 157-164). Gives results by province.